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  • 1. Soil I. The nature of soil a. Formation of Soil i. As we stated above weathering ___________________________ ______________________________________________ ii. These fragments form___________________________________ ________________________________________________ iii. However, they don’t _____________________________________ iv. Plants and animals add organic _____________________ ______________________________________________ v. Soil is _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ vi. What effects the form of soil 1. _________________________________ 2. _________________________________ 3. _________________________________ 4. _________________________________ a. Different soil form in ___________ ____________________________ b. Soils that develop in _____________ _____________________________ b. Composition of soil i. Soil as we just learned is made of __________________ _____________________________________________ ii. Most of these fragments are _______________________
  • 2. iii. However, some ________________________________ iv. Most organic __________________________________ _____________________________________________ 1. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 3. ___________________ v. Animals and ____________________________________ vi. After plants and animals get into the soil ________________ ________________________________________________ vii. The dark colored , decayed organic matter is called _______ viii. This humus provides _______________________________ ix. As _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________ x. Good Quality _____________________________________ xi. Soil had many ____________________________________ 1. during a drought ________________________ 2. When there is water ______________________ c. Soil Profile i. If you ever dug a deep hole in the soil you have seen _______________________________________________ 1. You probably also observed that ________________ __________________________________________ 2. the top layer is also _________________________ ii. These different layers are called ____________________ iii. All the Horizons_____________________________ 1. Most soils have __________________________ a. _______________________ b. ______________________ c. _______________________ iv. A horizon 1. This is the ________________________________
  • 3. 2. In a forest the ______________________________ a. Litter -_________________________________ b. The litter helps ________________________ _____________________________________ 3. The A horizons also known as ________________ a. It is usually __________________ & _____________________________________ i. The darkness is formed by the _________________________ v. B Horizon 1. the b Horizon ______________________________ 2. Due to the fact _____________________________ _________________________________________ 3. The B horizon contains material from the A horizon by a process called ______________________. a. Leaching is ____________________________ _____________________________________ i. Here water seeps thru the _____________ ii. Water then reacts with the humus ________________________________ ________________________________ _______________________________. vi. The C Horizon 1. This consists of _________________________ _________________________________________ 2. It is usually the ______________________________ 3. It doesn’t ___________________________________
  • 4. 4. It is usually made of ________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ a. If you would dig down to the bottom of the C horizon you will find _____________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ d. Glacier deposits i. During the Ice age ________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii. When the glacier melted it left ________________________ ________________________________________________ 1. This material covers ________________________ iii. The soil that developed from this is ________________________________________________ iv. However, if you would dig __________________________ ________________________________________________ II. Soil Types a. The soil here in New York ________________________________ i. Some are _________________________________ 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ ii. Soil types reflect climate 1. desert soil a. ________________________ b. ______________________________ c. _______________________________ 2. Forest soil a. ____________________________ b. ____________________________
  • 5. c. ____________________________ iii. Other factors 1. The parent material ______________________ ______________________________________ a. Clay soil often ___________________ _______________________________ 2. Rock Types also ________________________ ______________________________________ 3. Time affects ____________________________ 4. Slope ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ __________________________________________.