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  2. 2. POTABLE and ADEQUATE WATER SUPPLY• SOURCES: public water supply orindividual supply source• QUALITY:• should meet requirements of PNSDW• regular sampling and test• health aspects• treatment methods• QUANTITY: 90 liters per cap/day min
  5. 5. Water Cycle
  6. 6. 14Water Supply SystemsWATER SOURCES1. Groundwater – portion of the rainwaterwhich has percolated into the earth to formunderground deposits and called aquifer(water-bearing soil formations).Groundwater as a source of water supplycan be extracted through wells and springs.
  7. 7. SURFACE WATER SOURCES2. Surface Water – is a mixture ofsurface run-off and groundwater.Surface sources include rivers, lakes,streams, ponds and impoundingreservoirs.15
  9. 9. 17Water Supply SystemsWater Usage and ClassificationFresh Surface Waters (rivers, lakes, reservoirs,etc.)Classification Beneficial UseClass AA Public Water Supply Class I.Intended for waters havingwatersheds which are uninhabitedand otherwise protected whichrequire only approved disinfectionin order to meet the PNSDW.
  10. 10. 18Classification Beneficial UseClass A Public Water Supply Class II.For sources of water supply that willrequire complete treatment(coagulation, sedimentation, filtration,disinfection) in order to meet thePNSDW.Class B Recreational Water Class I.For primary contact recreation such asbathing, swimming, diving, etc.(particularly designed for tourismpurposes).Water Usage and Classification
  11. 11. 19Water Usage and ClassificationClassification Beneficial UseClass C 1) Fishery Water for propagation andgrowth of fish and other aquaticresources;2) Recreational Water Class II(Boating ,etc.)3) Industrial Water Supply Class IFor manufacturing processes aftertreatment.Class D 1) For agriculture, irrigation, livestockwatering, etc.2) Industrial Water Supply Class II forcooling, etc.3) Other inland waters
  12. 12. 21Water Supply SystemsWATER SUPPLY-LEVEL OF SERVICELevel 1 (Point source) – a protected well or a developedspring with an outlet but without a distribution systemLevel 2 (Communal faucet system) – a system composedof a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network, andcommunal faucets.Level 3 (Individual household connection) – a systemwith a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution networkand household taps.<<<NEXT>>>
  13. 13. 22Classification of Water Supply Facilities• Level 1 (Point source) – a protected well or a developed spring withan outlet but without a distribution system• Access to water supply facilities• Farthest user not > 250 m. from the point source• 1 Facility per 15 households• Generally for rural areas where houses are scattered too thinly to justifya distribution systemWATER SUPPLY-LEVEL OF SERVICE<<<BACK>>>
  14. 14. 23Classification of Water Supply Facilities• Level 2 (Communal faucet system) – a system composed of asource, a reservoir, a piped distribution network, and communalfaucets.• Access to water supply facilities• Farthest house is not > 25 m. from communal faucet system• 4 to 6 households per faucets• Generally for rural areas where houses are clusteredWATER SUPPLY-LEVEL OF SERVICE<<<BACK>>>
  15. 15. 24Classification of Water Supply Facilities• Level 3 (Individual household connection) –a system with a source, a reservoir, a pipeddistribution network and household taps.• Access to water supply facilities• The house has service connection from thesystem• One or more faucets per household• Generally for high-density built-up areasWATER SUPPLY-LEVEL OF SERVICE
  16. 16. 25Institutions Involved in WaterSupplyDENR Principal environment and watershed agency.EMB Enforces water quality andeffluent standards. Monitorsquality of surface water.DOH Sets and monitors drinking waterstandards. Formulates andimplements sanitation programsto address environmental andwater related diseases.
  17. 17. 26Institutions Involved in WaterSupplyLWUA Promotes and oversees the dev’t.of provincial waterworks andsewerage; acts as special lendinginstitution for local waterdistricts.NWRB Regulate the use of watersources and does overallcoordination of water resourcesmanagement and development.
  18. 18. 27Institutions Involved in WaterSupplyDOST Conducts research & dev’t.programs with DENR forprevention and abatement ofwater pollution.MWSS Responsible for water systems inM.M. and its adjacent areas.
  19. 19. 28Institutions Involved in WaterSupplyMWCI Private firm serving thewaterworks and seweragesystem of the eastern part ofM.M.MWSI Private firm serving thewaterworks and seweragesystem of the western part ofM.M.
  20. 20. 29Institutions Involved in WaterSupplyLLDA Regulates and controls thepollution of the Laguna de Bayregion, including the sewageworks and industrial wastedisposal systems.LGUs Share responsibility in providingbasic services, includingenforcement of sanitation laws.<<<NEXT>>>
  21. 21. 30COMMON WATER QUALITYPROBLEMS IN WATER SUPPLYA. PhysicalCharacteristics Source/Cause ProblemTurbidity SuspendedparticlesCloudy waterColor Substances insolutionColored waterOdor Dissolved saltsand gasesDisagreeableodorTaste DissolvedsubstancesUnpleasant taste
  22. 22. 31COMMON WATER QUALITYPROBLEMS IN WATER SUPPLYB. ChemicalCharacteristics Source/Cause ProblemHardness Dissolvedminerals of Ca &MgIncreased soapconsumption,formation ofscalesChloride Dissolved salts insewageSalty taste ofwaterIron Dissolved iron Staining offixtures, metallictaste
  23. 23. 32COMMON WATER QUALITYPROBLEMS IN WATER SUPPLYC. BiologicalCharacteristics Source/Cause ProblemBacteriaVirusesparasitesSewage Water – RelatedDiseasesMicroscopicPlantsNutrients(N,P,K)Color, odor,taste<<<BACK>>>
  24. 24. 33The 2007 Philippine NationalStandards for DrinkingWaterDOH ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 2007 – 0012
  25. 25. 34Water Quality Issues• New information on many chemicals•Evolving agricultural, industrial, domesticpractices• Proliferation of water-refilling stationsas alternative (or main) sources ofdrinking water•Distinct standards for “processed” water<<<NEXT>>>
  26. 26. Type of Chemicals UseNumber of Tons Used peryear in the CountryPesticide AgriculturalPublic HealthConsumer UseNo available data3.04(a)No available dataFertilizers 1,353,224.38(b)Petroleum Products 2008: 101,200(c)*2009: 107,299(d)*Industrial ChemicalsA. PCL Manufacturing/processing594,904.51(e)B. ODS (transitional) 4,510,704.10 kg +29,034.00 kegs(f)Consumer Chemicals No available data*in thousand barrelsChemical Use by Categories
  27. 27. Chemical Waste GenerationType of Chemical WasteGeneration (tons/year)2008 2009Cyanide with Waste 5,551,042 81,517.10Acid Wastes 19,666,025 5,654.91Alkali Wastes 1,966,258 198,926.36Wastes with inorganic chemicals 532,251 45,818.05Reactive Chemical Wastes 1,406,982 7,547.36Inks/ Dyes/ Pigments/ Paint/ Latex/Adhesives/ Organic Sludge520,517 14,678.21Waste organic solvent 78,369,374 3,525.04Putrescible/Organic wastes 29,490 912,373.58Oil 3,743,566 295,907.10Containers 33,196,202 129,170.90Immobilized wastes 397,469 5,290.40Organic chemicals 2,154,458 210.29Miscellaneous waste (pathogenic orinfectious wastes, friable asbestoswastes, pharmaceuticals and drugs,pesticides, persistent organicpollutants)17,390,465 10,575.26TOTAL 164,924,099 1,711,194.55
  28. 28. 37Water Quality Issues• Detection of naturally occurringhazardous substances in water sources•E.g. arsenic, fluoride• Inadequate monitoring capability•Inability of regulatory units to monitor allparameters• Need for new approaches in safemanagement of water supply
  29. 29. 38STANDARD PARAMETERS AND VALUESFOR DRINKING WATER QUALITYI. Standard Values for Bacteriological QualitySource and Mode of Supply Bacteria Standard Value(No/100 ml)All drinking water supplies underall circumstancesE. Coli orthermotolerantfecal bacteria0Treated water entering thedistribution systemE. Coli orthermotolerantfecal bacteria0Treated water in the distributionsystemE. Coli orthermotolerantfecal bacteria0
  30. 30. 39II. Standard Value for Biological OrganismsConstituent Permissible ValueTotal Count/ ml 10
  31. 31. 40III. Standard Values for Physical andChemical Quantity: Health SignificanceA. Inorganic ConstituentsConstituent Maximum Level (mg/l)Antimony 0.005Arsenic 0.01Barium 0.3Boron 0.7Cadmium 0.003Chromium 0.05Cyanide 0.07Fluoride 1.0Lead 0.01Mercury (total) 0.001Nitrate 50.0Nitrite 3.0Selenium 0.01
  32. 32. 41B. Organic ConstituentsConstituents Maximum Level (mg/l)Aldrin & Dieldrin 0.03Chlordane 0.2DDT 2.0Eldrin 0.2Heptachlor & heptachlor 0.03epoxide 2.0Lindane 20.0Methoxychlor NilPetroleum oils & grease 5.0Toxyphane 30.02,4-D 9.02,4,5-T
  33. 33. 42IV. Standard Values for Physical and ChemicalQuality: Aesthetic QualityConstituents Maximum Level (mg/l)Taste UnobjectionableOdor UnobjectionableColor 5 TCUTurbidity 5 NTUAluminum 0.2Chloride 250.0Copper 1.0Hardness 300 as CaCO3Hydrogen Sulfide 0.05Iron 1.0Manganese 0.5pH 6.5 - 8.5Sodium 200.0Sulfate 250.0Total Dissolved Solids 500.0Zinc 5
  34. 34. 43V. Standard Values for Disinfectants andDisinfectant By-ProductsConstituent Maximum Level (mg/l)a. DisinfectantChlorine Residual 0.2 - 0.5b. Disinfectant by-productsBromate 0.025Chlorite 0.22,4,6 trichlorophenol 0.2Formaldehyde 0.9Phenolic substances 0.001Bromoform 0.1Dibromochloromethane 0.1Bromodichloromethane 0.06Chloroform 0.2
  35. 35. 44VI. Chemicals of No Health Significanceat Concentrations Normally Found inDrinking WaterConstituent NoteAsbestos In accordance with thefindings of WHO, the DOHdoes not prescribe anystandard values for thesecompounds since they arenot hazardous to humanhealth at concentrationsfound in drinking water.SilverTin
  36. 36. 45VII. Standard Values for RadiologicalConstituentsConstituent Maximum Level (mg/l)Gross alpha activity 0.1Gross beta activity 1.0<<<BACK>>>
  37. 37. 46MINIMUM FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING FORDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMSSource andmode of supplyPopulation served Minimum frequency ofsamplinga. Level I 90 – 150 Once in every 3 monthsb. Level II 600 Once in every 2 monthsc. Level III Less than 50005000 – 100000More than 1000001 sample monthly1 sample per 5000 popmonthly20 samples plus one sampleper 10000 pop monthlyd. Bottled Water Once every 2 monthse. Water refilling stations Once a monthf. Emergency supplies of drinking water Before delivery to users<<<BACK>>>
  38. 38. WATER-RELATED DISEASES WATER BORNE WATER WASHED WATER BASED WATER INSECTRELATEDMethemoglobinemiaCholeraBotulismTyphoidHepatitis ADysenteryCryptosporidiosisMinamata DiseaseTrachomaEnterobiasisAscariasisTrichomoniasisTrichuriasisPediculosis/ScabiesSchistosomiasisChlonorchiasisFasciolopsiasisMalariaFilariasis<<<BACK>>>
  39. 39. 48WATER-BORNE DISEASESoccur when thepathogen is inwater which isdrunk by a personwhich may thenbecome infected,e.g. cholera andtyphoid.
  42. 42. 51WATER-BASED DISEASES• Disease due toinfection by parasiticworms whichdepend on aquaticintermediate hoststo complete theircycle, e.g.schistosomiasis,fasciolopsiasis.
  43. 43. 52WATER-RELATED INSECTDISEASES• Diseasestransmitted byinsects which eitherbreed in water orbite near water,malaria, dengue andyellow fever.<<<BACK>>>
  44. 44. 53METHODS OF WATERTREATMENT1. Removal of floating materials2. Removal of suspended solids andcolora. By sedimentationb. By coagulationc. By filtration3. Removal of bacteriaa. Same as in 2b. Supplemented by disinfection
  45. 45. 54METHODS OF WATERTREATMENT4. Removal or neutralization of taste,odor, minerals, and dissolved gasesa. By aerationb. By treating the water with chemicalsc. By means of special equipment ormethods5. Removal of hardnessa. By membrane filtrationb. By treating the water with chemicals
  46. 46. 55TYPES OF PRETREATMENTPROCESSES• Screening – remove and screen large objects• Bar screens• Wire mesh screens• Presedimentation – remove silts, sands andgrits• Microstraining – remove nuisance particles• Chemical pretreatment – controls the growthof algae• Use of copper sulfate
  47. 47. 59COAGULATION/FLOCCULATION• Coagulation is a process of combiningsmall particles into larger aggregates.• Flocculation is the physical process ofproducing contacts to form flocs.
  48. 48. 62SEDIMENTATION• Sedimentation is the process of solid-liquid separation using gravity settling toremove suspended solids.• Type I – settling out of discrete non-flocculent particles in dilute suspension.• Type II – settling out of flocculent particlesin dilute suspension.
  49. 49. 63FILTRATION• Filtration processes are used primarilyto remove suspended particulatematerial from water. Particulatesremoved may be those in the watersource or those generated in treatmentprocesses.• Particulates – clay, silt, microorganisms,colloidal and precipitates of iron andalum.
  50. 50. 65• Precipitation Method by Lime –Soda Ash Process – use of quicklime (calcium oxide), hydratedlime (calcium hydroxide) andsoda ash (sodium carbonate).• Ion-exchange Methods by ZeoliteSofteners – use of syntheticzeolite chemicals
  51. 51. 66• Membrane Filtration Processes• Reverse Osmosis – is a pressure drivenprocess that retains all ions and passes water.• Electrodialysis – is a process in which ions aretransferred through membranes from a lessconcentrated to a more concentrated solutionas a result of the passage of direct current.• Ultrafiltration – is a pressure driven process forfractionating and concentrating solutionscontaining colloids and high-molecular weightmaterials.<<<BACK>>>
  52. 52. 67Water QualityandHealth Effects
  53. 53. 68ObjectivesAt the end of the session, theparticipants should be able to: discuss the various health effectscaused by these substances inwater describe the different physicaland chemical properties of water
  54. 54. 69H A Z A R D SEXPOSUREPATHWAYDOSE-RESPONSEH EALTHEFFECTSWater QualityIngestion,Skin ContactAge, Sex,Nutritional Status,Genetics, etc.Various Infectionsand Poisoning(Physical, Chemicaland Biological)
  55. 55. 70TurbidityColorOdorPhysical Characteristicsof water
  56. 56. 71Turbidity• Caused by a wide variety of suspendedmaterials--colloidal to coarse dispersion• Common in surface waters• Sources: runoff from rain andflood (clay and silt),Streetwashings, Industrial wastes
  57. 57. 72Environmentalsignificance of turbidity Filterability - more difficult andcostly Disinfection - interferes witheffectiveness ofdisinfection Aesthetics - undesirableappearance
  58. 58. 73ColorApparent color: caused bysuspended matterTrue Color: caused by dissolvedvegetable or organicextracts
  59. 59. 74 Imparts aesthetic problems toacceptability of waterPublic Health Significance ofColorInterferes with chlorination process byreacting with chlorine to form chloroformand other trihalomethanes(THM), orchlorinated organics. These may posecertain health risks to consumers
  60. 60. 75Chemical Properties ofWater pH, acidity and alkalinity Water hardness Iron and Manganese Chloride Fluoride Sulfate
  61. 61. 76Nitrates and PhosphatesInorganic substances(Lead,Mercury, Arsenic, Cadmium, etc)Organic substances (chlorinatedhydrocarbons, carbamates,organo phosphates,Chemical Properties ofWater
  62. 62. 77pH, Acidity andAlkalinitypH - expresses the intensity of the acidand alkaline condition of waterpH ------------------ 7 ----------------- 14Acidic AlkalinepH - expresses the hydrogen ion conc.H2O ---------- H+ + OH-
  63. 63. 78Forms of acidity in water : Carbon dioxide Mineral acidity (Nitric, sulfuric, phosphoricacids, etc) Carbon dioxide imparts pleasant taste Mineral acidity makes water unpalatablethat deters consumption Increases corrosivity of water andpotential for leaching heavy metalsEnvironmental significanceof acidity:
  64. 64. 79Alkalinity - measure of thecapacity of water to neutralizeacids bicarbonates, carbonates andhydroxides borates, silicates and phosphatesAlkalinity imparts acrid (mapakla)taste to water
  65. 65. 80Water HardnessHardness is caused by multivalentmetallic cations : CalciumMagnesiumStrontiumIronManganese
  66. 66. 81Sources of HardnessContact of water with soil and rockformations Under low pH due to presence ofcarbon dioxide, water can dissolvebasic materials, i.e. limestoneformations Common in groundwater
  67. 67. 82Classification of wateraccording to degree ofhardnessmg/L Degree of Hardness0 – 75 Soft75 – 150 Moderately hard150 – 300 Hard300 up Very hard
  68. 68. 83Significance of Hardness Increases soap consumption toproduce foam or lather Produces scale in hot water pipes,boilers, and heaters Epidemiological studies indicatedinverse relationship betweenhardness of drinking water andcardiovascular diseases
  69. 69. 84Iron (Fe) and Manganese(Mn) Present in soil in insoluble form Under certain acidic conditions, Fe andMn become soluble When exposed to air, these areconverted to insoluble form Imparts yellow stain color and rustytaste (Fe) and black stain (Mn)
  70. 70. 85Chloride naturally occurring spray from ocean is carried inlandas droplets saltwater (sea) intrusion intoground water Irrigation water Human excreta Industrial wastessources:
  71. 71. 86Significance of Chloride Imparts salty taste at concentrationsbeyond 250 mg/L No known adverse health effects topeople who consume more than2000 mg/L
  72. 72. 87FluorideAt high concentrations promotedisfigurement of teeth in humans“mottled enamel” or dentalfluorosisAt low levels (less than 1.0mg/L),dental caries become prevalentSignificance:
  73. 73. 88Sulfate At concentrations above 250 mg/L,impart cathartic (purgative)effect Promotes formation of scales inboilers and heatersSignificance in drinking water
  74. 74. 89NitrogenInterferes with the water disinfectionprocess Nitrates at levels above 50 mg/L,may cause infantile hemoglobinemiaor “blue babies”Sources: naturally-occurring, organicwastes
  75. 75. 90Phosphorus and Phosphates Together with nitrogen, phosphorusserve as nutrients for planktonscausing “algal blooms” Polyphosphates are used in publicwater supplies for controllingcorrosionSignificance
  76. 76. 91Inorganic Substances inWaterArsenic CyanideCadmium LeadMercury
  77. 77. 92ArsenicSources: dissolution of minerals and ores, geothermal springs Industrial effluents (powergeneration from coal-firedfurnaces, metal smelters) atmospheric deposition
  78. 78. 93Health Effects of Arsenic Hyperkeratosis, blackfoot diseasemycardial schemia,liver dysfunction Inorganic arsenic is a documentedhuman carcinogen
  79. 79. 94CadmiumSources: wastewater pollutionAir pollution depositionImpurities in galvanized pipes,solders and metal fittings
  80. 80. 95Health Effects of Cadmium Main routes of exposure are inhalationand ingestion Kidney is the main target organ ofcadmium (Itai-itai disease) Cardiovascular diseases accompaniedby hypertension
  81. 81. 97CyanideHealth effects:thyroid and nervous systemdysfunctionSource: industrial contaminationof drinking water sources
  82. 82. 98LeadSources:• dissolution of lead in minerals and soil• Household plumbing fixtures, fittings,solder and pipes
  83. 83. 99Lead At high concentrations, hematological,renal and neurological impairments,reproductive effects including impairedfertility and fetal wastage At lower levels include impaired growth ofchildren, and increases blood pressureHealth effects
  84. 84. 100MercurySources:• inorganic and organic mercury arenaturally occurring in surface andgroundwater• Mining wastes where mercury is used forore processing• Industrial processing wastes- electricalapparatus, paper
  85. 85. 101Mercury Teratogenic effects of organomercurialshave been documented Congenital fetal “Minamata disease”(neurological defects) Cerebral palsy, impaired learning andbehavioral disabilityHealth Effects
  86. 86. 102Aldrin LindaneDieldrin MethoxychlorChlordane ToxyphaneEndrin 2,4-DHeptachlor 2,4,5- TOrganic constituents withhealth significanceWide range of health effects: carcinogen,teratogen, mutagen
  87. 87. 103Chloroform* Phenolic substancesFormaldehyde BromoformBromate dibromochloromethane*Bromodichloromethane*By-products of waterdisinfection*THM- trihalomethane
  88. 88. 104 carcinogenic effects effects on reproduction anddevelopment toxic effects on the liver and kidneyHealth effects of disinfectionby-products
  89. 89. 105<<<BACK>>>
  90. 90. Methods ofWater Purification
  91. 91. 107Common Treatment Processes Dissolved Impurities Dissolved inorganic• Oxidation-filtration for Fe and Mn salts• Hot or cold lime softening or other precipitation processesfor heavy metals• Chlorination for cyanides• Ion-exchange softening and dealkalization dionization• Reverse osmosis• Electrodialysis• Distillation• Oxidation of NH4+ to NO3- and denitrification of NO3- to N2,both by biological processes
  92. 92. 108Common Treatment Processes Dissolved organic• Flocculation followed by Sedimentation,Filtration, ultrafiltration, activated carbon• Biological treatment• Chemical destruction by e.g. chlorination,ozonation, potassium permanganate• Ion Exchange scavenging
  93. 93. 109Common Treatment Processes Suspended Impurities Colloids: organic and inorganic• Flocculation processes• Biological treatment for BOD reduction• Ultrafiltration Suspended inorganic• Sedimentation / screening inorganic Suspended organic• Sedimentation / screening• Filtration• Biological treatment for BOD
  94. 94. 110Common Treatment Processes Living Matter Microorganisms – reduced by biological treatment• Microfiltration• Disinfection by chlorine, ozone or biocides• Ultraviolet or radioactive sterilization Gases• Thermal and/or mechanical degassing for removal of O2and CO2• Chemical scavenging (e.g. O2 removal by sulfite orhydrazine)• Dechlorination with activated carbon• Ion exchange
  95. 95. 111General Methods ofWater Treatment Removal of floating materials, which is generallyaccomplished by screens Removal of suspended solids and color which may beaccomplished: By sedimentation – or permitting water to remain quiescent inlarge settling basin so that the suspended solids may settle tothe bottom. By coagulation - or applying to the water certain chemicalscalled coagulants that produce an insoluble gelatinous andflocculent precipitate which absorbs and entraps thesuspended solids in the water and thus hastens theirsedimentation By filtration – or passing the water through a layer of sand orother material that retains the suspended solids.
  96. 96. 112General Methods ofWater Treatment Removal of bacteria which is accomplished by generally by the process mentioned for the removal ofsuspended solids supplemented by final disinfection with chlorine or otheracceptable physical or chemical agents to ensure thedestruction of bacteria that may cause disease Removal or neutralization of tastes, odors,objectionable minerals and dissolved gases which isaccomplished : By aeration, or exposing the water in thin films or droplets tothe oxygen of the atmosphere By treating the water with certain chemicals By means of special equipment or methods
  97. 97. 120<<<BACK>>>
  98. 98. WASTEWATER
  99. 99. Sanitation Code of the Philippines(PD 856) Requirements in the Operation of IndustrialEstablishments (RULE V) Section E: Disposal of Industrial Wastes• All toxic and hazardous wastes including nuclearwastes incident to the operation of the industrialplant shall be collected, stored or disposed of in amanner that will prevent health hazards, nuisanceand pollution in accordance with the guidelines setby DENR (RA 6969).• All industrial establishments discharging toxicwastes shall submit a copy of the method oftreatment approved and certified by the EMB-DENR .
  100. 100. Philippine Clean Water Act(RA 9275) Ch. 2 Art 1 Sec 8 – Domestic SewageCollection, Treatment and Disposal That all establishments including industrialcomplex and similar establishments must beconnected to a sewerage system. Sec. 12 – Categories of Industry Sector The Department shall revise and publish a listof categories of industry sector for whicheffluent standards will be provided for eachsignificant wastewater parameter.123
  101. 101. Philippine Clean Water Act(RA 9275) SEC. 14. Discharge Permits. The Department shallrequire owners or operators of facilities that dischargeregulated effluents pursuant to this Act to secure apermit to discharge. The discharge permit shall be thelegal authorization granted by the Department todischarge wastewater: Provided, That the dischargepermit shall specify among others, the quantity andquality of effluent that said facilities are allowed todischarge into a particular water body, complianceschedule and monitoring requirement.124
  102. 102. 125DOMESTIC SOURCES INDUSTRIAL SOURCESLEACHATE AGRICULTURAL RUNOFFSOURCES OF WASTEWATERHuman waste, laundryand kitchen washings,cleansing activitiesUnit operations, unitproductions
  103. 103. 126Industry, product Unit of product(ton, except asspecified)Water required per unit (liters)Wood pulp (Ton of pulp andpaper)236,000Gasoline (Kiloliter) 7,000 - 10,000Oil refinery (Ton of crudepetrolium)10,000Chemicals - Acetic acid 417,000 - 1,000,000Soap 960 - 2,100Sulfuric acid (Ton 100% H2SO4) 10,400Wool scouring 250,000Cotton mill (Square Yard) 1.0Carpets (Square Yard) 20Gold (Ton of Ore) 1000Iron 4200Bauxite (Ton of Ore) 300Sulfur 12,500Iron and SteelFully integrated millsRolling and Drawing millsBlast furnace smeltingElectrometallurgical feroalloysIndustry, consumptive use (etc.)8600014,700103,00072,0003,800Automobi;es vehicle 38,000Electric Power (Kilowatt-Hour) 200Rubber (synthetic) 125,000-2,630,000<<<BACK>>>
  106. 106. 129COMPOSITION OF WASTEWATER99.99 % liquid0.01 % solid
  108. 108. 131WATER POLLUTANTS2. Environmental and Health ImpactOxygen DepletionTurbidityDiseasesEuthrophicationAccumulationWater Quality
  109. 109. 132WATER POLLUTANTS3. Treatment OptionSecondary TxPrimary TxPonds/DisinfectionAdsorptionTreated EffluentTertiary Tx<<<NEXT>>>
  111. 111. 134SEDIMENTATION TANKS<<<BACK>>>
  114. 114. 137SEDIMENTATION TANKS<<<BACK>>>
  115. 115. 138TRICKLING FILTERS
  117. 117. 140
  118. 118. 141<<<BACK>>>
  120. 120. TERTIARY TREATMENT Dissolved inorganic• Reverse osmosis• Distillation• Oxidation of NH4+ to NO3- anddenitrification of NO3- to N2, both bybiological processes<<<BACK>>>
  125. 125. 149SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP OFALGAE AND BACTERIAsunlightalgaenew cellsoxygenorganic mattersbacterianew cellsCO2 , nutrientsAEROBIC LAYERANAEROBIC LAYER
  126. 126. 150Increased PondTemperatureFaecalBacterialDie-OffSunlightRapidPhotosynthesispH > 9Photo-oxidationHighDOMECHANISMS FOR FAECALCOLIFORM DIE-OFF IN WSPEFFLUENTMATURATION POND
  127. 127. 151RESOURCE RECOVERY
  128. 128. 152RESOURCE RECOVERY
  129. 129. 153RESOURCE RECOVERY<<<BACK>>>
  130. 130. WATER-RELATED DISEASES WATER BORNE WATER WASHED WATER BASED WATER INSECTRELATEDMethemoglobinemiaCholeraBotulismTyphoidHepatitis ADysenteryCryptosporidiosisMinamata DiseaseTrachomaEnterobiasisAscariasisTrichomoniasisTrichuriasisPediculosis/ScabiesSchistosomiasisChlonorchiasisFasciolopsiasisMalariaFilariasis
  131. 131. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES• Total economic losses 67B• Health P 3B• Fisheries Production P 17B• Tourism P 47B• Other economic losses• Damage claims• Family income due to desire for bottled water(4.6B per year, Metro Manila)Source: Philippine Environmental Monitor 2003 <<<BACK>>>
  133. 133. 157
  134. 134. 158SOLID WASTEWhat is solid waste?• Solid wastecomprise all wastearising from humanand animalactivities that arenormally solid andthat are discardedas useless orunwanted
  135. 135. 159Four General Categories• Municipal waste• Industrial waste• Hazardous waste• Health care waste<<<NEXT>>>
  136. 136. 160Municipal Solid Waste• waste arising from domestic, commercial, andinstitutional activities in urban areas. Thisincludes the following: Food waste Rubbish Ashes and residues Demolition and construction Treatment plant waste<<<BACK>>>
  137. 137. 161Industrial Solid Waste• waste arising fromindustrial activityand typicallyinclude rubbish,ashes, andhazardous waste<<<BACK>>>
  138. 138. 162Hazardous Solid Waste• waste that posesubstantial dangerimmediately or over aperiod of time to human,plant or animal life. Itexhibit the following:• Toxicity• Ignitability• Corrosivity• Reactivity<<<BACK>>>
  139. 139. 163Health Care Waste
  140. 140. 164Healthcare waste Includes all the waste generated byhealth care establishments, researchfacilities and laboratories. Also includes the waste originatingfrom “minor” or “scattered” sourcessuch as that produced in the courseof health care undertaken in thehome (dialysis, insulin injectionsetc.)
  141. 141. 165Health Impact ofHealth Care WasteCharacteristics: Contains infectious agents Genotoxic Contains toxic or hazardouschemicals or pharmaceuticals Radioactive Contains sharps<<<BACK>>>
  142. 142. 166Types of Health Care Waste Infectious waste Pathological waste Sharps Pharmaceutical waste Genotoxic waste Chemical waste Waste with high content of heavy metals Pressurized containers Radioactive waste
  143. 143. 167Health Impact ofHealth Care WastePersons at Risk All individuals exposed to hazardoushealth care waste are potentially at risk,including those within health careestablishments that generate hazardouswaste, and those outside these sourceswho either handle such waste or areexposed to it as a consequence of carelessmanagement E.g. MDs, nurses, healthcare auxiliaries,maintenance personnel, patients, visitors,waste disposal workers, scavengers
  144. 144. 168Health Impact ofHealth Care Waste Hazards from Infectious Waste andSharps1. Through a puncture, abrasion, orcut in the skin2. Through the mucous membrane3. By inhalation4. By ingestion
  145. 145. 169Health Impact ofHealth Care Waste
  146. 146. 170Health Impact ofHealth Care Waste Hazards from Chemical andPharmaceutical Waste- Intoxication – acute or chronic exposure,skin absorption, inhalation or ingestion- Injuries e.g. burns- Examples – disinfectants, obsoletepesticides, chemical/pharmaceuticalresidues discharged into the seweragesystem
  147. 147. 171Health Impact ofHealth Care Waste Hazards from Genotoxic Waste- Exposure to genotoxic substancesmay occur during preparation of ortreatment with particulardrugs/chemicals- Example: antineoplastic drugs- Carcinogenic, mutagenic, secondaryneoplasia
  148. 148. 172Health Impact ofHealth Care Waste Hazards from Radioactive Waste- The type of disease dependent ontype and extent of exposure- Headache, dizziness and vomiting tomore serious problems- Genotoxic- Severe injuries e.g. destruction oftissues which may lead toamputation
  149. 149. 173Waste Management Plan for aHealth-care Establishment Location and organization of collection andstorage facilities Design Specifications of the bags, garbagecollection systems Required material and human resources Responsibilities of the different categoriesof personnel of the hospital including theattendants and ancillary staff Procedures and practices Training Program
  150. 150. 174Health Impact ofHealth Care Waste
  151. 151. 175Treatment and Disposal Technologiesfor Health Care Waste Incineration – a high temperaturedry oxidation process that reducesorganic and combustible waste toinorganic, incombustible matter andresults in a very significant reductionof waste volume and weight. Thisprocess is chosen for wastes that cannot be recycled, reused or disposedof in a landfill site.
  152. 152. 176Waste types not to beincinerated Pressurized gas containers Large amounts of reactive chemicalswastes Silver salts and photographic orradiographic wastes Halogenated plastics e.g. PVC Waste with high mercury or cadmiumcontent e.g. thermometers, used batteries Sealed ampoules containing heavy metals
  153. 153. 177Characteristics of wastesuitable for incineration Low heating value Combustible matter – 60% Non-combustible solids – 5% Non-combustible fines – below 20% Moisture content – below 30%
  154. 154. 178
  155. 155. 179Treatment and Disposal Technologiesfor Health Care Waste Chemical Disinfection – chemicalsare added to waste to kill orinactivate the pathogens resulting todisinfection rather than sterilization.This process is suitable for treatingliquid waste such blood, urine, stoolsor hospital sewage. May alsodisinfect microbiological cultures,sharps etc.
  156. 156. 180Treatment and Disposal Technologiesfor Health Care Waste Wet Thermal Treatmentbased on exposure of shredded infectiouswaste to high temperature, high pressuresteam and is similar to the autoclavesterilization process. It inactivates mosttypes of microorganisms. It is required forthe waste to be shredded beforetreatment, for sharps – milling orcrushing. It is not appropriate foranatomical waste and animal carcassesand will not sufficiently treat chemical andpharmaceutical wastes.
  157. 157. 181Wet Thermal Treatment Disadvantages:- the shredder is liable to mechanicalfailure and breakdown- the efficiency of disinfection is verysensitive to the operationalconditions
  158. 158. 182Treatment and Disposal Technologiesfor Health Care Waste Microwave Irradiationmost microorganisms are destroyedby action of microwaves of afrequency of 2450 MHz and awavelength of 12.24cm. Theinfectious agents are destroyed byheat conduction
  159. 159. 183Hospital Hygiene andInfection Control Epidemiology of NosocomialInfections- transition from contamination toinfection- sources of infection- routes of transmission
  160. 160. 184Hospital Hygiene andInfection Control Prevention of Nosocomial Infections- Principles:a. Separate the infection sourcefrom the rest of the hospitalb. Cut off any route of transmission
  161. 161. 185Hospital Hygiene andInfection Control Prevention of Nosocomial Infections- Isolation of the infected patientsand standard precautions- Cleaning- Sterilization- Disinfection- Hand Hygiene
  162. 162. 186• In Metro Manila alone about 6,000 tons ofgarbage is generated per day.• People living near solid waste dumpsites areconstantly exposed to smoke fromspontaneous combustion.• A separate study by Torres et. al. and Bacude.t al. 1994 reported that groundwater neardumpsites are contaminated .
  163. 163. 187PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE• aesthetic problems(eyesores, odor)• clogging of sewers,drains & river• breeding place ofinsects & rodents• surface &groundwater pollution• contributes to airpollution
  165. 165. Traditional Paradigm:189
  166. 166. Most PreferableLeast PreferableRecycleReduceReusePreventDisposeRecoverTreatEnd ofPipeGreenProcurement4 Rs190Hierarchy of Solid Waste Management
  167. 167. 193SOLID WASTE COMPOSITION (Metro Manila)Composition Percent• Paper and Cardboard 22.37• Food and Kitchen Waste 19.15• Textiles 7.41• Rubber and Leather 1.85• Plastics 12.38• Yard Waste 21.47• Other Combustibles 6.82• Metal 1.93• Glass 1.54• Screenings <12mm 4.66• Hazardous 0.41_____________________________________________________Source: PRRP, 1990
  169. 169. 195• it is difficult to control & varies with individualvalues and behavior• waste reduction at source is important tominimize waste generation• waste generation vary daily, weekly,monthly, and seasonallyWASTE GENERATION
  170. 170. 196WASTE GENERATION• generation rate usually peak duringChristmas and summer seasons• quantities of SW generated is important inselecting collection equipment, collectionroutes, and disposal facilities• quantity of SW is needed for planningregulatory purposes
  171. 171. 197WASTE GENERATION RATE (Dry Season)______________________________________Source: JICA Study, 1997CATEGORY UNIT WASTEGENERATIONHousehold Grams/person/day 431Restaurant Grams/shop/day 20195Institution Grams/person/day 83Market Grams/shop/day 9239Street sweeping Grams/km/day 11663River cleansing Grams/km/day 32527
  172. 172. 1981. Source reduction & recycling• thru design, manufacture & packaging ofproducts and longer useful life• selective buying patterns & the reuse ofproducts and materials• reusable products instead instead ofdisposable (plates, towel, etc)• use products with greater durability &repairabilityFactors Affecting Waste Generation
  173. 173. 199Factors Affecting Waste Generation2. Public attitude & legislation• significant reduction can be attained ifpeople are willing to change habits &lifestyles to conserve natural resources3. Geographic & physical factors• warmer climate tends to generate morewaste• seasons of the year <<<BACK>>>
  174. 174. 200 Why do you think “storage” is important inwaste management? this can have a significant effect oncharacteristics of waste, public health andaesthetic conditions this is a critical step in solid wastemanagement segregation is the primary step in wastereduction and recyclingSTORAGE
  175. 175. 2011. effects on waste components biological composition absorption of fluids2. types of containers to be used depends on characteristics & types of SWand frequency of collectionCONSIDERATIONS FOR WASTESTORAGE
  176. 176. 202CONSIDERATIONS FOR WASTESTORAGE3. location of container depends on the type of dwelling orcommercial/industrial facilities, the availablespace, and access to collection services4. public health and aesthetics production of odor and unsightly conditions potential breeding site of rodents and insectsthat are vectors of diseases<<<BACK>>>
  177. 177. 203 gathering and hauling of wastefrom collection points to disposalsite 50-70% of total cost of solid wastemanagement is spent for collection frequency of collection and type ofcollection vehicles are criticalconcernsCOLLECTION OF SOLID WASTE
  178. 178. 204COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTE need for proper timing duringcollection separate collection system forhazardous waste training of solid waste collection crew
  179. 179. 205COLLECTION ROUTES• identifying point and frequency ofcollection• routes should be laid out (route maps)• in hilly areas, start from top andproceed downhill• start from the farthest point towards thedisposal site• areas with large quantities of SWshould be served first <<<BACK>>>
  180. 180. 206• this involves (1) transfer of waste fromsmaller collection vehicle to largertransport equipment (2) subsequenttransfer of waste to disposal site• transfer takes place in a transfer station• Transfer station is recommended ifdisposal site is relatively far (>15km)TRANSFER AND TRANSPORT
  181. 181. 207TRANSFER AND TRANSPORT• smaller collection vehicles are used tomaneuver in city streets• further segregation can takes place inTS• waste are treated and compacted inTS<<<BACK>>>
  182. 182. 208• involves recovery of separated materials,processing and transformation of solidwaste• facilities for SW separation andprocessing are: material recovery facility,transfer station, combustion facilities anddisposal site• processing includes separation of wastecomponents by size (screening),separation of metals (magnets),composting, and combustionPROCESSING AND RECOVERY
  183. 183. 209PROCESSING AND RECOVERY transformation process includesvolume reduction and recovery ofconversion products and energy•biological process - composting•chemical process - combustionconversion to energy (RDF)<<<BACK>>>
  184. 184. 210DISPOSAL remaining waste afterwaste reduction,recycling, reuse andprocessing should beproperly disposed most commondisposal is SanitaryLandfill safe and reliable long-term disposal of solidwaste is necessary
  185. 185. Solid Waste Disposal OptionsDisposal Advantages DisadvantagesSanitaryLandfillsMinimumEnvironmental Pollution(e.g., groundwaterpollution)ExpensiveComposting Compost as soilconditioner / fertilizerMust be marketableWaste sortingIncineration Reduction of waste toland disposalRequires min. areaExpensive
  186. 186. Waste Disposal SystemsOPEN DUMP
  187. 187. Waste Disposal SystemsCOMPOSTING
  188. 188. Waste Disposal Systems214SANITARY LANDFILL
  190. 190. 216SANITARY LANDFILL<<<BACK>>>
  191. 191. 217Food Safety Food safety is non-negotiable Serving safe food is not an optionbut an obligation of foodestablishments, manufacturers andsuppliers. Customers must be assured thatthe food they eat is safe.
  192. 192. 218Objectives of Food Sanitation To ensure the consumption of safe andwholesome food To prevent the sale of food offensive tothe purchaser, or inferior in value andquality To cut down spoilage and wastage offood
  193. 193. 219Food Contaminants Modes of Transmission Classifications Effects
  194. 194. 220Modes of Transmission of Food-borne DiseasesInfectedAnimalsDiseasesSusceptibleIndividualSick personCarrierCarelessindividualIntestinaldischargesOpen Wounds,Boils, AcnePimplesRespiratoryand OralDischargesAirDrinking WaterHandsInsects/RodentsUtensilsPoisonsFOODDeathDisability<<<BACK>>>
  195. 195. 221Classification of Contaminants Chemical contaminants Physical contaminants Biological contaminants<<<BACK>>>
  196. 196. 222Chemical Contaminants Toxic metals Food service chemicals Pesticides Additives and Preservatives
  197. 197. 223Chemical ContaminantsChemical Toxin Source Associated FoodsToxic metals Utensils & equipmentcontaining toxic metals(i.e. copper, brass, zinc)High acid foods,carbonatedbeveragesFood servicechemicalsCleaning products,polishes, lubricants,sanitizersAll foodsPesticides Used in preparationareas to control rodentsand insectsAll foodsAdditives andPreservativesUsed to enhance tasteor prevent spoilageAll foods
  198. 198. 224Chemical Food PoisoningChemicals SourceAntimony Food cooked in poorly coated or chipped enameledcooking utensilsCadmium Chilled acid foods or drinks allowed to stand incadmium-plated metal containersCyanide Silverware not properly washed and sanitized afterdetarnishingZinc Acid foods cooked in galvanized iron kettlesLead Improperly washed fresh fruits and vegetables sprayedwith lead; food or water that has been in contact withlead pipes, lead-plated equipment, and lead-solderedpots and pansArsenic Improperly washed fresh fruits and vegetables sprayedwith arsenicFluoride Food or drinks with sodium fluoride (used to get rid ofcockroaches)Methyl Chloride Leaking mechanical refrigerators <<<BACK>>>
  199. 199. 225Physical Contaminants Results from the accidentalintroduction of foreign objectsinto the food
  200. 200. 226Physical ContaminantsMaterials Injury Potential SourcesGlass fixtures Cuts, bleeding Bottles, utensils,coversInsects andother filthsChoking,infectionFieldsString andhairChoking Food handlers,packaging materialsBone Choking ImproperProcessing<<<BACK>>>
  201. 201. 227Biological Hazards Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi
  202. 202. 228Pathogen Transmission RoutesContaminationCross-contamination
  203. 203. 229Pathogen Transmission RoutesContamination• Unintended presence ofharmful substances ormicroorganisms in food
  204. 204. 230Pathogen Transmission RoutesCross-contamination• Transfer of harmful substancesor microorganisms to food
  205. 205. 231Pathogen Transmission Routes Cross-contaminationUnclean and unsanitized handsCleaning cloths and spongesFood contact surfacesRaw or contaminated foods<<<BACK>>>
  206. 206. 232Effects of Food ContaminantsAdverse Health EffectsAdverse Non-Health Effects<<<NEXT>>>
  207. 207. 233Food-Borne Illnesses (FBI) Food-Borne Infection• Results when pathogens grow in theintestines after a person eats foodcontaminated with them Food-Borne Intoxication• Caused by eating food containingpoisonous toxins
  208. 208. 234Classification of Food-Borne Illnesses (FBI)Food-Borne IllnessesBacteria Typhoid Fever Cholera BacillaryDysentery SalmonellaInfection Other gastro-intestinaldiseasesParasitic Ascariasis Ameobiasis Trichinosis Giardiasis Balintidiasis OthersBacteria Staphylococcal Botulism (C.Botulinum) Streptococcal Bacillus cereusPlant orAnimal Somemushrooms Some mussels Certain herbs Some fishes OthersChemicalAccident Arsenic Lead Cadmium Cyanide Antimony Nitrites DDT, etc.Viral Hepatitis A Rotavirus OthersFood-BorneInfectionFood Poisoning orFood Intoxication
  209. 209. 235General Symptoms ofFood-Borne Illnesses Headache Nausea Vomiting Dehydration Diarrhea Fever
  210. 210. 236Microbial Food-Borne AilmentsPathogen Time Frame for Onset of SymptomsCampylobacter 1 to 10 days (usually 3 to 5 days)Clostridiumbotulinum12 to 36 hoursE. Coli 0157:H7 1 to 10 days (usually 3 to 5 days)Hepatitis A 1 to 7 weeks (usually 25 days)Listeriamonocytogenes4 days to several weeksSalmonella 6 hours to 3 days (average 18 hours)Staphylococcusaureus2 to 7 hoursVibrio vulnificus 1 to 3 days<<<BACK>>>
  211. 211. 237Adverse Non-Health Effects High Medical Expenses Lost work and reduced productivity Lost business and reputation Increased insurance premium Retraining costs<<<BACK>>>
  212. 212. 238Control of Hazards
  213. 213. 239Basic Safe Food Handling Rules1. Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often2. Separate: Don’t cross contaminate3. Cook: Cook to safe temperatures4. Chill: Refrigerate promptly5. Buy goods at only approved/ reputablesources6. Implement an integrated pest managementprogram7. When in doubt, throw it out!
  214. 214. 240Control of Chemical Hazards Pesticides Additives and Preservatives Toxic metals Food service chemicals
  215. 215. 241Control of Physical Hazards Do not use glasses to scoopout ice. Use only commercialfood grade plastics or metalscoops with handles. Do not chill glasses or anyfood items in ice that will beused for drinks.
  216. 216. 242Control of Physical Hazards Do not store toothpicks or non-edible garnishes on shelves abovefood storage or preparation areas. Clean can opener before and aftereach use.
  217. 217. 243Control of Physical Hazards Place and maintain protective shields onlights over food storage and preparationareas. Remove staple wires, nails, and similarobjects from boxes and crates awayfrom food preparation areas.
  218. 218. 244Control of Biological Hazards Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria•Type of food•pH•Temperature•Moisture•Oxygen•Time
  219. 219. 245Methods of Food Processing Dehydrating Heat treatment Freezing Fermenting and similar inhibitions ofmicrobial growth Irradiating with gamma ray’s highenergy electrons
  220. 220. 246Spoilage of Canned Foods:Classification of Deteriorated Cans Pinholes Leaks Swells (swellers) Springer or flipperDents are entry points for microbes!
  221. 221. 247Spoilage of Canned Foods:Classification of Deteriorated Cans Pinholes• Tiny holes caused by action of food acidsduring prolonged storage Leaks• Due to improper sealing• Due to brittle metal• Due to corrosion
  222. 222. 248Spoilage of Canned Foods:Classification of Deteriorated Cans Swells (swellers)• Both ends of cans bulge outward,which do not yield to fingerpressure• Caused by the production of gas bymicroorganisms that are not killedbecause of inadequate sterilizationof contents or by infection throughleaks• Methane or hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  223. 223. 249Spoilage of Canned Foods:Classification of Deteriorated Cans Springer or flipper• A condition of the can where one endhas a bulge which may be transformedto the other end by pressing thebulging end
  224. 224. 250Spoilage of Canned Foods:Classification of Deteriorated CansSevere angularly dentedcan with crimping of bodySevere dent that bucklesend seam of a can
  225. 225. 251Control of Food Handlers Handwashing Personal Hygiene Practices Sick or Injured Food Handlers Hygienic Food Preparation Practices
  226. 226. 252Improper display before actual mealtime
  227. 227. 253The Four-Hour Rule Principle stating that cooked proteinfoods that have been held attemperatures between 40F and 140F(4C and 60C) for more than 4 hourswill be considered unfit forconsumption and must be destroyed
  228. 228. 254Essentials of Food EstablishmentSanitation Healthy food handlers who are aware ofand who put into practice sanitary andhygienic food handling techniques Safety of food and drinks• Health departments exercising vigilance• Lab and physical exams• Precautions in handling insecticides, ratpoisons and other poisonous materials Adequate lavatory, toilet facilities andchange areas
  229. 229. 255Measures to Control and PreventFood-Borne Diseases in FoodEstablishments Protection of food at all times frominsects and vermin Employment of food handlers who arehygienic and free from infectious diseases Storage of food subject to infection attemperature  45F (7C) or  140F(60C)
  230. 230. 256Basic Requirements forWorkplace Food Sanitation
  231. 231. 257Four Sanitary Requirements ofEquipment Used in Food Processing1. Designed andconstructed to whollyprevent contaminationof the product both inprocess and thereafter2. Process applieduniformly andeffectively to the food
  232. 232. 258Four Sanitary Requirements ofEquipment Used in Food Processing3. Made of materials andin shapes that are easilycleanable4. Foolproof and tamper-proof in assembly for allparts vital to theprocess and protectionof the product
  233. 233. 259Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Orderly workflow patterns to controlsafety and quality at all critical points• Plan task to enable employees to travel at the leastdistance• Avoid difficult patterns that cause collisions, falls orspills• Have work spaces and equipment ready when food isbrought out of storage
  234. 234. 260Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Surfaces (walls, floors and ceiling):durable, non-absorbent, smooth andreadily accessible for cleaning Kitchen floors: non-skid, repel liquids,withstand strong cleaners
  235. 235. 261Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Cold storage forperishable foods Sanitary dishwashers Restrooms for customersand employees
  236. 236. 262Recommended Sanitary Facilitiesfor Food EstablishmentsDining RoomAccommodationWater ClosetUrinalWash HandBasinFemale Male Female Male1 - 49 1 1 1 1 150 - 60 2 1 1 1 161 - 120 2 2 2 2 2For every additional60 persons1 1 1 1 1One water closet fordisabled person1 1
  237. 237. 263Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Potable drinking watersupply facilities Water-tight plumbingsystem for water supplyand wastewater disposal
  238. 238. 264Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Adequate lighting andventilation Garbage disposal andvermin control system Separate rooms for eating
  239. 239. 265Recommended Dining Room AreasNo. of Employees Area (sq. m.)4 or less 10.805 11.706 12.607 13.508 14.409 15.3010 16.20
  240. 240. PROVISION OF DRINKING WATERFACILITY*267No. of Employees No. of SDW Facility1 - 50 151 - 100 2101 - 150 3151 - 200 4201 - 250 5*Refers to faucet, fountain, dispenser or any other suitablemeans
  241. 241. REQUIREMENTS FOR DRINKINGWATER FACILITIES268• Should be available within 200 ft from anylocation of worker• At least one sanitary drinking fountain forevery 50 employees• No cross-connections between drinkingwater supply and supply for industrialprocesses• Label water sources that are not potable• Drinking water should be protected frombackflow (from industrial processes)
  242. 242. PROVISION OF SANITATIONFACILITIES269• TOILET FACILITIES• Located as far as practicable but not morethan 200 ft from working stations• Adequate lighting & ventilation• Walls & floors constructed of imperviousmaterials• Separate toilet for each gender• Self-closing door
  243. 243. 270Recommended Number ofSanitary Toilet Facilities
  244. 244. PROVISION OF SANITATIONFACILITIES271• WASHING FACILITIES• lavatories• showers• one shower should be provided for every 10employees of each gender• change rooms: with storage facilities• clothes drying facilities
  245. 245. Recommended Number ofBathing Washing Facilities272Number of employees Bathing/Washing Facility1 - 25 126 - 50 251 - 75 376 - 100 4101- 140 5141 - 180 6181 - 220 7221 - 260 8
  246. 246. 273Provision for WorkplaceFood Establishment
  247. 247. 275Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Surfaces (walls, floors and ceiling):durable, non-absorbent, smooth andreadily accessible for cleaning Kitchen floors: non-skid, repel liquids,withstand strong cleaners
  248. 248. 276Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Cold storage forperishable foods Sanitary dishwashers Restrooms for customersand employees
  249. 249. 277Recommended Sanitary Facilitiesfor Food EstablishmentsDining RoomAccommodationWater ClosetUrinalWash HandBasinFemale Male Female Male1 - 49 1 1 1 1 150 - 60 2 1 1 1 161 - 120 2 2 2 2 2For every additional60 persons1 1 1 1 1One water closet fordisabled person1 1
  250. 250. 278Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Potable drinking watersupply facilities Water-tight plumbingsystem for water supplyand wastewater disposal
  251. 251. 279Physical Requirements of FoodEstablishments Adequate lighting andventilation Garbage disposal andvermin control system Separate rooms for eating
  252. 252. 280Recommended Dining Room AreasNo. of Employees Area (sq. m.)4 or less 10.805 11.706 12.607 13.508 14.409 15.3010 16.20
  253. 253. 281Administrative Requirements Sanitary Permit• application/renewal of sanitary permitfiled with Local Health Office• sanitary inspector conducts aninspection prior to issuance of permit Health Certificates• required for all food handlers
  256. 256. 2845SWhat is it all about?
  257. 257. 285What is 5S 5S is a systematized approach to:– Organize work areas– Keep rules and standards– Maintain discipline 5S utilizes– Workplace organization– Work simplification techniques 5S practice– Develops positive attitude among workers– Cultivates an environment of efficiency, effectivenessand economy
  258. 258. 2865SJapanese English FilipinoSeiriSeitonSeisoSeiketsuShitsukeSortSystematizeSweepSanitizeSelf-disciplineSuriinSinupinSimutinSiguruhin angkalinisanSariling kusa
  259. 259. 2875S Philosophy Productivity comes from the elimination ofwaste It is necessary to attack the root cause ofa problem, not just the symptoms. Participation of everybody is required.
  260. 260. 288The Practice of 5S GoodHousekeeping Seiri (Sort)– Take out unnecessary items and dispose. Seiton (Systematize)– Arrange necessary items in good order. Seiso (Sweep)– Clean your workplace Seiketsu (Sanitize)– Maintain a high standard of housekeeping Shitsuke (Self-discipline)– Do things spontaneously without being told orordered.
  261. 261. 289Sort (Seiri) Remove unnecessary itemsand dispose them properly.– Make the work easy byeliminating obstacles.– Eliminate the need to take careof unnecessary items.– Provide no chance of beingdisturbed with unnecessaryitems.– Prevent accumulation ofunnecessary items.
  262. 262. 290Systematize (Seiton) Arrange necessaryitems in good order.– Prevent loss and wasteof time.– Easy to find and pickup necessary items.– Ensure first-come-first-served basis.– Make production flowsmooth and workeasy.
  263. 263. 291Sweep (Seiso) Clean your workplacecompletely.– Keep environmentalcondition as clean as thelevel necessary for theproducts.– Prevent deterioration ofmachinery and equipmentand make checking ofabnormalities easy.– Keep workplace safe andwork easy.
  264. 264. 293Sanitize (Seiketsu) Maintain a high standard ofhousekeeping and workplaceorganization at all times.– Maintain cleanliness and orderliness.– Prevent misoperation.– Make it easy to find out abnormality.– Standardize good practices.
  265. 265. 294Self-discipline (Shitsuke) Train people to follow goodhousekeeping rules autonomously.
  266. 266. 295Hard 5S Refers to all facets of the workenvironment: individual workstation– Furniture - tables, shelves, drawers,conference room– Equipment - computers, typewriter, faxmachine, copier– Layout of desk and equipment
  267. 267. 296Soft 5S Office policies and procedures Dress code Sharing of responsibilities Telephone etiquette
  268. 268. 297Benefits of 5S Reduces cost to a minimum Ensures delivery on time Safe for people to work in Make employee morale high High productivity Produces quality products and services
  269. 269. 298Promotional Activities Launching activity Big clean-up day Competition 5S audit<<<BACK>>>
  271. 271. 5 Basic Methods of Control300 Physical (mechanical)-use of mechanicaldevices or physical forces use of traps; shooting with bullets, darts; catching;clubbing Chemical-use of rodenticides, insecticidesand larvicides use of poisons which may be clasified into: Contact poison Stomach poison Fumigants Sterilants
  272. 272. 301 Biological-limiting factors that affect their growth andreproduction such as food, space for their habitat. use of living rat predator and disease agent Environmental-cleanliness of the premises, properbuilding construction and maintenance Elimination of food by proper garbage disposal and foodstorage Elimination of breeding places (harborage) by proper refusestorage, satisfactory housekeeping and proper design andconstruction of buildings Rat-proofing of buildings – special construction to preventrats from going under, through and over to the building. Health education and Information
  273. 273. 302VECTORSmosquitofly cockroachrodentflea bedbugs<<<NEXT>>>
  274. 274. 303CONTROL OF FLIES Musca Domestica - house fly Carriers of many diseases:dysentery, cholera, typhoid,diarrhea, conjunctivitis Fannia scaleris – latrine fly Breed in excreta, in fermentingand decaying garbage Carry the same diseases as thehouse fly
  275. 275. 304Habits and Characteristics Housefly does not bite; stable fly is a vicious biter Housefly is about ¼ inch long, mouse gray or buff incolor Male is smaller than female The body, including the legs is covered with hairs The sticky hairs of the legs hold germs It dissolves sugar by depositing saliva on it. It rests on a quiet spot to clean head and proboscis,to digest and to vomit and suck up its half digestedfood.
  276. 276. 305Life Cycle of House Flieseggspupalarvaeadult<<<NEXT>>>
  277. 277. 306Egg Oval, white bright bodies 1 mm length No. of eggs (1 single fly): 1000-3000 in clusters of100 to 150 at a time Ave. batches laid in a lifetime: 2-4 batches; Max: 20batches Hatch out in 8 hours at 29-32°C Factors affecting # of eggs produced: Available food supply Climatic conditions Natural enemies<<<BACK>>>
  278. 278. 307Larvae Grayish or creamy white, segmented (like a worm),smooth cylindrical ½ inch long Move by alternately contracting and expanding theirbodies (legless) Larvae stage: 4-7 days Highly motile, burrow into a fermenting mass, feedvoraciously, grow rapidly Optimum temp for growth: 32°C; killed at 64°C End of larval stage: become restless, migrate tocooler dryer surroundings (e.g. loose soil, undersurfaces of stones and boards)<<<BACK>>>
  279. 279. 308 Mahogany brown, barrel shaped,developed from larval coating 6 mm long Immobile for 3-6 daysPupa<<<BACK>>>
  280. 280. 309 Emerging from puparium, newborn adult fly crawls tentativelyuntil its wings have expanded fully and hardened. Flights: max- 500 to 1000 meters; min- 200 to 300 meters; whencarried by wind – up to 21 km Same size as when it emerges from pupa Lays eggs from 2- 20 days after emergence Eggs are deposited by female fly into a dung or other materialwhere heat generated by fermentation facilitates hatching andwhere moisture prevents drying Eggs are deposited within 8 hours of fresh manure only Length of life: 1 monthAdult fly<<<BACK>>>
  281. 281. 310Breeding Places Human and Animal Excreta Garbage Rubbish dumps containing organicwastes Ground where liquid wastes are spilled
  282. 282. 311Transmission of Disease Fly transmits disease through the legsand the digestive system It voids its digestive tract while feedingwhich contaminates food Produces 15-30 vomit spots and fecaldeposits in 24 hours
  283. 283. 312Control Measures: Basis of control measures: habits andcharacteristics of housefly Preferred breeding material: horse manure Other breeding materials: animal manure, humanexcreta, fermenting vegetable wastes Larvae temperature susceptibility: 43 to 46 °C Mature larvae migrate from breeding material priorto pupation Pupa develop at or beyond the borders of mass ofbreeding material
  284. 284. 313Control Measures: Larvae or adult insect crawl through loosemanure or earth Adult flies are attracted to food by odor Flies soar toward light Flies rest on vertical surface or hangingobject
  285. 285. 314Methods of disposal of manure1. Disposal by contract2. Disposal of manure as fertilizer3. Disposal by drying4. Disposal by composting5. Disposal by incineration
  286. 286. 315Disposal by contract Collection and transport contracted tosanitation group with the following rules: Manure to be collected early in the morning All manure should be completely carriedaway Vehicles should not allow spillage
  287. 287. 316Disposal of manure as fertilizer Thinly spread on ground to dry quicklyor flowed under if manure is wet
  288. 288. 317Disposal by drying Only in dry climates; if areas become wet, itturns into breeding places. Requirements: Grounds tamped and cleared of vegetation Manure is spread in layer not over 1 to 2 inchesthick Drying time: 4 to 7 days Area required: 1.1 sq m per animal
  289. 289. 318Disposal by composting Manure is closely packed in a heap Heat generated in composting will killlarvae
  290. 290. 319Disposal by incineration Manure may be staked in longwindrows, sprayed with oil and burned If manure is dried it can be burnedwithout oil
  291. 291. 320Chemicals as larvicides If manure will not be used as fertilizer: Crude oil Waste oil Kerosene 2% solution of cresolNote: DDT is not effective against larvae
  292. 292. 321Chemicals as larvicides If manure will be used as fertilizer Borax solution Hellebore Iron sulfate
  293. 293. 322Chemicals as larvicides In dirty garbage can, privies or otherbreeding areas: Aldrin Dieldrin Organophosphate compounds
  294. 294. 323Methods of control of adult flies Residual treatment Outdoor space sprays Fly trapping Fly paper and fly wire Swatting Screening Note: these are temporary measures andshould not be as substitute for excreta,garbage and waste control
  295. 295. 324Residual treatment Chemicals are applied on surfaces(walls, leaves, etc) Housefly readily develops resistance toorganochloride or organophosphorus Less responsive to carbamate anpyrethrum type materials
  296. 296. 325Outdoor space sprays Chemicals used for space treatmentsare more effetive than for residual/larvicidal applications Chemicals used: malathion, ronnel,fenthion, dichlorvos Resmethrin emulsion is highly effectivein reducing fly populations
  297. 297. 326Fly trapping Two parts of fly traps Bait chamber – lowerdarker part of traps intowhich flies are enticed bythe odor of bait Trap chamber – upperand lighter part and isconnected with the baitchamber by an aperturethrough which the fliescrawl toward the lightafter having fed on thebait Location of fly traps Near breeding places:manure piles, latrines,garbage cans and dumps Near kitchens, aroundentrances to buildings,food preparing/ servingareas Baits – need not be asource of nuisance Fermented baits containalcohol Mixture of cereals,molasses yeast andwater
  298. 298. 327Fly paper and fly wire Flies may be caught on wires or strips ofpaper coated with a sticky preparation Fly wire: Wire fence or wires made into pieces 450 – 900mm long and bent into a hooklet at one end;several wires may be twisted together Fly paper: Prepared by applying a thin coat of hot glue in apan to strips of paper 450- 900 mm long and 25 to50 mm wide
  299. 299. 328Swatting An accessory measure by can givegood results if used especially beforemeal is served
  300. 300. 329Screening Does not reduce flies but is the mostimportant measure in preventing fliesfrom gaining access to food Use wire mesh of 16 wires to an inchto exclude flies; 18 mesh wire toexclude mosquitoes<<<BACK>>>
  301. 301. 330Control of Mosquitoes
  302. 302. 331Mosquitoes – general description Known agents ofdiseases such asmalaria, filariasisand dengue Annoying and causediscomfort Frequently breed inbackyards or nearhouses
  303. 303. 332Characteristics Slender, delicate insects that havescales on their wings and long antennae Mouthparts- for piercing and sucking;male mosquitoes DO NOT bite Female mosquitoes feed on the nectarof flowers or juices from plants
  304. 304. 333Characteristics Female mosquitoes of most species layeggs on the water surface, wither singlyor in rafts, according to species Eggs hatch into larvae, change intocomma-shaped pupae and turn intoadult mosquitoes Life cycle from egg to adult: about 1week under favorable conditions
  305. 305. 334Life Cycle of a Mosquito
  306. 306. 335The Mosquito Species Anopheles minimus flavirostris Aedes poecilus Culex quinquefasciatus Aedes aegypti<<<NEXT>>>
  307. 307. 336Anopheles minimus flavirostris Most dangerous malaria transmitter inthe Philippines Prefers to breed in flowing clear waterat moderate elevations Prefers animal blood to human blood Has a short life span<<<BACK>>>
  308. 308. 337Aedes poecilus Vectors of filariasis or elephantiasis inthe Philippines Breeds in the axil of abaca and bananaplants<<<BACK>>>
  309. 309. 338Culex quinquefasciatus Breeds in artificial containers, groundpools and sewage Common house mosquito in the tropics<<<BACK>>>
  310. 310. 339Aedes aegypti Carrier of dengue fever and yellow fever Adult is medium sized, with silvery markings on thelegs, abdomen and thorax Wings are clear Bites only in the daytime or in artificial light and itspoint of attack is the ankle Breeds ion containers within human habitations orbusiness buildings Lays eggs singly in water; or preferably in wet areasnear the water margin Larvae hand at 45 degrees while breeding throughthe water surface and dive when disturbed Life cycle: 12 to 15 days<<<BACK>>>
  311. 311. 340General control measures Actions directed at water managementare irrigation, drainage, and liquid wastedisposal Health education
  312. 312. 341Control of Mosquito larvae Larviciding Filling lowlands that have stagnantwater, if these cannot be drained Eliminating household sources such asempty containers (cans, bottles, usedcar tires, etc) left open Repairing leaks or openings form septictanks, cesspools, etc
  313. 313. 342Control of adult mosquitoes Fogging – if there is sudden rise in mosquitodensity Insecticides: Pyrethrum - immediate killing of adult mosquitoes,low residual effect DDT – residual killing over a period of time onsprayed surfaces; cheap and effective; seriouspublic health consequence<<<BACK>>>
  314. 314. 343Control of cockroaches
  315. 315. 344Cockroaches Capable of spreading germsmechanically Objectionable in households and foodestablishment Impart disagreeable odor and taste tofood which they contaminate with theirfeces and materials regurgitated whilesfeeding
  316. 316. 345Characteristics Growth is influenced by temperature, humidity, andavailability of food Contaminate food by running over it since they maycarry some disease organisms on their legs Troublesome in establishments where food is stored,cooked or served Spoils food and leave a roachy odor and particles offilth Brown, brownish black or tan. Flat bodied and foul smelling Mainly active at night or in dark places during the day
  317. 317. 346Life Cycle of Cockroach
  318. 318. 347Control measures Good housekeeping Building should be kept in good repair Food should be kept well-protected an dstored in tight-fitting containers, left-overs should not be exposed Garbage should not be left in indoorsovernight<<<BACK>>>
  319. 319. 348Control of Fleas
  320. 320. 349 important vectors of disease Transmit pathogenic organisms from rat toman such as typhus and the plague Immediate hosts to some species of dog androdent tapeworms which occasionally infestman Bites are annoying to ma n, pets andlivestock Serious nuisance to housekeepersPublic Health Significance
  321. 321. 350 Rat flea – responsible for transmissionof endemic typhus Human flea – usually infests houses Dog and cat fleaTypes of fleas
  322. 322. 351 Small, wingless insects with mouth parts fitfor piercing and sucking Bodies are flattened form side to side Move around easily among the body hair ofanimals and can leap several inches Eggs are laid on the animal an don the flooror bedding of the animal. These are hatchedin a few days into larvae on the debris on theground or cracks of the floor.Characteristics
  323. 323. 352 Live in dust in cracks, under carpets,and in cat or dog bedding Lifespan: 2 to 3 months Adult fleas attached themselves to theanimal and feed on their blood
  324. 324. 353Life Cycle of a Flea
  325. 325. 354 Outdoor control Chemical sprays Indoor control Thoroughly vacuum floors, carpet, furniture, crevices aroundbaseboards, cabinets and other infested areas at least everyother day, pet bedding. Throw away vacuum bag in a sealedplastic bag after use because fleas can develop inside. Larvae Salt or carbolic acid applied on places where larva develops malathion On animals Carbaryl on cats and dogs Commercial dog shampooControl measures<<<BACK>>>
  326. 326. 355Control of Bedbugs
  327. 327. 356Public Health Significance Capable of harboring and transmitting certaindisease organisms Bite really pierces and is blood sucking Inject a fluid which causes itchiness andirritation implicated in diseases such as plague,anthrax and relapsing fever Feed upon poultry, mice, rats and otheranimals
  328. 328. 357Characteristics Unfed bedbugs are very flat. Becomeelongated and swollen when fed Food: blood or warm-blooded animals(humans) Both male and female bedbugs suck blood Mouth forms a sharp beak or proboscis whichthey can thrust into the skin Can survive for 9 months without food Crawl feely to their victims from their hidingplace
  329. 329. 358Characteristics Believed to be activiely migratory at times,traveling by their own power form room toroom, besides being carried in clothes andbedding Lifespan of mature bed bug: 6 to 8 months Lays 200 eggs at an average of 3 to 4 x a day(when food and temperature are favorable) Ovideposition occurs only at temperatureabove 21°C with ample food. At thistemperature, eggs are hatched in 6 to 17days
  330. 330. 359Characteristics Young bedbugs feed at first opportunity Accumulated in piles, cracks ofbedsteads or in places where bedbugshide during daytime Adult bedbugs can resist temperaturebelow freezing Temperature of 0 to 4°C with fairly highhumidity – lethal to large numbers
  331. 331. 360Control measures Chemical control Malathion Deltamethrin or Cyflouthrin Dichorvos (DDVP)<<<BACK>>>
  332. 332. 361Control of Rodents
  333. 333. 362Public Health Significance Responsible in the spread of at least 8diseases affecting man Host to a number of organisms orparasites Excretions may infect man
  334. 334. 363Rat-borne DiseasesDiseases Causative organism Mode of transmission1. Murine Typhus Rickettsia Typhi Infected rat flea2. Plague Pasteurella pestis Regurgitation ofinfected blood into bitewound by flea3. Rat bite fever StreptobacillusMoniloformisRat bites4. Salmonellosis Salmonella species Rodent urine/feces5. Weil’s Disease Leptotospiral ictero-haemorrhagiaeRodent urine/feces6. Rickettsial Pox Rickettsia Akari House mouse mite bite
  335. 335. 364Characteristics and Habits
  336. 336. 365Norway Rat Also known as brown, house or sewer rat Most common and largest burrowing domestic rat Adult weight: 16 or more ounces Fur: coarse, reddish brown Body: heavy-set, blunt-nose Tail: bicolored, shorter than body and head Ears: small, close set Droppings: large capsule shaped Sexual maturity: attained in 3-5 months
  337. 337. 366Norway Rat Gestation Period: 22 days average Length of life: 1 year average Young : 8-12 per litter Number of weaned: average of 20 per year perfemale Harborage: ground level, burrows in ground andunder foundations of buildings, rubbish dumps Range : frequently 100-150 feet Food and water: omnivorous; garbage meat, fish andcereal grains Daily requirements: ½ to 1 ounce dry food and ½ounce of water
  338. 338. 367Life Cycle of Rodents
  339. 339. 368Roof Rat Also known as grey, black and climbing rat Agile climber and medium-sized domestic rat Adult weight: 8-12 ounces Fur: black to slate gray, tawny above and grayishblack below Body: slender, pointed nose Tail: single color, longer than body and head Ears: large and prominent Droppings: spindle-shaped Sexual maturity: attained in 3-5 months
  340. 340. 369Roof Rat Gestation Period: 22 days average Length of life: 1 year average Young : 6-8 per litter Number of weaned: average of 20 per year perfemale Harborage: above ground level, indoors in attics,between walls, in enclosed spaces Range : frequently 100-150 feet Food and water: omnivorous; vegetables, fruits andcereal grains Daily requirements: ½ to 1 ounce dry food and ½ounce of water
  341. 341. 370House Mouse Smallest among the domestic rodents Adult weight: ½ ounces Fur: dusky gray Body: small slender Tail: semi-naked, about as long as body andhead Ears: moderately large and prominent Droppings: small, rod-shaped Sexual maturity: attained in 1-1/2 months
  342. 342. 371House Mouse Gestation Period: 19 days average Length of life: 1 year average Young : 5-6 per litter Number of weaned: average of 30-35 per year perfemale Harborage: any convenient, place in walls, cabinetsand furnitures Range : frequently 10-30 feet Food and water: omnivorous; prefers cereal grains Daily requirements: 1/10 ounce dry food and 1/20ounce of water
  343. 343. 372General Rodent Control Methods Preventive (environmental control) Elimination of food by proper garbage disposaland food storage Elimination of breeding places (harborage) byproper refuse storage, satisfactory housekeepingand proper design and construction of buildings Rat-proofing of buildings – special construction toprevent rats from going under, through and over tothe building. Health education and information
  344. 344. 373General Rodent Control Methods Suppressive Measures Physical – use of traps; shooting with bullets,darts; catching; clubbing Chemical – use of poisons which may be clasifiedinto: Contact poison Stomach poison Fumigants Sterilants Biological – use of living rat predator and diseaseagent<<<NEXT>>>
  345. 345. 374
  346. 346. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTIONCONTROLVictorio B. Molina, CE.,SE.,MPHAssistant Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health,College of Public Health UP Manila
  347. 347. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTIONCONTROLOUTLINEState of EnvironmentalPollutionDiseases Related toPollutionPollution Control Measures•Air Pollutants•Solid Wastes•Liquid Wastes
  349. 349. DISEASES RELATED TOPOLLUTION•Health burden of diseases attributable toenvironmental pollution : 11 to 42% of all causes•Equivalent to 47 to 294 million days ofhealthy life lost (DHLL)Source: PEHAS (WB-UP-DOH 1990)
  350. 350. What is bioaccumulation andbiomagnification ?Bioaccumulation - increase inconcentration of a pollutant from theenvironment to the first organism in afood chainBiomagnification - increase inconcentration of a pollutant from onelink in a food chain to another.
  351. 351. Industrialization Exports increased by250% from 1986 to1991 2,300 hectares per yearare converted toindustrialareas and humansettlements
  352. 352. MAJOR FORMS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTESCOMBUSTIBLEWASTESOLID WASTESSLUDGE &SLURRY WASTEWASTEWATERCombustionSuspension inAtmosphereSurface orSubsurfaceDisposalSuspensionand/orSolubilizationFiltration andDecantationAtmosphereLandWaterTYPES OFINDUSTIRAL WASTEMODE OF RELEASE ENVIRONMENT OFDISPOSAL SITEparticulatesGaseousPollutantsAddedWaterVolatilizationSolidResiduesLiquidWasteErosion,LeachingIrrigation,FloodingAtmosphericFallout,PrecipitationSuspensionby Winds,SublimationEvaporation,EscapeofGaseousPollutantsAtmosphericFallout,Precipitation
  353. 353. AIR POLLUTIONWhat is air pollution?It is the presence of one or more aircontaminants in sufficient quantities, ofsuch characteristics, and of suchduration as to threaten human, plant oranimal life or to property, or whichreasonably interferes with the comfortableenjoyment of life or property.
  354. 354. Why is air pollution a majorenvironmental and occupationalhealth problem ? We breathe approximately 6 liters ofair every minute 8,640 liters of air per day The total surface area of the air sacsof our lungs is as big as a tennis court
  355. 355. Major Sources of Air PollutionEmissions from vehicles Fuel combustion from coal fired power plantsIndustrial processes Burning of solid wastes
  356. 356. Effects Of Air Pollution1. Limited VisibilityNoon Morning
  357. 357. Effects Of Air Pollution2. Economic damage to property
  358. 358. Effects of Air Pollution3. Annoyance to human senses
  359. 359. Effects of Air Pollution4. Damage to health Eye irritation – specific effect of photochemicaloxidants, aldehydes and particulate matter Acute respiratory infection – increased riskamong young children Acute bronchitis – direct irritating effects ofSO2, soot and petrochemical pollution Chronic bronchitis – aggravation of cough orsputum Asthma – aggravation from respiratory irritation
  360. 360.  Decreased lung functions Reduced exercise performance Exacerbation of symptoms with chronicobstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Headache – carbon monoxide causingmore than 10% carboxyhaemoglobin Lead toxicity – add to body burden Deaths – fine particulate increasingmortality in heart and lung diseaseEffects of Air Pollution
  361. 361. Specific Health Effects of CommonAir Pollutants1. Particulates (PM10 and PM2.5)2. Sulfur dioxide3. Oxides of nitrogen4. Ozone5. Carbon monoxide6. Volatile organic compounds7. Trace metals
  362. 362. 1. PARTICULATES Associated with elevated risk of mortalityand morbidity (cough & bronchitis) Every 10 ug/m3 increase of PM10 isestimated to cause 1% increase in CVDdeath (WHO, 1997) Can cause pneumoconiosis inoccupational setting DENR Standard: TSP=250 ug/m3PM10=150 ug/m3
  363. 363. 2. SULFUR DIOXIDE Water-soluble irritant gas affecting upperrespiratory tract Cause bronco-constriction and asthmaattacks Can attach to particulates and tend todeposit deeply in the lungs Cause of “acid rain” DENR standard: 180 ug/m3 (24-hr ave)
  364. 364. 3. OXIDES OF NITROGEN Increase lower respiratory tract infections Increase incidence asthma Impair host defenses in the respiratory tract Reduce capacity of lungs to clear particlesand bacteria DENR standard = 150 ug/m3 (24 hr ave.)
  365. 365. 4. OZONE Highly reactive compound that irritatesairways in the lungs Interferes with host defense mechanisms Secondary pollutant Trigger asthma attacks Can cause headache and fatigue Generate lower and upper respiratorysymptoms WHO guideline: 100 ug/m3 (8 hr exposure)
  366. 366. 5. CARBON MONOXIDE Odorless and colorless gas Slightly heavier than air Has 200-300x more affinity tohemoglobin than oxygen Normal amount of CO in blood is 1% DENR standard: 10mg/m3 (8 hr ave)
  367. 367. 6. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS About 261 VOCs have been detected inambient air Can cause irritation of the respiratory tract Can trigger asthma attack Can cause headache May have toxic and neurological effects
  368. 368. 7. TRACE METALS E.g., Pb, Cd, Hg May affect nervous and respiratory system May affect liver and skin Pb can cause nerve damage, learningdisabilities and neurobehavioral problems inchildren Every 10ug/dL increase in blood Pb levelsis associated with 1-5 point decrement in IQof exposed children
  369. 369. AIR EMISSIONS FROM MOBILE SOURCESIN METRO MANILA, (tons/year)1990 2001 AREATOG 100,954 (93.5) 190,531.34 5,162 (4.8)CO 572,626 (99.2) 948,192 525 (0.09)NOX 66,216 (82.69) 109,760 276 (0.35)SOX 10,350 (11.75) No Data 12 (0.02)TPM 13,220 (10.6) 48,465 102,286 (82)PM10 11,450 (16.3) No Data 51,042 (72.9)Source: EMB-DENR,1990
  370. 370. RULE OF 1000“…states that a pollutant releasedindoors is 1000 times more likely toreach peoples lungs than a pollutantreleased outdoors.”World Health Organization, 1997 In urban areas most people spend morethan 70% of their time indoors at work,at home, or at school.
  371. 371. Effects of Air Pollution5. Changes in the ecology of thenatural environmenta. Acid Rainb. Greenhouse effect / El Niñophenomenac. Depletion of Ozone Layer