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  1. 1. Name:_________________________ Date:________ Earth Science Rabbi Goldberg Weathering Vocabulary 1. weathering – ___________________________________________ 2. Mechanical weathering – ___________________________________ ______________________________________________________ _ 3. Ice wedging – __________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ _ 4. chemical weathering – ______________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _ 5. oxidation - ____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ _ climate –. ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _. Notes I. Weathering and it’s effects a. Weathering is the surface _________________________ ________________________________________________ b. Rocks are weathered into smaller and smaller pieces of rock i. Such as 1. _____________ 2. ________________ 3. _________________ ii. These (above) ______________________________ ____________________ are called ________________ iii. Sand sediments are _____________________________ _____________________________________________
  2. 2. Name:_________________________ Date:________ Earth Science Rabbi Goldberg c. Over millions of years, weathering has changed the Earth’s surface. i. Mountains _____________________________ ii. Rocks on top of mountains _____________________ ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________ iii. Weathering also produces _______________________ iv. There are two different types of weathering 1. _______________ 2. _______________ II. Mechanical Weathering a. This occurs ________________________________________ __________________________________________________ b. This means THAT THE OVERALL CHEMICAL MAKEUP _________________________________________________ c. There are three main types of Mechanical weathering i. Plants ii. Animals iii. Ice Wedging d. Plants i. ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ii. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________ iii. ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________ e. Animals i. Digging animals also cause mechanical weathering ii. ______________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________
  3. 3. Name:_________________________ Date:________ Earth Science Rabbi Goldberg iii. ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________ f. Ice wedging i. This occurs ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ii. ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________ iii. ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________ iv. Then the ice melts allowing more water to ___________ v. Ice wedging is more noticeable ___________ where it is ____________________________________________. vi. This can also break up _______________________ III. Surface areas a. Mechanical weathering ______________________________ _______________________________________________ b. These smaller pieces _______________________________ _________________________________________________ c. The more of the rock is exposed the more chemical weathering can affect it. IV. Chemical weathering a. This occurs when chemical reactions dissolve the minerals in rocks or changes them into different minerals. b. This changes the chemical composition of the rock c. This can weaken the rock d. There are three ways that chemical weathering usually occurs i. Natural acid ii. Plant acids iii. Oxygen e. Natural Acid
  4. 4. Name:_________________________ Date:________ Earth Science Rabbi Goldberg i. The earth is able to form natural acids. ii. These naturally formed acids can weather the rocks chemically. iii. How does the earth make this natural acid? iv. When water reacts with carbon dioxide gas in the air or soil a weak acid is formed called carbonic acid v. When this carbonic acid combines reacts with minerals (like calcite) it causes the mineral to dissolve. vi. Over thousands of years carbonic acid has weathered so much Calcite / limestone it has formed caves. vii. Chemical weathering also occurs when naturally formed Acids come in contact with other rocks. viii. Ex: the mineral feldspar can be broken done onto clay minerals called Kalominite. ix. This is common in some cells. x. Clay is an end product of weathering f. Plant acids i. Some roots and decaying plants give off acids that also dissolve minerals of rocks. ii. When these minerals dissolve the rock is weakened iii. Eventually the rock will break into smaller pieces iv. As the rocks weather nutrients become available to the plants. g. Oxygen i. Oxygen causes chemical weathering ii. This occurs by oxidation this occurs when some materials are exposed to oxygen and water. iii. For example when material containing iron are exposed to water and oxygen turns into rust. iv. Another example is the is a mineral that contains Iron – magnetite turns into limonite ( rust like)
  5. 5. Name:_________________________ Date:________ Earth Science Rabbi Goldberg h. Affects of climate i. Climate affects the rate of weathering ii. Climate is the pattern of weather in a specific place over time. iii. In cold places, where freezing and thawing are common mechanical weathering rapidly breaks down rock. iv. Chemical weathering is more rapid in warm, wet climates v. This also depends on the type of rock it is being weathered 1. Rock types can also affect the rate of weathering in a climate. 2. For example marble weathers a lot faster than granite.