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This presentation gives the description that which heavy metals are toxic for human health and how they interact with the metabolic processes and cause different diseases in human beings. There are also the threshold values given to help prevent the toxicity....

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Ana ppt. upload

  1. 1. Group Members! Nightingale
  2. 2. Analytical Presentation; Interaction Of Heavy Metals With The Metabolism Of Organisms
  3. 3. Contents: Heavy Metals… Pros & Cons… How heavy metals are toxic… Amount of toxicity… Site of effect… Metabolism… Diseases… Overview of different metals on different organs of human body…
  4. 4. Periodic Table
  5. 5. Classification Of Metals On Characteristics Of Health Effects:
  6. 6. Threshold Values Of Different Metals
  7. 7. Lead: Occurrence: Normally not present. Threshold Limit: 0.12g Metabolism: Binding to sulfhydryl group of enzymes… Mimics metals; cofactors… Ca , Fe, Zn Erythropoiesis… Effect on bones & teeth… Heme Synthesis… delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) porphobilinogen synthase & ferrochelatase Interferes ion channels in nerve conduction… Ca-analogue
  8. 8. Site Of Effect Immune System: Central Nervous System: Irreversible brain damage ; Encephalopathy. Impaired lymphocyte function Reduction in nerve conduction velocities. Impaired antibody formation Neuropsychological impairments. Blood: Anemia Cardiovascular System: Myocardial infraction & strokes. Gastrointestinal: Severe cramping & nausea Reproductive: Decreased growth rate. Kidneys: Nephropathy Other Effects: Rise in Blood Pressure. Diminished learning abilities. Behavioural disruptions like aggression, impulsive behaviour, hyperactivity. WHO Limit: 3.5 µg / kg
  9. 9. Effects of Lead on Human body affecting different organs and metabolism consequently: Encephalopathy Sensory Deficits IQ/ learning disruption Heart disease Intestinal Nephritis Decreased reabsorption Anemia Testicular Atrophy Threshold Limit: 0.12g Hypertension Peripheral Neuropathy Decreased nerve conduction velocity Abnormalities in offspring
  10. 10. Arsenic • OCCURANCE:  Skin, hair, nail and internal organs(liver, kidney, lungs, spleen)  The total content of Arsenic in human is b/w 2-3mg • RECOMMANDED DOSE:  1mg/day average intake  WHO recommended 10µg/L in drinking water.  EPA ( 0.01ppm ) or ( 10 ppb)
  11. 11. Arsenic
  12. 12. TOXICOLOGY OF ARSENIC • • • • • Three routes for absorption : Blood and bone marrow, Liver, Circulatory system, IARC recognized arsenic as GROUP 1 Carcinogenic. • Disrupt ATP production • The trivalent form of arsenic , principal toxic form react with enzyme and transcription factor.
  13. 13. DISEASES CAUSED BY ARSENIC TOXICITY • • • • • • • • • Lung cancer Bladder cancer Kidney cancer Liver cancer Nasal cancer Still birth Diabetes mellitus Nephritis Black foot disease
  14. 14. Iron: 5-10 mg in body 23.23% 10% in myoglobin and enzymes 66.67% Bound to iron storage proteins hemoglobin
  15. 15. Doses of iron: Daily Recommended Dosage of Iron:     Infants Children Males Females 0.27 mg/day 7-10 mg/day 8-11 mg/day 8-18 mg/day Toxic level:  Dose of 10-20 mg/kg of body weight.  350-500 µg/dL in blood.  levels over 1000 µg/dL indicate severe iron poisoning.
  16. 16. How iron get enters in metabolic pathway: Idiopathic Hemochromatosis, Access Dietery iron Transfusional Siderosis
  17. 17. Toxicokinetics of iron in metabolism: Complex mechanism to maintain homeostasis.  as 2–15% Fe is absorbed from the GI tract.  0.01% eliminated per day.  Hepcidin hormone for iron rgulation Absorption occurs in two steps.  Into the intestinal mucosa  Then into the blood.
  18. 18.  Hemochromatosis: • Hemochromatosis is too much iron in the body(iron overload) – Ferritin level. – Iron level. – Percentage of transferrin saturation (high) – Blood sugar (glucose) level – Echocardiogram to examine the heart's function – Liver function tests Treatment: – Deferoxamine drug.
  19. 19. Iron and atherosclerosis: • iron-mediated oxidation is involved in this process of oxidation of low density lipoproteins(LDL). • Plaque formation. • Vascular damage. Brain damage: • In People suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. • excess accumulation of iron in the brain leads to the loss of homeostatic mechanisms
  20. 20. Cell and DNA Damages: • iron-induced active oxygen species (AOS). • Free radical production. • Cell destruction.
  21. 21. EFFECT OF ZINC METAL ON HUMAN METABOLISM  o OCCURANCE:90% in muscle and bone, prostate ,liver , gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin ,lungs, brain ,heart and pancrease.  RECOMMENDED DOSE:- o ( 8 --- 11) mg  LETHAL DOSE:- ( excess of 300 mg per day)  EFFECT ON METABOLISM o o o o o o o o : necessary for the functioning of more than 300 enzymes act as a cofactor for antioxident enzymes slowed growth low insulin level nausea vomiting loss of apetite slow wound healing
  22. 22. ZINC TOXICITY
  23. 23. Effect of Cd on Human metabolism  Occurrence:      No beneficial role in humans body. Enters in body by , Cigarette smoke(active and passive inhalation) found in air we breathe as an industrial contaminant. processed foods.  Recommended dose:  Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – concentration in • bottled drinking water should not exceed 0.005ppm (5 ppb). • •
  24. 24. Effect on Human metabolism •Inhibit Zn containing enzyme. •Disturb Zn metabolism Zn •Osteoporosis •Cd deposition in bones •osteomalcia Ca Cd Cu decrease liver Cu Fe Decrease hemoglobin result Anemia.
  25. 25. Cd toxicity Liver Lungs symptoms and diseases caused by Cd toxicity: •Decrease in appetite, •Mouth lesion, •Hyper tension, •Pain in sternum and legs, •Decrease production of vitamin D, symptoms and diseases •Lungs infection and cancer, •Hepatic necrosis , •Nasopharyngeal irritation, •Abdominal pain, chest pain. caused by Cd toxicity: •TRETMENT : taking supplemental doses of Zn ,Cu and Fe lessons its effect • Vitamin C is natural chelator for Cd and high protein diet is also effective.
  26. 26. COPPER • OCCURANCE OF Cu IN OUR BODY  Vital component of many enzymes  Essential for melanin & hemoglobin synthesis  Part of cytochrome  Normal copper homeostasis is essential for human growth & development
  27. 27. THRESHOLD VALUE • 1.3 g/day Concentration in soil 2-100µg/g Average conc. 20µg/g
  28. 28. DISEASES • • • • • • • • • • • • Anemia Liver dysfunction Kidney failure Arthritis Stomach & intestinal irritation Atherosclerosis Mental disturbance Schizophrenia Wilkinson’s disease Tuberculosis Impaired immune system Blood vessel abnormalities
  29. 29. SOURCES OF COPPER • • • • • • • • Mineral supplements Hard water swimming pools Chemicals Cookware Birth control pills & estrogen medication Engin parts Pesticides Metallargic industry
  30. 30. THRESHOLD VALUE • 1.3 g/day Concentration in soil 2-100µg/g Average conc. 20µg/g
  31. 31. DISEASES • • • • • • • • • • • • Anemia Liver dysfunction Kidney failure Arthritis Stomach & intestinal irritation Atherosclerosis Mental disturbance Schizophrenia Wilkinson’s disease Tuberculosis Impaired immune system Blood vessel abnormalities
  32. 32. OVER DOSE • Gastrointestinal disease • Renal (elevated urea creatinine) • Hemolytic anemiea
  33. 33. Role of selenium in human metabolic process: • Occurrence: Industries soil , rocks and water. Role in human metabolism: • Selenoenzymes,selenoprotiens , thyroid hormones
  34. 34. Recommended dose: • 400 mcg /day • 800mcg/day potentially cause toxicity • 5mg /day considered as lethal dose Toxicity: • Toxic concentration in serum • 400-30,000 µg/L (acute toxicity) • 500-1400 µg/L (chronic toxicity)
  35. 35. Toxic effects:     Respiratory symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms: Neurological sign: Hair fall and skin diseases:
  36. 36. Aluminum: • Most common metal on earth crust comprising 8.4 to 14% of soil samples • These are highly toxic • Our body does not require much more aluminum • Source ; Auto body corrosion
  37. 37. Occurrence IN HUMAN BODY • It is abundantly found in brain of Alzheimer’s patient and deposits in our bones and lungs and cause diseases • It is also present in drugs like ant diarrheal drugs ,aspirin , HPV anti viral vaccine • Al enters into body through food ,air and water
  38. 38. REGULATORY LIMITS OF Al • In Human body Adults 8mg/day Infants less than 1mg/day • In drinking water EPA recommends Al level in water is 0.05ppm FDA recommends Al level in water is between 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L
  39. 39. Effects on Human body • Alzheimer’s disease  In lethal dose Al is known to impair memory, cause jerking movements and to impair coordination  It destroy neurons in hippocampus which is responsible for long term memory  It inhibits choline and dopamine chemicals that transmit nerve impulse across synapses
  40. 40. Osteoporosis • Bone is major storage site of Al and cause osteoporoses and also cross links with collagen , making it is prominent cause of aging and free radical damage Al also present in powdered form like in table salt, smoke, ashes etc moves into our blood and through other body fluids and then enter into cell wall and implant nucleus and thus effect DNA
  41. 41. • Other diseases Parkinson’s disease and Lou Gehrig’s disease Anemia ,Glucose intolerance and cardiac arrest in humans
  42. 42. THANKS!