Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Bowel cancer / colorectal cancer / colon cancer surgery India- an overview.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Bowel cancer / colorectal cancer / colon cancer surgery India- an overview.

2,265

Published on

Bowel cancer can occur in the small or large bowel (also known as the small or large intestine). Technically, colorectal cancer is cancer of the large bowel, but it's often referred to simply as bowel …

Bowel cancer can occur in the small or large bowel (also known as the small or large intestine). Technically, colorectal cancer is cancer of the large bowel, but it's often referred to simply as bowel cancer. This article discusses cancer of the large bowel.

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,265
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
45
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Bowel cancer / colorectal cancer / colon cancer surgery India- an overview. Index of the topics * Definition of bowel cancer * Relationship between bowel cancer and nutrition * Dietary Fiber Alone Is Inconsistently Associated with Colorectal Cancer * what causes bowel cancer * Surgery * 'blocking' bowel cancer * Reducing Red Meats Appears to Reduce the Risk of Colorectal Cancer * Chemotherapy for Bowel Cancer Patients * Bottom Line * Other Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk * Medical tourism / health tourism Definition of bowel cancer Bowel cancer can occur in the small or large bowel (also known as the small or large intestine). Technically, colorectal cancer is cancer of the large bowel, but it's often referred to simply as bowel cancer. This article discusses cancer of the large bowel. Since bowel cancer can grow for years without causing any symptoms, it's best to get regular colon cancer screenings. But, knowing what to look out for can't hurt. Examples of bowel cancer symptoms include thin stools, stomach cramping, bright red blood on your poop; unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and feeling like you have to "go" when you don't. Being age 50 or older is the number one risk factor for bowel cancer Generally, people are too late to go to a doctor and the key to successful treatment - in the early diagnosis. If you have any of bowel cancer symptoms, then you should visit your doctor as soon as possible.
  • 2. Relationship between bowel cancer and nutrition Colon and rectum neoplasms most occur in the economically developed countries, owing to the peculiarities of food, lack of content of plant tissue and toxins in the diet. There is a direct link between the content of fat and animal protein in the diet and the level of incidence of colon cancer. This relationship mediated through the bacterial flora colon, which, with excess dietary of fat and animal protein, producing carcinogenic substances. It was also established that it is possible to reduce production of those substances by activating the enzyme produced in the small intestine. Enzyme activity increased by the number of products (turnip, cabbage), as well as antioxidants (vitamins E, C, etc.). Braking carcinogenesis also contributed by using of products containing high amount of fiber (pectin, lignin, bran). The effect is achieved primarily by reducing concentrations of carcinogens by increasing the volume of intestinal contents. Thus, although there is no direct evidence that a diet may increase or decrease the likelihood of colon cancer, oncologists recommend reducing the amount of dietary fats and oils, but increase consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and breads gross. Practically all forms of bowel cancer start with benign neoplasms, but may be regenerate in a malignant mucosa, and they usually do not cause any noticeable bowel cancer symptoms. Dietary Fiber Alone Is Inconsistently Associated with Colorectal Cancer Despite the findings of a variety of epidemiological studies, which have shown a reduction in risk associated with greater dietary fiber intake, such findings have not been consistent nor have they been particularly strong when present. It is possible that the protective effect of more dietary fiber requires a much longer time frame than
  • 3. the follow-up period of the studies that have failed to find a strong association. It is also difficult to accurately measure nutrient intake over a prolonged period of time, which makes it more difficult to correlate diet with colorectal cancer. Alternatively, it is possible that something other than dietary fiber from fruits, vegetables and whole grains may be considerably more important in promoting or protecting people from developing ademotamous polyps and adenomas. What causes bowel cancer Why is that a person develops cancer, usually it is not clear. There are lots of factors. There is a link to cancer of the bowel polyps - small innocent tumors mucosa colon. The likelihood of colon cancer increased if: * Parents, brothers or sisters suffered from this disease * There are colon polyps * Parents, brothers or sisters have poliopy colon * Rare disease diagnosed - Family adenomatous polyposis colon Cancer * For a long time (more than 10 years) takes nonspecific ulcerative Colitis or Crohn’s disease. Beware of alcohol and cigarettes, they can cause bowel cancer, says a new study. A new global study has shown that people who consume large quantities of alcohol (seven drinks per week) have a 60 percent greater risk of developing the cancer, compared to others. Professors at the George Institute, who led the study, said the most startling finding was "the strong, and largely, unknown association between high intakes of alcoholic beverages with risk of colorectal (bowel) cancer." `Most people probably know that being overweight and having poor dietary habits are risk factors for the disease, but most are probably unaware that other lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and diabetes are also important culprits, Smoking, obesity and diabetes were also associated with a 20 percent greater
  • 4. risk of developing bowel cancer - the same risk linked with consuming high intake of red and processed meat. One million new cases of bowel cancer are diagnosed worldwide every year. The disease claims more than half of them. It should be very well kept in mind that individuals should not be drinking more than two standard drinks per day. On a positive note, researchers also demonstrated that physical activity lowered an individual’s risk of the disease but surprisingly, there was little evidence to indicate that high intakes of fruit and vegetables protected from bowel cancer. Surgery The most common bowel cancer treatment is surgery. The surgeon removes the tumor and surrounding lymph nodes guts. This is necessary to prevent the spread of tumors. Typically, the surgeon removes the part of colon and connects formed ends with each other. When this is impossible, intestine is being exteriorized on the front abdominal wall. In most cases, this is only the first stage of operation; in the second phase the ends of intestine are connected with each other, restoring the continuity of intestinal tubes and normal way of allocating stool. However, approximately 10% of patients are living with withdrawn intestine. Sometimes, after the surgery, radiotherapy (radiation) or chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs) is appointed to destroy the remaining cancer cells. Treatment success depends largely on the characteristics of an organism, bowel cancer symptoms and the timing of diagnosis of cancer. If the cancer does not extend beyond the intestine, the chances of survival are 99%. They are reduced to 85% if invasion to the wall occurred, up to 66% - with the involvement of local lymph nodes and up to 35% - in the distribution to distant lymph nodes.
  • 5. 'blocking' bowel cancer The removal of a cell "switch" in mice stopped growth of lesions in the bowel that can turn cancerous with time. Cells have receptors that can be turned on and off to control different processes in the body. A receptor called PPARdelta is thought to be important for the development of tag-like lesions of bowel tissue called polyps. Bowel polyps are generally harmless but can become cancerous with time, leading to full-blown bowel cancer. A hormone-like substance called prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has also been linked to the development of polyps and bowel cancer. When investigated the relationship of these receptors and substances in mice. They bred mice with a certain genetic mutation that made them prone to developing polyps in the bowel. When these mice were exposed to PGE2 they had many more polyps than they normally would have. The scientists then mated these mice with mice that lacked a gene for PPARdelta. The offspring would then be able to develop polyps but these polyps would not contain any PPARdelta receptor, they reasoned. When these mice were exposed to PGE2 they had the usual number of polyps. This shows PPARdelta is important for PGE2 to encourage polyp growth and, therefore, cancer growth. "Genetic or familial cancers are particularly challenging and require as much research as possible to improve the long term survival for these specific patients." Colon along with the rectum is called the large intestine. Cancers affecting either of these organs also may be called colorectal cancer. Most colorectal cancers arise in the sigmoid colon which is the portion just above the rectum. They usually start in the innermost layer and can grow through some or all of the several tissue layers that make up the colon and rectum. Most colorectal cancers grow slowly over a period of several years, often beginning as small benign growths called polyps. Removing these polyps early, before they become malignant, is an effective means of preventing colorectal cancer
  • 6. The role of hereditary factors has been evaluated in a few studies. Some studies have reported the occurrence of both FAP and HNPCC in India. There are no Indian studies on large bowel cancer prevention. The prevalence of adenomas is rare in elderly Indians undergoing colonoscopy, even in those with large bowel cancers. Small bowel cancers are extremely rare. Hospital-based data suggest that lymphomas of small bowel are more common than carcinomas. In conclusion, the incidence of large and small bowel adenomas and cancers is low in Indians. Increase in the incidence of large bowel cancers in immigrants and urban Indians compared to rural populations supports a role for environmental risk factors including diet. High rates of rectal cancers in young Indians could suggest a different etiopathogenesis, which is neither inherited nor traditional diet-related. Reducing Red Meats Appears to Reduce the Risk of Colorectal Cancer So why is the incidence of colorectal cancer only 1/8 as common in India as the U.S.? In India, much of the population is Hindu and cattle are considered sacred. As a result, India has one of the lowest intakes of red meat of any country. Indeed, all countries where the intake of colorectal cancer is low also have a low intake of red meats. It is unlikely that it is the saturated fat content of the meat that is promoting colorectal cancer because the Fins eat more saturated fat than all of the highest risk countries (due to a heavy intake of dairy products). Meat contains a substance called creatine. At high temperatures, creatine reacts with amino acids to form heterocyclic aromatic amines, which are potent carcinogens. Sausages and other cured meats are commonly consumed in Germany, Austria, Poland and the Czech Republic. These contain nitrites, which reacts with amino acids to form nitrosamines, another class of cancer-causing chemicals. Indeed, a large epidemiological study found an association between red meat intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer. The research linking an increased intake of red meat to colorectal cancer is stronger and more consistent than research suggesting
  • 7. that a diet with less fat or more fiber from fruits, vegetables and whole grains reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. It may be that there are carcinogens and/or cancer promoting substances in fatty red meats. Of course, even if there was conclusive evidence that an increased intake of fruits, vegetables and whole grains does not reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, this does not mean these foods should not be recommended to people at risk for colorectal cancer. An increased intake of fruits and vegetables does help prevent cardiovascular disease. And even if cutting back on red meats and processed and cured meats is proven to not promote colorectal cancer such foods still may promote cardiovascular and other diseases. There is no doubt that a more vegetarian diet with less red meat, saturated fat, salt, cholesterol and refined sugar and grains reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and may help prevent obesity, diabetes, and several other types of cancer. Even if cutting back on red meats is never proven to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer there is already more than even scientific evidence to recommend most people cut back on red meats and particularly processed meats like sausages, hot dogs, bacon and bologna. Chemotherapy for Bowel Cancer Patients Fish Oil Eases Chemotherapy for Bowel Cancer Patients A recent trial of fish oil bowel cancer patients at Sydney Hospital in Australia found that fish oil not only helped alleviate malnutrition and maintain their weight, but also made it easier to tolerate chemotherapy treatment: Scientists at Concord Hospital say that in a trial, bowel cancer patients who took fish oil with Omega 3 fatty acids respond better to chemotherapy. Professor Stephen Clarke says cancers produce inflammatory markers in some patients that cause problems in the ability to tolerate chemotherapy. They also cause malnutrition. But he says the anti-inflammatory and nutritional value of the fish oil has led to a better chance of successful chemotherapy. This doesn’t just apply to bowel cancer, of course: Professor Clarke says the findings could also apply to people suffering from a range of cancers. Bottom Line
  • 8. People concerned about the development of colorectal cancer should be advised to cut back on red meats, processed meats and cured meats. These should be replaced in the diet by beans, soy products and some sea foods. High fat dairy products should be replaced with non-fat dairy products. Replacing refined fats, oils, sugars and grains with more fruits, vegetables and whole grains should aid weight loss and may very well reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer over a lifetime. These dietary changes probably will reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer in the long run but even if they do not they have already been shown to have many other well established health benefits. Other Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Recently, an increased intake of garlic was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. There are many other potential anticarcinogen phytochemicals found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. There is also some evidence suggesting that a lack of selenium, folic acid and/or vitamin D may contribute to the development of colorectal cancer. However, there is a need for more prospective studies and perhaps clinical trials with these nutrients and physiochemical before any firm conclusions should be drawn. Keep in mind that prospective studies with supplements of beta-carotene, and vitamins C and E have shown no reduction in the risk of polyp formation despite some preliminary evidence that they may reduce the risk of polyps and colorectal cancer. Medical tourism / health tourism Medical Tourism India (Health Tourism India) is a developing concept whereby people from world over visit India for their medical and relaxation needs. Most common treatments are the cardiac surgery, cancer surgery. The reason India is a favourable destination is because of its infrastructure and technology in which is in par with those in USA, UK and Europe. India has some of the best hospitals
  • 9. and treatment centers in the world with the best facilities. Since it is also one of the most favourable tourist destinations in the world, Medication combines with tourism has come into effect, from which the concept of Medical Tourism is derived. India has originated as one of the most important hubs for medical tourism. Many people from the developed countries come to India for the rejuvenation promised by yoga and Ayurvedic massage however, a nice blend of top-class medical expertise at attractive prices is helping more and more Indian corporate hospitals to lure foreign patients, including patients from developed nations such as the UK and the US, for high end surgeries like Cardiac Bypass Surgery and the cancer surgery. As more and more patients from Europe, the USA and other affluent nations with high medical costs look for effective options, healthcare tourism in India is definitely on the cards for most of them and the fast growing Indian corporate health sector is fully geared to meet that need. Not just cost savings or the high standard of medical care facility, but also the waiting time is much lower for any treatment in India than in any other country. Medical help is often an emergency and situations can turn worse if the treatment is delayed. While you might have to wait for several months to get a surgical operation done in the US, in India things can be arranged within a week. Medical Tourism in India - at a glance • Low cost medical treatment • High quality medical care • Low wait time for critical treatments • Fluent English speaking staff Medical tourism has become a common form of vacationing, and covers a broad spectrum of medical services. Medical tourism mixes leisure, fun and relaxation together with wellness and healthcare. For further information on the bowel / colorectal / colon cancer in India at economic cost visit us at www.indiancancersurgerysite.com or mail your queries at info@indiancancersurgerysite.com or talk to us at +91 9579034639.
  • 10. Tags: Bowel cancer surgery India, colorectal cancer surgery India, colon cancer surgery India, economic cost cancer surgery India, medical tourism India.

×