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www.blackbird420.com    How The Next    Generation    Will Connect    WirelesslyCopyright © Blackbird Technology
2011 - Present                       DASH7 Timeline                                                              DASH7 Mod...
Copyright © Blackbird Technology                                   WiFi                                   ZigBee          ...
Use Case #1Mobile Advertising  With DASH7Copyright © DASH7 Alliance            Blackbird Technology
Use Case #1-A        Social Discovery With DASH7                       Hillary                       7 mutual friends     ...
Use Case #2                                    In-Vehicle                                   Automotive                    ...
Use Case #3     Building Automation & Smart Energy With DASH7Copyright © DASH7 Alliance            Blackbird Technology
Use Case #4: Perishables &Pharmaceuticals   Tracking With DASH7Copyright © Blackbird Technology
Use Case #5: Rights & Entitlements Monitoring With DASH7Copyright © Blackbird Technology
Many Other Use Cases!• Employee Tracking              • Animal tracking        • Oil & Gas Supply Chains• Hazardous Materi...
Maintaining Privacy With DASH7• Not too different from WiFi or BT• DASH7 can be “invisible”• Supports AES-128 in MAC• Supp...
Making DASH7 “Invisible” To Unwanted Eavesdroppers          Unlike Bluetooth, DASH7 does not require                      ...
How Does DASH7 Security & Privacy Compare?                                                           DASH7   WiFi   BT    ...
DASH7 & Smartphones DASH7 uses the same antenna & (basically) the same silicon as NFC, apart from a single analog circuitN...
NFC + DASH7 Combo Chip ConceptDASH7 can be added to an NFC chipset & solution with minimal additionsModern RF interface ch...
The Power Scale    DASH7 is an aggressively low-power technologyBackground                      Upper limit for           ...
The Power Scale   Typical DASH7 apps have low-latency, ad-hoc requirements and 10-10000 uW power limits                   ...
Typical Active-Mode Power Usage in DASH7 and NFCAdvanced chipsets and duty-cycling can reduce power in either case        ...
Duty Cycling Reduces Power, Increases LatencyDuty cycling is practical, though, because DASH7 has ad-hoc “wakeup” features...
More                           • DASH7 has a different philosophy than                                     IEEE 802 has.  ...
DASH7 is a 2nd Generation M2M+WSN+IoT+RFID Technology                                                               433 MH...
OpenTag is an Open-Source Firmware Stack for DASH7            http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/opentag                 ...
Application                    Many Kinds of                            Client/Master                  Applications can be...
Problem: Traditional Internet Technologies (e.g.TCP+HTTP, 6lowPAN+CoAP, etc) Do Not Tolerate Chaos…Copyright © Blackbird T...
… These kinds of technologies are designed to route application            data from one known address to another known ad...
DASH7 Tolerates Chaos            Because it      Does Not Need Routers         Addressing can be done          using any k...
Nodes that don’t pass             Note: IP addressing                        the query stay quiet              and CoAP ar...
DASH7 Networking Process vs. 6loWPAN Process                      DASH7 Process                       6loWPAN Process (Tra...
DASH7 Networking Process vs. 6loWPAN Process                      DASH7 Process                                      6loWP...
DASH7 Applications vs. 6loWPAN Applications                          DASH7 Apps Ask:                            6loWPAN Ap...
DASH7 Applications vs. 6loWPAN Applications                          DASH7 Apps Ask:                             6loWPAN A...
Running Queries:                                   Let DASH7 find the                                   needle(s) in the ha...
DASH7 Puts the                      Query Below the             OSI Layer        DASH7 Components                      App...
Switch-routed technologies can do queries                                              in their application layers, but th...
Configuring a DASH7 Query            The Query contains several parameters that go into the protocol                     Qu...
Sequential Querying: Example                              Find all lamps that were manufactured by Company X,             ...
Sequential Querying: Example                              Find all lamps that were manufactured by Company X,             ...
Sequential Querying: Example                              Find all lamps that were manufactured by Company X,             ...
Contact:                                   pat@blackbird420.com                                    jp@blackbird420.comCopy...
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How The Next Generation Will Connect Wirelessly

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An overview of DASH7 wireless technology in 2012 by Blackbird Technology. First half for non-technical audiences, second half more technical but hopefully readable by non-technical audiences.

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Transcript of "How The Next Generation Will Connect Wirelessly"

  1. 1. www.blackbird420.com How The Next Generation Will Connect WirelesslyCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  2. 2. 2011 - Present DASH7 Timeline DASH7 Mode 2 Adopted First OpenTag Demos 2009-2010 50+ Alliance Members DoD RFID III Contract 2003-2008 ($429MM; ISO 18000-7) Multiple Silicon Providers DoD RFID II Contract DASH7 Alliance ($90MM; proprietary Founded Savi technology) RFI for ISO 18000-7 DevicesCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  3. 3. Copyright © Blackbird Technology WiFi ZigBee DASH7 Bluetooth*LE Ran ge Bat tery C o 0 *L i f e exis t* w Pen i th * etra 802 .11 "Be tes *C o n nds ncr "*A ete Glo rou b al nd* ly*A Me vail tal, abl *Pe e*F net Ad* req rate Hoc uen s*W *Ne cy alls Bro two adc rkin Mu ast *Ad g lti0H dre op ssi n Tra g cks Dat *Movi a*R n ate g*Thin gs Def ine s*U Op se*o en* Sou f*Publ Ful rce ic*K l *Op * S ta ey*C en* ck ryp ISO to *or* Pro IEE toc E *S t o l *S and Th i t ard rd*P ack*<2 arty 0kb *Int ero per DASH7: Does What Bluetooth & WiFi Can’t abi lity *C e rtif icat io n
  4. 4. Use Case #1Mobile Advertising With DASH7Copyright © DASH7 Alliance Blackbird Technology
  5. 5. Use Case #1-A Social Discovery With DASH7 Hillary 7 mutual friends Listening to “The Rushing Wind” by Enation DASH7 Can Broadcast to Hundreds of People At The Same Time ... (WiFi and Bluetooth Cannot)www.blackbird420.com
  6. 6. Use Case #2 In-Vehicle Automotive Sensing with DASH7Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  7. 7. Use Case #3 Building Automation & Smart Energy With DASH7Copyright © DASH7 Alliance Blackbird Technology
  8. 8. Use Case #4: Perishables &Pharmaceuticals Tracking With DASH7Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  9. 9. Use Case #5: Rights & Entitlements Monitoring With DASH7Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  10. 10. Many Other Use Cases!• Employee Tracking • Animal tracking • Oil & Gas Supply Chains• Hazardous Materials Tracking • Lumber supply chains • Construction Tools Tracking• Anti-theft tags • Pandemic support • Home Healthcare• IT asset tracking • Yard management • Patient/infant tracking• Contactless payments • Warehouse management • Bridge, Tunnel Stress Monitoring• Vehicle tracking • Digital signage • Many more ...
  11. 11. Maintaining Privacy With DASH7• Not too different from WiFi or BT• DASH7 can be “invisible”• Supports AES-128 in MAC• Supports other public/private key exchange in Network Layer• Independent of NFC security settings
  12. 12. Making DASH7 “Invisible” To Unwanted Eavesdroppers Unlike Bluetooth, DASH7 does not require “Invisible mode” allows user’s radio to only discovery beacons, so it can be completely invisible acknowledge other DASH7 devices that are pre- while functioning approved Broadcast settings can be adjusted from “full public broadcast of everything” to “invisible mode” Over-the-air transmissions can be encrypted using public or private key systemsCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  13. 13. How Does DASH7 Security & Privacy Compare? DASH7 WiFi BT Cellular Supports AES 128 Yes Yes Yes Yes Listen-Before-Talk Yes Yes No No Encrypted File System Yes No No No Make “Invisible” To Non-approved Yes No No No DevicesCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  14. 14. DASH7 & Smartphones DASH7 uses the same antenna & (basically) the same silicon as NFC, apart from a single analog circuitNFC and DASH7 Today Next Gen NFC Chips NFC operates at 13.56 MHz worldwide DASH7 operates at the 32nd harmonic above 13.56 MHz DASH7 operates at 433.92 MHz worldwide (13.56 x 32 = 433.92) Non-integrated Solution: 3 chips + passives, 1 antenna ll r ly a d Integrated Solution: nea r, an 1 chip + passives, 1 antenna by rie loyed s car s s g dep irele ndor n w e bei set, sale v s nd Ci f NF or ha oint o j p ma No Additional Radio Required Blackbird Confidential 14
  15. 15. NFC + DASH7 Combo Chip ConceptDASH7 can be added to an NFC chipset & solution with minimal additionsModern RF interface chipsets areprimarily digital.DASH7 uses GFSK modulation, 13.56 MHzwhich is similar to NFC modulation. NFC Capacitive Match- Digital blocks remain intactIn concept, adding DASH7 to NFC is accomplished byadding an Integer-N PLL and a small number of analogswitches.- Integer-N PLL for 13.56 MHz input with: Divider Ref = 128, Multiplier N = 4096 ± 7- Analog switches to tune antenna at 13.56 or 433 NFC + 13.56 MHz Cap- DASH7 uses much less output power than NFC DASH7 Match 433 MHz Cap433 MHz DASH7 spectrum is low enough and narrow Extensionenough that normal SiO2 fabrication is OK.
  16. 16. The Power Scale DASH7 is an aggressively low-power technologyBackground Upper limit for Running Running RF energy energy harvesting 3G Modem iMac Li-Thionyl Upper limit for Running Running self-discharge Multiyear battery GPS chip laptop BLE Bluetooth Bluetooth Slave Slave Master 802.15.4 802.15.4 802.15.4 802.11 Endpoint Coord. Gateway Device DASH7 DASH7 DASH7 Endpoint Subctrlr Gateway 0 - 1 µW 1 - 10 µW 10 - 100 µW 0.1 - 1 mW 1 - 10 mW 10 - 100 mW 0.1 - 1 W 1 - 10 W 10 - 100 W
  17. 17. The Power Scale Typical DASH7 apps have low-latency, ad-hoc requirements and 10-10000 uW power limits Target Range for “Always-On” HandsetTarget Range for Apps BluetoothRemote Devices BLE Bluetooth Slave (“Widgets”) Slave Master 802.15.4 802.15.4 802.15.4 802.11 Endpoint Coord. Gateway Device DASH7 DASH7 DASH7 Endpoint Subctrlr Gateway0 - 1 µW 1 - 10 µW 10 - 100 µW 0.1 - 1 mW 1 - 10 mW 10 - 100 mW 0.1 - 1 W 1 - 10 W 10 - 100 W
  18. 18. Typical Active-Mode Power Usage in DASH7 and NFCAdvanced chipsets and duty-cycling can reduce power in either case DASH7 NFC Powered-Master/ ~200 mW / 0 mW N/A Unpowered-Slave (~10 cm) Powered-Master/ ~30mW / ~30mW ~60 mW / ~60 mW Powered-Slave (~200m) (~2m) Data Rate 28 - 200 kbps 106 - 424 kbps (inverse packet length)
  19. 19. Duty Cycling Reduces Power, Increases LatencyDuty cycling is practical, though, because DASH7 has ad-hoc “wakeup” features RX/TX Power (3V, 0dBm) Examples Mature Silicon 45mW / 45mW TI CC430 State of the Art Silicon 9mW / 14mW Energy Micro Prototype Next-gen Research 1mW / 8 mW (contact Blackbird) At 100% Duty Cycle, power-usage is dependent on the chip technology Typ. Duty Cycle Worst-Case Latency Base Power (mature) Remote Sensor 0.05% 2s 30 µW “Always-on” Listen 5% 25 ms 2.25 mW Extreme-Heavy Use 20% 10 ms 9 mW At reduced duty cycles, latency is 5 ms + approximate inverse of the 1ms duty
  20. 20. More • DASH7 has a different philosophy than IEEE 802 has. Technical • Because of this, it is best suited for applications that 802-based technologies Stuff can’t really do. • Building DASH7 applications is all about designing queries • DASH7 can still do IP • There is a growing number of tool packages available for DASH7 development, including software and hardwareCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  21. 21. DASH7 is a 2nd Generation M2M+WSN+IoT+RFID Technology 433 MHz band 8 channels Optimized for Optimized for Low Latency Micro Power (Bursty Data) Universal Adaptive Data Rate Interoperability 28 - 200 kbps Very Fast Compact Stack Multicast 16-32KBCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  22. 22. OpenTag is an Open-Source Firmware Stack for DASH7 http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/opentag Written in C (Internal C API) External Messaging API Portable to most MCUs Built-in minimal RTOS Built-in Filesystem & I/OCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  23. 23. Application Many Kinds of Client/Master Applications can be Built on Top of OpenTag + DASH7 DASH7 is Best Suited for Applications with a lot of Uncertainty or Chaos… Application Application Application Service Service ServiceCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  24. 24. Problem: Traditional Internet Technologies (e.g.TCP+HTTP, 6lowPAN+CoAP, etc) Do Not Tolerate Chaos…Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  25. 25. … These kinds of technologies are designed to route application data from one known address to another known address, across multiple hub & spoke networks. IP: 71.56.240.219 IP: 150.192.48.158 The connections must be established, maintained, and cached, or else the message does not get through.Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  26. 26. DASH7 Tolerates Chaos Because it Does Not Need Routers Addressing can be done using any kind of data, via built-in queryingCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  27. 27. Nodes that don’t pass Note: IP addressing the query stay quiet and CoAP are still possible over DASH7 No ICMP, no caching, IP Gateway no connection maintenance required on IP gateway The Internet DASH7 can excel in “open-loop” data acquisition & M2M applications that are difficult or impractical to solve with switch-routed technologiesCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  28. 28. DASH7 Networking Process vs. 6loWPAN Process DASH7 Process 6loWPAN Process (Traditional IEEE 802) Send UDP Packet Advertise Continuously Containing Query Header Time Base: 0.1’s of sec Cache Addresses from Responses Receive Qualified Responses Assign Multicast Address to Target Devices Send UDP Packet to Assigned Multicast Address Time Base: Receive Qualified Responses 10’s of secCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  29. 29. DASH7 Networking Process vs. 6loWPAN Process DASH7 Process 6loWPAN Process (Traditional IEEE 802) Send UDP Packet Advertise Continuously Containing Query Header Time Base: 0.1’s of sec Cache Addresses from Responses Receive Qualified Responses Assign Multicast Address to Target Devices There are some caveats: ‣ DASH7 is (in practice) limited to 2 hops Send UDP Packet to Assigned ‣ DASH7 requires a greater degree of stack Multicast Address standardization in order to do querying interoperably. Time Base: Receive Qualified Responses 10’s of secCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  30. 30. DASH7 Applications vs. 6loWPAN Applications DASH7 Apps Ask: 6loWPAN Apps Ask: “What are you looking for?” “Who gets it?” I need to find everyone in the lobby, now, Deliver a message to the device with who wants to go to floor 10. address 05:85:245:192:96:0:147:1 to turn its lights off. I need data from all sensors within 50m Deliver a message to the devices with that check for Carbon Monoxide group address 124:0:8:255:37:160:0:1 instructing them to report sensor logs. All devices that came off the boat from Taipei shall go to RF Channel 04 and await Ping device 63:102:0:80:128:0:17:44 to see further instructions. if it is still in the network.Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  31. 31. DASH7 Applications vs. 6loWPAN Applications DASH7 Apps Ask: 6loWPAN Apps Ask: “What are you looking for?” “Who gets it?” I need to find everyone in the lobby, now, Deliver a message to the device with who wants to go to floor 10. address 05:85:245:192:96:0:147:1 to turn its lights off. Querying sensors within 50m Great: I need data from all Sounds that check for Carbon Monoxide Deliver a message to the devices with How can I do it? (stay tuned) group address 124:0:8:255:37:160:0:1 instructing them to report sensor logs. All devices that came off the boat from Taipei shall go to RF Channel 04 and await Ping device 63:102:0:80:128:0:17:44 to see further instructions. if it is still in the network.Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  32. 32. Running Queries: Let DASH7 find the needle(s) in the haystackCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  33. 33. DASH7 Puts the Query Below the OSI Layer DASH7 Components Application Layer 7 Application UDP-based or LLDP-based 6 Presentation M2 Filesystem Result: Intrinsic, Interoperable, 5 Session Dialog Stack Query-driven Multicasting 4 Transport M2QP 3 Network M2NP, M2DP, M2AdvP Requirement: Standardized, Integrated Filesystem 2 Data Link DASH7 MAC 1 Physical 433 MHz GFSK DASH7 Queries Start at the Transport LayerCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  34. 34. Switch-routed technologies can do queries in their application layers, but this is too high- up to save the network from collisions. DASH7 Puts the Query Below the OSI Layer DASH7 Components Application Layer 7 Application UDP-based or LLDP-based 6 Presentation M2 Filesystem Result: Intrinsic, Interoperable, 5 Session Dialog Stack Query-driven Multicasting 4 Transport M2QP 3 Network M2NP, M2DP, M2AdvP Requirement: Standardized, Integrated Filesystem 2 Data Link DASH7 MAC 1 Physical 433 MHz GFSK DASH7 Queries Start at the Transport LayerCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  35. 35. Configuring a DASH7 Query The Query contains several parameters that go into the protocol Query Mode Query Comparison Query Target Data Single Sequential Text/Binary Arithmetic Single Batch Query Query Token Expression File Files RegExCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  36. 36. Sequential Querying: Example Find all lamps that were manufactured by Company X, have a solar panel, and have not been serviced for 1 year or more. Have them respond with their locations. Global Query • Request: Manufacturer = Company X • Response window set to 0ms because we don’t care yet • Result: 1950 devices enter query processCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  37. 37. Sequential Querying: Example Find all lamps that were manufactured by Company X, have a solar panel, and have not been serviced for 1 year or more. Have them respond with their locations. Global Query • Request: SubQuery 1 Manufacturer = Company X • Request: Addons = “*solar*” • Response window set to 0ms because we don’t care yet • Response window set to 0ms because we don’t care yet • Result: 1950 devices enter query process • Result: 120/1950 devices stay in query (the rest go back to idle)Copyright © Blackbird Technology
  38. 38. Sequential Querying: Example Find all lamps that were manufactured by Company X, have a solar panel, and have not been serviced for 1 year or more. Have them respond with their locations. Global Query • Request: SubQuery 1 Manufacturer = Company X • Request: Addons = “*solar*” SubQuery 2 • Response window set to 0ms because we don’t care yet • Response window set to 0ms • Request: because we don’t care yet Last Cold Boot > 1 year ago • Result: 1950 devices enter query process • Result: 120/1950 devices stay in • Response window set to 1 sec query (the rest go back to idle) • Result: 8/120 devices return their location coordinatesCopyright © Blackbird Technology
  39. 39. Contact: pat@blackbird420.com jp@blackbird420.comCopyright © Blackbird Technology
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