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  1. 1. Medicine Through Time Factors By Miss Norton www.SchoolHistory.co.uk
  2. 2. What are factors? <ul><li>Factors are the causes that have made things happen in the history of medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>They are different influences on the development of medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Each factor plays an important role in medicine’s changes over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors can help or hinder change. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do factors work? <ul><li>Almost always the factors work together to produce or prevent development in medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Although we will examine them separately remember that it would be very unusual for a single factor to alter the history of medicine. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How do we examine factors? <ul><li>Identify the factors - see how they worked together - examine which was most important, if any . </li></ul><ul><li>For example - Penicillin </li></ul>Second World War The need for an antibiotic Individuals - Fleming, Florey and Chain Chance - the discovery of mould!
  5. 5. So what factors play a part in Medicine? <ul><li>Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Chance </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul>
  6. 6. Warfare <ul><li>War increased the need for medicine - without effective medicine there would be no army to fight! </li></ul>Roman army hospitals Paré’s ointment and ligatures Nightingale and the conditions in hospitals Penicillin X-rays & Skin grafts
  7. 7. Governments <ul><li>A government needs to get involved in medicine if it wants to stay in power. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Health means health for all, controlled by the government. </li></ul>Romans - aqueducts, baths 19th Century - Public Health act Mass vaccinations 1948 Start of NHS Medieval towns - Plague Industrial Cities - cholera, typhoid, high death rates Govt involvement means health for all, not just the rich
  8. 8. Religion Did Religion help or hinder? It spread ideas and education Provided care for the needy Kept the ideas of Galen Some helped as they were called by God Prevented dissection Prevented new ideas as Galen’s fitted the Churches teachings Dissection allowed around 1400 - Protestantism began
  9. 9. Chance <ul><li>Chance has played a large role in medicine </li></ul><ul><li>What if Pare had not run out of oil? </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteur’s work on Chicken cholera was an accident. </li></ul><ul><li>What if Fleming had not seen the mould? Or what if he had cleaned up? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Individuals <ul><li>Hippocrates - father of modern medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Galen - Roman creator of medicine for 1500 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Vesalius, Pare, Harvey - the new men of the Renaissance </li></ul>What was their effect on medicine?
  11. 11. Individuals <ul><li>Nightingale, Simpson, Lister - nursing, anaesthetic and antiseptic </li></ul><ul><li>Koch and Pasteur - where does disease come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Fleming, Florey and Chain - penicillin </li></ul>Without these people would there have been a change?
  12. 12. Other Factors <ul><li>Communications - new methods of sharing ideas, and of stopping ideas! </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology - new poor technology prevents advances, new machines, such as microscopes help it </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatism - the desire for no change can stop good ideas from spreading </li></ul>
  13. 13. Factors <ul><li>Factors are essential - without them nothing would happen. </li></ul><ul><li>All the factors play a role in medicine, helping and hindering. </li></ul><ul><li>In groups examine the following questions - </li></ul><ul><li>Which factor do you consider the most important and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Which factor advanced medicine the most and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Which factor held medicine back and why? </li></ul>