Good afternoon everyone, Thank you for allowing me this time to present to you. Today, I'm going to share information about an amazing strategy to promote successful lifelong learners called the flipped classroom.
I will discuss the need for this innovation, what research shows, the development of the flipped classroom and the commercialization.
There is a need for the flipped classroom model. By the time students were leaving school, whether or not high school years were completed, they were not equipped with the necessary skills to contribute, compete, and survive in the global economy. Jobs were being outsourced to individuals in other countries because Americans did not possess the necessary skills needed. This takes a toll on our economy, which is also technology driven. Promoting high school completion as well as college and career readiness became an important challenge.
The success of our schools is evident through Adequate Yearly Progress status. One criteria is the participation of 95% of students during testing. Another criteria is the required percentage of students that must meet or exceed standards on assessments. The third criteria is based on attendance for elementary and middle schools, or the graduation rate for high schools. This information was retrieved from the school district's website. http://www.cobbk12.org/centraloffice/accountability/Reports/Cobb%20County%20School%20District%20-%20Improvement%20Plan%202010-1014%20-%20UPDATED.pdf
County records reveal the number of students in schools identified as "needs improvement" that were eligible for Supplemental Educational Services and the number of students who participated. In 2009-2010, of the 5,125 eligible students approximately 17% of them participated. In 2010-2011, there were 3,597 eligible students. Approximately 18% of those students participated. How do we help the 82-83% of students who were eligible but not able to participate? There is a need to reduce and eliminate the number of "needs improvement schools. Using the flipped classroom model can decrease the number of low performing students. This information was retrieved from the school district's website. http://www.cobbk12.org/centraloffice/title1/parentinvolv.aspx
There is a need to provide teachers with more time to focus on individual student needs, provide on-going opportunities for students to work cooperatively with peers, and to promote in-depth knowledge of concepts.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills is an organization that was founded in 2002 and focuses on 21st century readiness for all students. As noted on their website, "there is a profound gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in typical 21st century communities and workplaces" (p21.org).
In 2002 The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) was founded by Ken Kay and Diny Goder-Dardis, with support from various organizations including the U.S. Department of Education. Organizations in the technology community that contributed to the foundation include Dell Computer Corporation, AOL Time Warner Foundation, Apple Computer, Inc., Microsoft Corporation, Cable in the Classroom, SAP, Cisco Systems, Inc., and the National Education Association. Further details about the organization can be retrieved at the following link. http://p21.org/about-us/our-mission
Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams started teaching Science at Woodland Park High School in 2004. They were faced with the problem of many students missing school due to sports or other activities and therefore the students struggled to catch up. In 2007 they posted their first lecture online and have used the flipped model since then. Bergmann and Sams have received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Math and Science Teaching. Bergmann and Sams have shared their experiences with increased student interaction and parent responses to the flipped classroom model. They also recently published a book in 2012. The website included links to an article by Bergmann and Sams about the flipped classroom.
When Bergmann and Sams first used what they refer to as screencasting technology, it was intended for high school students. The practice of having students watch a video at home as a means of content delivery was altered by educators who chose to adopt the model. Problems the developers encountered were the incorrect use of the model to re-teach, remediate, and use as an instructional tool in the classroom. There are various forms of the model. The Khan Academy, which has received much attention with TED Talk, represents just one form of the model. The following website links to an article about the flipped classroom.
P21 plays a major role in the marketing and distribution of the flipped classroom model. Since the Common Core Standards are being implemented in many states, educators are directed to incorporate tools and resources to also meet the standards for college and career readiness. Professional learning communities, examples of the flipped classroom in action, and how-to videos are available online. The various websites give further detail about P21, common core standards, and the flipped classroom. http://www.corestandards.org/, https://thepartnershipfor21stcenturyskills238.eduvision.tv/default.aspx, and http://flippedclassroom.org/
Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams have written a book about the flipped classroom that has been published. Technology conferences are currently providing insight into the flipped classroom model. https://www.iste.org/ Any program or device that can be used for screencasting content delivery would encompass the production, manufacturing, and packaging of the flipped classroom model. This would include social media, PowerPoint, and even smartphones.
This slide reflects a projected timeline for the innovation-decision process of the flipped classroom. The knowledge phase began last year and will continue this year. By 2014 the persuasion phase will come to an end which will also mark the time to make a decision. In 2015 the implementation phase will begin and conclude in 2017 when the confirmation phase will begin. The link included highlights key questions to consider when using the flipped classroom model.
This S-Curve illustrates the diffusion process of the flipped classroom model. It highlights the timeline, adopter categories, and the percentage of individuals who make up each category.
During the knowledge phase each school's leadership team will attend a bi-monthly information session to view and discuss videos of the flipped classroom model in action. All members of the leadership team will also receive a copy of Sams and Bergmann's book Flip Your Classroom. Here is a youtube video of Aaron Sams explaining the flipped classroom model.
During the persuasion phase, one school from each of the six areas in our district will be selected to serve as a model. The schools will pilot the flipped classroom model. Administrators will decide to select one or two teachers from each grade level to serve as a model or select specific teachers within the school.
The schools that are selected as a model would welcome other teachers within the area to view the flipped classroom in action. This website links to video discussions of the 2012 Flipped Classroom Conference.
The Accountability Office and testing coordinators will release a schedule for collection of data points to all schools. The data collected will be from common assessments, Benchmarks, and standardized assessments. Results will be compared to the data from the model classes. This website links to a professional learning community.
The implementation phase will begin with schools that were piloting the flipped classroom model. Those schools will fully implement the model beginning with grades three through five. In the same schools, kindergarten, first, and second grade will begin to pilot this method as model classrooms. Other participants from the persuasion phase who visited schools to view the flipped classroom in action will begin to pilot the model in their schools. The following websites offer detailed information about the flipped classroom model. http://flippedclassroom.org/ and http://www.knewton.com/flipped-classroom/
Based on the Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965, school districts are required to arrange for supplemental education services. Title one funds can be used to provide the gree tutoring service for eligible students.
To provide access to all students, whether or not they thave echnology devices at home, technology labs will be made available for student use. Students will have the opportunity to utilize the labs before the official academic start time, after school, during lunch, or at their scheduled enrichment time.
2017 will mark the confirmation phase when we will use the data as proof. The Accountability Office and testing coordinators will revisit previous data collection points and compare them to data from 201. The demonstration of the success of the flipped classroom model will be evident. This website links to ideas for best practices. http://www.edutopia.org/blog/flipped-classroom-best-practices-andrew-miller
When you think about the attributes of the flipped classroom, some questions may come to mind. Why should we do this? Does this meet our needs? How difficult will this be? How long should we try? Is it working?
Everett Rogers identifies various attributes and their rate of adoption in his book Diffusion of Innovations. To support the adoption of the flipped classroom model we will focus on the relative advantage, compatibility and trialability.
As defined by Rogers (2003), to establish relative advantage means the innovation is perceived as being better than the previous idea.
Rogers (2003) defines compatibility as an innovation that works hand in hand with the current practices, experiences, and needs of potential adopters.
Trialability is a strategy Rogers (2003) associates with an installment plan. It will be necessary to experiment with a new innovation on a limited basis.
Rogers (2003) defines the critical mass and discusses strategies for acquiring critical mass. To achieve critical mass means at some point throughout the innovation process, enough individuals have adopted the innovation and further adoption becomes self-sustaining. Meeting the critical mass will greatly influence the success of the flipped classroom model in our schools. In regards to relative advantage, the traditional teaching style with the mindset of one size fits all is unacceptable. Multiple intelligences and learning styles must be taken into consideration when providing instruction to all learners.The high demand for proper use of instructional time limits the time spent on reviewing homework assignments that students may not have even completed on their own.The flipped classroom is a better model to adopt to ensure effective use of instructional time. The flipped classroom model is compatible with our current practices. Teachers face the challenge of providing differentiated instruction to meet the needs of all their students.The flipped classroom model is limitless in regards to differentiation opportunities. It also addresses the need for technology integration and a home-school connection. To help manage the implementation process, this model will first be piloted in selected schools, one from each area. The trialability strategy allows time to assess the success rate prior to district wide implementation. The flipped classroom model will then be fully implemented in each of the six schools. The remaining schools will first pilot the model before fully implementing the flipped classroom.
Change agents are important in the process of adopting an innovation. Their relationship with the potential adopters are critical in the success of an innovation. Rogers (2003) identifies the seven roles of change agents. Change agents develop a need for change, establish an information exchange relationship, diagnose problems and create an intent to change in the client. Change agents turn an intent into action and stabilize adoption while preventing discontinuance of the innovation. Another important role of change agents is to educate the client to the point where the client no longer requires support and assistance from the change agent and can carry on the innovation successfully.
The key change agents for establishing the adoption of the flipped classroom are the presenter, administrators, and team leaders. The administrators will select two team leaders from each grade level.
With any innovation, the adoption rate of groups of individuals within a social system varies. The plan for adoption is outlined based on the five adopter categories that Rogers (2003) identifies. Innovators are venturesome, early adopters are considered to be the go-to individuals, and the early majority take a little more time to decide. The late majority consist of individuals who are skeptical and laggards are the individuals who tend follow tradition and are the last to adopt. The early adopters in the schools will play an important role in promoting the innovation of the flipped classroom.
This graphic illustrates the individuals who would most likely fit in each adopter category. The early adopters category would consist of administrators and grade level team leaders. This group would build the reputation of the flipped classroom for school wide success. They would also be offered entry to a technology conference of their choice. The early majority would consist of all the teachers in grades three through five, the media specialist, and the technology teacher. This group would be offered professional learning credits. The late majority would include all the classes in kindergarten, first grade, and second grade. They would also be offered professional learning credits. The laggards would most likely be enrichment teachers and the afterschool program staff members. Collaboration with a grade level team will help to influence the laggards to adopt the flipped classroom model.
Incentives should be offered to appeal to early adopters in an effort to achieve critical mass for the innovation of the flipped classroom model. Some incentives to consider are establishing a positive reputation for being an innovative school, free admittance to a technology conference, and professional learning credits.
Rogers (2003) defines a decentralized approach, "instead of coming out of R&D systems, innovations often bubbled up from the operational levels of a system, with the inventing done by certain lead users. Then the new ideas spread horizontally via peer networks, with a high degree of re-invention occurring as the innovations are modified by users to fit their particular conditions" (p. 395).
The diffusion of the flipped classroom model will be most successful with a decentralized approach. Adopters are decision makers in the diffusion process. For example, kindergarten teachers in comparison to fifth grade teachers will need to make modifications to meet the needs of their students. In addition, modifications need to be in place for students who may not have acccess to the internet outside of the school building. Adopters will modify as needed to make the flipped classroom work for their students and spread new ideas through peer networking.
There is a need to equip students with the necessary tools and skills to contribute, compete, and survive in our global economy. There is a need to meet and exceed Common Core Standards and college and career skills. There is a need to incorporate technology. There is a need to balance the learning opportunities regardless of attendance. There is a need to take charge of the success of your schools!
The flipped classroom matches our needs. It supports Common Core Standards and college and career skills. The flipped classroom model prepares students to work collaboratively. With the flipped classroom model, students will have access to content material anytime, anywhere. Outstanding results have been proven at different locations. Resources are available to support the implementation of the flipped classroom. Using the flipped classroom model will promote the nurturing of model citizens to make positive social changes.
The flipped classroom model, meet and exceed the needs of lifelong learners!
The Flipped ClassroomA Blended LearningModel Diffusion and Integration of Educational Technology by Marie Anglin
Need Research Flipped ClassroomDevelopment Commercialization
Need Existing Problemhigh school drop outsstudents lack necessary skillsstudents lack college and career readinessjobs are outsourced to other countriesnegatively affects our economy
Need Lets all make AYP! 1) Participation of students during testing 2) Academic performance 3) Attendance (for elementary and middle schools) Graduation rate (for high schools)http://www.cobbk12.org/centraloffice/accountability/Reports
Need Reduce the number of "needs improvement" schools.Using the flipped classroom modelcan decrease the number of lowperforming students. http://www.cobbk12.org/centraloffice/title1/parentinvo
Need Focus on individual student needs Students work cooperatively with peers Promote in-depth knowledge of concepts
Need"There is a profound gap between the knowledgeand skills most students learn in school and theknowledge and skills they need in typical 21stcentury communities and workplaces" (p21.org).
Na tio U. S. Research nAO na De pa a tio LT M lE du rtm . p or icr c or im os ca en In C tio r, m eW of tC n to fE te uter oo ar As pu p sr ne or du m as rF po so cia cati Co l Co m Cl . ou ra le e I nc nd tio tio on pp Del th s, at n n A in em io b le st n y Ca o S sc Ci Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) founded by Ken Kay and Diny Goder-Dardis http://p21.org/about-us/our-mission
Research Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams Woodland Park High School in 2004 students missing school students struggled to catch up 2007 first lecture posted online award winnersBergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012). How the Flipped Classroom IsRadically Transforming Learning.Retrieved fromhttp://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/how-the-flipped-classroom-is-radically-transform
Development Intentions and Problems screencasting technology high school students content delivery was altered incorrect use of the model re-teach remediate instructional tool in the classroom Khan Academys TED Talkhttp://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/the-flipped-class-shedding-li p
CommercializationPatnership for 21st Cenury Skills marketing and distribution Common Core Standards incorporate tools and resourceshttp://www.corestandards.org/https://thepartnershipfor21stcenturyskills238.eduvision professional learning communities examples how-to videoshttp://flippedclassroom.org/
CommercializationFlip Your Classroom by Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron SamsTechnology conferenceshttps://www.iste.org/ any program or devicesocial mediaPowerPointsmartphones
S-Curve of Diffusion Process late majority 34% early majority 34%innovators early adopters 2.5% 13.5%2012 2013 2014 2015 2017 knowledge phase persuasion phase decision confirmation phase phase implementation phase
Knowledge Phase 2012-2013 Exposure to Flipped Classrooms leadership team bi-monthly information sessions view and discuss videos receive a copy of Flip Your Classroomhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H4RkudFzlc
Persuasion Phase 2013-2014 How We Know It Works67 elementary schools one school from each area serve as models pilot the flipped classroomAdministrators decide one teacher from each grade specific teachers within the school
Persuasion Phase 2013-2014 How We Know It WorksSchools selected as a model would welcome otherteachers within the area to view the flippedclassroom in action.https://flippedlearning.eduvision.tv/default.aspx
Decision Phase 2014 Now is the TimeThe Accountability Office and testingcoordinators will release a schdule forcollection of data points to all schools.Compare data collected from common assessments Benchmarks standardized assessmentshttp://flippedclassroom.org/
Implementation Phase 2015 Getting Started Model schools will fully implement with grades 3-5 Grades k-2 will begin to pilot Observers begin to pilot in their schoolshttp://flippedclassroom.org/http://www.knewton.com/flipped-classroom/
Implementation Phase 2015The Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965requires the district to arrange for supplementaleducation services. Title I funds can be used toprovide the free tutoring service for eligiblestudents.
Implementation Phase 2015Technology labs will be made available for student use before the official academic start time after school during lunch scheduled enrichment times
Confirmation Phase 2017 Using Data as Proof Revisit previous data collection points Compare to data from 2015 Success will be evidenthttp://www.edutopia.org/blog/flipped- classroom-best-practices-andrew-miller
Attributes and Their Rate of Adoption Relative Advantage Compatibility Trialability
Attributes and Their Rate of Adoption Relative Advantage"the degree to which an innovation isperceived as being better than the ideathat supersedes"(Rogers, 2003, p.229).
Attributes and Their Rate of Adoption Compatability"the degree to which an innovation isperceived as consistent with the existingvalues, past experiences, and needs ofpotential adopters" (Rogers, 2003, p. 240).
Attributes and Their Rate of Adoption Trialability"the degree to which an innovation may beexperimented with on a limited basis. New ideas thatcan be tried on the installment plan are generallyadopted more rapidly than innovations that are notdivisible" (Rogers, 2003, p.258).
Meeting the Critical Mass Relative Compatability Trialability Advantage piloted in selected ensure differentiation schools technology integration assess success rate effective use district wide home-school of instructional connection implementation time
Change Agents Develop a need for change Establish an information exchange relationship Diagnose problems Create an intent to change in the client Translate an intent into action Stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance Achieve a terminal relationship
Key Change Agents e rs l e ad ttea m e c se lPresenter Administrators Team Leaders 2 pe r gra de le vel
Plan for AdoptionRogers (2003) identifies five adopter catergories as innovators early adopters early majority late majority laggardsThe early adopters in the schools will play an important role inpromoting the innovation of the flipped classroom.
Innovators ith w n eam io t its at vel or le off b d uild e rc re b con rep red rc lla ade fer u enc tatio its ffe co gr e n o a Early Majority all teachers in Laggards Early Adopters enrichment grades 3-5, Late Majority administrators teachers, media •all classes in , grade level afterschool specialist, and grades k-2 team leaders program staff technology members teacher
Appealing to the Critical Mass Incentives should be offered to early adopters in an effort to achieve critical mass for the innovation of the flipped classroom model.establish a positive offer free admittancereputation for to a technologybeing an innovative conferenceschool offer professional learning credits
Decentralized Approach"Instead of coming out of R&D systems,innovations often bubbled up from the operationallevels of a system, with the inventing done bycertain lead users. Then the new ideas spreadhorizontally via peer networks, with a high degreeof re-invention occurring as the innovations aremodified by users to fit their particular conditions"(Rogers, 2003, p. 395).
Decentralized ApproachAdopters decision makers modify as needed spread new ideas
There is a need to... equip students with necessary tools and skills meet and exceed standards incorporate technology balance the learning opportunities take charge of the success of your schools
Flipped Classroom is The Match! supports Common Core Standards supports college and career skills students work collaboratively access to content material anytime, anywhere outstanding results available resources to support implementation nurturing of model citizens
TheFlipped Classroom ModelMeet and EXCEED the needs of lifelong learners!