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Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
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Biodiversity

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  • 1. Biodiversity 16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 2. Biodiversity <ul><li>Variety of living things, number of kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different habitats, niches, species interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of organisms, relationships among species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different genes &amp; combinations of genes within populations </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 3. Benefits of Biodiversity <ul><li>Ecosystem functions </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning water, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning air, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat &amp; breeding areas for wildlife, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic and cultural benefits </li></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 4. Natural Resources <ul><li>Vital economic natural resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forests (plants, wildlife) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh water (lakes, rivers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife and fisheries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rangeland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels </li></ul></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 5. Natural Resources <ul><li>Management of natural resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure availability of resources for the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three “philosophies” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum sustained yield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem-based management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive management </li></ul></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 6. Benefits of Biodiversity <ul><li>New food sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 7. Benefits of Biodiversity <ul><li>Medicines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jellyfish &amp; sea anemones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nudibranchs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marine slugs </li></ul></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 8. Biodiversity <ul><li>How much biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.7—2.0 million species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates to 100 million </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 9. Biodiversity <ul><li>Where is the biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every continent and habitat has unique life forms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated in the tropics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Panama: &gt; 500 species of breeding birds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic: 50-100 species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dense concentrations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 10. Threats to Biodiversity <ul><li>Extinction and population reductions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting and overharvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dodo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 11. Threats to Biodiversity <ul><li>Extinction and population reductions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive species </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 12. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>How can we protect biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop overharvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable yield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting &amp; fishing laws (every state ?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in developing nations ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refuges, parks, preserves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endangered Species Act </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 13. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>Refuges, parks, preserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How big should refuges be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where should they be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McArthur &amp; Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>colonization rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extinction rate (local) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predicts number of species </li></ul></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 14. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>Effect of island size </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of island distance </li></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 15. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>McArthur &amp; Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colonization rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extinction rate (local) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predicts number of species </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 16. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>Island Biogeography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Island size predicts number of species </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 17. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>Island Biogeography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyplace is an island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller fragments hold fewer species </li></ul></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 18. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>Endangered Species Act (1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal to “recover” species so they no longer need protection under ESA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implements U.S. participation in CITES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits trade in listed species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>whole organisms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parts: skins, bones, teeth, flowers, leaves, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine Mammal Protection Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migratory Bird Treaty Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anadromous Fish Conservation Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 19. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>Endangered Species Act (1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing of “endangered” and “threatened” species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts development of habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captive breeding programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release of captive bred stocks to enhance or recover wild populations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.fws.gov/endangered/ </li></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 20. Protecting Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity “hotspots” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of habitat </li></ul></ul>16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt

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