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Biodiversity
 

Biodiversity

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    Biodiversity Biodiversity Presentation Transcript

    • Biodiversity 16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Biodiversity
      • Variety of living things, number of kinds
      • Ecological diversity
        • different habitats, niches, species interactions
      • Species diversity
        • different kinds of organisms, relationships among species
      • Genetic diversity
        • different genes & combinations of genes within populations
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Benefits of Biodiversity
      • Ecosystem functions
      • Ecosystem services
        • Cleaning water,
        • Cleaning air,
        • Habitat & breeding areas for wildlife, …
      • Aesthetic and cultural benefits
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Natural Resources
      • Vital economic natural resources
        • Renewable
          • Forests (plants, wildlife)
          • Soils
          • Fresh water (lakes, rivers)
          • Wildlife and fisheries
          • Rangeland
        • Nonrenewable
          • Minerals
          • Fossil Fuels
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Natural Resources
      • Management of natural resources
        • Assure availability of resources for the future
        • Three “philosophies”
          • Maximum sustained yield
          • Ecosystem-based management
          • Adaptive management
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Benefits of Biodiversity
      • New food sources
        • Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Benefits of Biodiversity
      • Medicines
        • Plants
        • Jellyfish & sea anemones
        • Nudibranchs
          • Marine slugs
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Biodiversity
      • How much biodiversity
        • 1.7—2.0 million species
        • Estimates to 100 million
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Biodiversity
      • Where is the biodiversity
        • Everywhere
          • Every continent and habitat has unique life forms
        • Concentrated in the tropics
          • Panama: > 500 species of breeding birds
          • Arctic: 50-100 species
            • Dense concentrations
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Threats to Biodiversity
      • Extinction and population reductions
        • Hunting and overharvesting
          • Tiger
          • Dodo
          • Whales
          • Sharks
        • Habitat loss
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Threats to Biodiversity
      • Extinction and population reductions
        • Pollution
        • Climate change
        • Invasive species
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • How can we protect biodiversity
        • Stop overharvesting
          • Sustainable yield
          • Hunting & fishing laws (every state ?)
            • in developing nations ?
        • Protect habitat
          • Refuges, parks, preserves
        • Endangered Species Act
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • Refuges, parks, preserves
        • How big should refuges be?
        • Where should they be?
        • McArthur & Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography”
          • colonization rate
          • extinction rate (local)
          • predicts number of species
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • Effect of island size
      • Effect of island distance
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • McArthur & Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography”
        • colonization rate
        • extinction rate (local)
        • predicts number of species
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • Island Biogeography
        • Island size predicts number of species
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • Island Biogeography
        • Everyplace is an island
        • Habitat fragmentation
          • Smaller fragments hold fewer species
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • Endangered Species Act (1973)
        • Goal to “recover” species so they no longer need protection under ESA
        • Implements U.S. participation in CITES
          • “ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species”
          • Prohibits trade in listed species
            • whole organisms
            • parts: skins, bones, teeth, flowers, leaves, etc.
      • Other laws:
        • Marine Mammal Protection Act
        • Migratory Bird Treaty Act
        • Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
        • etc.
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • Endangered Species Act (1973)
        • Listing of “endangered” and “threatened” species
        • Restricts development of habitats
        • Captive breeding programs
          • Release of captive bred stocks to enhance or recover wild populations.
      • http://www.fws.gov/endangered/
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
    • Protecting Biodiversity
      • Biodiversity “hotspots”
        • Protection of habitat
      16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt