Biodiversity
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Biodiversity Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Biodiversity 16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 2. Biodiversity
    • Variety of living things, number of kinds
    • Ecological diversity
      • different habitats, niches, species interactions
    • Species diversity
      • different kinds of organisms, relationships among species
    • Genetic diversity
      • different genes & combinations of genes within populations
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 3. Benefits of Biodiversity
    • Ecosystem functions
    • Ecosystem services
      • Cleaning water,
      • Cleaning air,
      • Habitat & breeding areas for wildlife, …
    • Aesthetic and cultural benefits
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 4. Natural Resources
    • Vital economic natural resources
      • Renewable
        • Forests (plants, wildlife)
        • Soils
        • Fresh water (lakes, rivers)
        • Wildlife and fisheries
        • Rangeland
      • Nonrenewable
        • Minerals
        • Fossil Fuels
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 5. Natural Resources
    • Management of natural resources
      • Assure availability of resources for the future
      • Three “philosophies”
        • Maximum sustained yield
        • Ecosystem-based management
        • Adaptive management
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 6. Benefits of Biodiversity
    • New food sources
      • Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 7. Benefits of Biodiversity
    • Medicines
      • Plants
      • Jellyfish & sea anemones
      • Nudibranchs
        • Marine slugs
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 8. Biodiversity
    • How much biodiversity
      • 1.7—2.0 million species
      • Estimates to 100 million
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 9. Biodiversity
    • Where is the biodiversity
      • Everywhere
        • Every continent and habitat has unique life forms
      • Concentrated in the tropics
        • Panama: > 500 species of breeding birds
        • Arctic: 50-100 species
          • Dense concentrations
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 10. Threats to Biodiversity
    • Extinction and population reductions
      • Hunting and overharvesting
        • Tiger
        • Dodo
        • Whales
        • Sharks
      • Habitat loss
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 11. Threats to Biodiversity
    • Extinction and population reductions
      • Pollution
      • Climate change
      • Invasive species
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 12. Protecting Biodiversity
    • How can we protect biodiversity
      • Stop overharvesting
        • Sustainable yield
        • Hunting & fishing laws (every state ?)
          • in developing nations ?
      • Protect habitat
        • Refuges, parks, preserves
      • Endangered Species Act
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 13. Protecting Biodiversity
    • Refuges, parks, preserves
      • How big should refuges be?
      • Where should they be?
      • McArthur & Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography”
        • colonization rate
        • extinction rate (local)
        • predicts number of species
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 14. Protecting Biodiversity
    • Effect of island size
    • Effect of island distance
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 15. Protecting Biodiversity
    • McArthur & Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography”
      • colonization rate
      • extinction rate (local)
      • predicts number of species
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 16. Protecting Biodiversity
    • Island Biogeography
      • Island size predicts number of species
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 17. Protecting Biodiversity
    • Island Biogeography
      • Everyplace is an island
      • Habitat fragmentation
        • Smaller fragments hold fewer species
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 18. Protecting Biodiversity
    • Endangered Species Act (1973)
      • Goal to “recover” species so they no longer need protection under ESA
      • Implements U.S. participation in CITES
        • “ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species”
        • Prohibits trade in listed species
          • whole organisms
          • parts: skins, bones, teeth, flowers, leaves, etc.
    • Other laws:
      • Marine Mammal Protection Act
      • Migratory Bird Treaty Act
      • Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
      • etc.
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 19. Protecting Biodiversity
    • Endangered Species Act (1973)
      • Listing of “endangered” and “threatened” species
      • Restricts development of habitats
      • Captive breeding programs
        • Release of captive bred stocks to enhance or recover wild populations.
    • http://www.fws.gov/endangered/
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt
  • 20. Protecting Biodiversity
    • Biodiversity “hotspots”
      • Protection of habitat
    16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt