Pancreatic Cancer


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Pancreatic Cancer

  1. 1.  The human body is a composition of cells, tissues, and organs among others that under typical conditions work in harmony to preserve health. However, there are specific instances when certain cells in the human body develop at an abnormal speed and as a consequence a person could get sick with different aliments, including cancer.
  2. 2.  Inform the students about one of the most difficult types of cancer to diagnose and take care of, the pancreas cancer.  The audience will learn about the most important details of pancreas cancer such as risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.  Educate in order to facilitate them with the necessary tools that will lead the society into a healthy lifestyle, prevention of diseases, and if necessary the right course of action.
  3. 3.  Cancer is a disease of the cells. There are several common types of cancer because the cells become abnormal. These abnormal cells grow and destroy body tissue and can spread to other parts of the body.  If these cells lose the ability to control their growth, they grow too quickly and without causing any order to create a large amount of tissue called a tumor.  There are two types of tumor: • Benign-not cancerous • Malignant-is cancerous
  4. 4. The pancreas is about 6 inches long and sits across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine) through a small tube called the pancreatic duct. The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body.
  5. 5.  The pancreas plays a very important role in the digestive process, producing enzymes essential for digestion of food.  The other function of the pancreas, which can be described as "fuel control", is produce insulin.  More than 95% of the cells of the pancreas are Exocrine glands, responsible for producing pancreatic juice.  Such glands break down fats and proteins from food so that nutrients can be absorbed by the small intestine.
  6. 6. Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor in the pancreatic gland. The exocrine and endocrine cells of the pancreas may form completely different tumors. These tumors may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Exocrine tumors are by far the most common type of cancer of the pancreas
  7. 7.  EXOCRINE TUMORS: called adenocarcinoma or malignant tumor. These adenocarcinomas typically start in the ducts of the pancreas. Sometimes can develop into cells of the Exocrine glands that produce the pancreatic enzymes
  8. 8. ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Endocrine are much less common than previous ones and affect the cells of the pancreatic islets. They are known as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors and are divided into several sub-types. Most of these are not cancer (benign), but there are a few that are cancer. Is very important to distinguish cancer of the endocrine pancreas exocrine pancreatic cancer since each tumor type has different causes and risk factors, causes different symptoms and is diagnosed using different tests, because the probability of survival.
  9. 9.  The symptoms of pancreatic cancer are not usually presented during the early stages of the disease.  Many patients are at advanced stages, people may have different symptoms depending on the location, the type of tumor.  The symptoms that often lead to the diagnosis of the disease include: jaundice or yellow skin, abdominal pain or from back, unexplained weight loss and lack of appetite.
  10. 10. Smoking: significant risk factor and may cause about 20-30% of all pancreatic cancer cases. Family History: If a person’s mother, father, sibling, or child had pancreatic cancer, then that person’s risk for developing the disease increases by 2-3 times. Race :African-Americans have a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer compared to individuals of Asian, Hispanic or Caucasian descent. There is also a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer among Ashkenazi Jews, possibly due to a mutation involving the breast cancer (BRCA2) gene that is found in about 1% of individuals of this background.
  11. 11. Gender: Slightly more men are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer than women. This may be linked to higher smoking rates in men. Diabetes: Pancreatic cancer is more likely to occur in people who have long-standing (over 5 years) diabetes. Diet: A diet high in red and processed meats is thought to increase the risk of developing pancreatic cancer Obesity: Obese people have a 20% increased risk of developing the disease compared to people who are of normal weight.
  12. 12. According to the American Cancer Society, there are no established indications to prevent pancreatic cancer. ACS recommends keeping a healthy weight, and increasing the consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, while it decreases the consumption of red meat, but there is no consistent evidence that it can prevent or reduce cancer.
  13. 13.  Antioxidants • Antioxidants  Vaccines • Cancer vaccines • Small studies, also indicated that vitamins B such as B12, B6 and folic acid, may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer when consumed in food, but not when ingested in tablet form.
  14. 14.  Most of the patients with pancreatic cancer experience pain, weight loss, or jaundice.  Pain is present in 80 percent of patients with advanced disease and is usually felt in the upper part of the abdomen  Finally to diagnose cancer of the pancreas is frequently used a fine needle aspiration technique. The doctor inserts the needle through the skin into the pancreas guided either with endoscopic ultrasound or computed tomography images
  15. 15.  Treatment of pancreatic cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. The Whipple procedure is the most common surgical treatment for cancers involving the head of the pancreas. This procedure involves removing the pancreatic head and the curve of the duodenum together making a bypass for food from stomach to jejunum and attaching a loop of jejunum to the cystic duct to drain bile. It can only be performed if the patient is likely to survive major surgery and if the cancer is localized without invading local structures.
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  17. 17. By 2014, estimates the American society against cancer for this cancer in the United States are: approximately 46,420 people (23,530 men and 22,890 women) will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, approximately 39,590 people (20,170 men and 19,420 women) will die from pancreatic cancer. The incidence of pancreatic cancer rates have been rising slowly over the last 10 years
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  20. 20.  According to the studies carried out in relation to this disease, give us account that the majority of cases is fatal, so it is important to make changes the your lifestyle does not guarantee but it markedly decreases your risk of developing cancer in the pancreas. In addition, Center for the Control and prevention of diseases indicates that you have medical check-ups annually contributes to early detection. It is of great importance the genetic factors and biological of the disease, currently doctors and researchers around the world are working to develop better treatments for pancreatic cancer cooperative research centers of excellence in this country-driven and many others continue daily testing and new surgical techniques, strategies of radiation, chemotherapy agents and alternative therapies in an effort to improve the treatment.
  21. 21.  ACS (2011). Retrieved from factors ACS (2012). Retrieved from AXA Canal Salud Salud: Materiales educativos: Oncología: Tipos de tumores pancreáticos. (n.d.). Retrieved from CANCER ORG (2012). Retrieved from Cáncer de páncreas tratamientos, síntomas e información en Dmedicina. (n.d.). Retrieved from PCAN (2014). Risk Factors. Retrieved from