The Roman Empire at Its Height, 117 N N o rt h W Se a Roman Empire BRITAIN 0 250 500 Miles E Londinium S (London) 0 250 500 Kilometers Rhi GERMANY n Lutetia e (Paris) RiverAT L A NT I C EUROPE Danu Ca OCEAN be sp GAUL Ri v e r ia n Se B l a ck Se a a SPAIN ITALY Rome Byzantium Tigris ASIA Ri v MINOR ASIA er GREECE Eu phra te s Rive Carthage r Athens SYRIA M e d i t e rr a n e a n Se a Damascus Jerusalem AFRICA Alexandria EGYPT Ni le Re River d Se a
Barbarian invasions and internal problems causedThe Romans built a huge, the collapse of thepowerful empire and Roman Empire.made many contributionsto art, architecture, law,and other fields. The eastern Byzantine Empire remained after the Roman Empire fell and Western Roman Empire was an important center Eastern Roman Empire of Christianity and trade.
Roman AccomplishmentsGovernment Architecture■ Importance of written laws ■ Large and strong buildings■ Equal treatment for all ■ Columns and open spaces citizens Art■ Rights and duties of citizens ■ Realistic statuesEngineering ■ Lifelike portraits■ Excellent, durable roads Philosophy■ Strong bridges ■ Focused on improving■ Aqueducts to move water people’s lives■ Building designs that inspired ■ Stoic philosophy emphasiz- later societies ing people’s civic duty
Nomads in Arabia movedMuslims, followers with their animals as theof Islam, worship in seasons changed and tradedmosques and study with townspeople for goods.the Qur’an and theSunnah. Muhammad, a trader from Mecca, taught about a religion called Islam.
Islam spread from Arabia to the west andeast. Later, three large Islamic empiresdeveloped, and Muslims made great The Safavid Empirecontributions to learning. was centered in Persia, or modern Iran. The Mughal Empire was centered in modern India. ANATOLIA PERSIA INDIA ARABIA The Ottoman Empire was centered in Anatolia.
S A H A R AWEST AFRICATimbuktu Nig er Ri er v Djenné
The Ghana Empire developed in West Mali’s kings built Africa and controlled an empire and the trade in salt spread Islam in and gold. West Africa. The Songhai Empire continued to spread Islam.The history of West Africahas been preserved throughstorytelling, writing, music,and art.
He gH uan w (Y e ll o Chang‘an Riv e r) Chang J i a ng (Yan gz i ver) Ri CHINA
China was reunified, and Buddhism spread during the Sui and Tang dynasties.Farming and tradegrew under the Tangand Song dynasties. Confucian thought influenced Chinese government and education.The powerful Yuanand Ming dynastiesstrengthened China,and expanded trade,but then Chinabecame isolated.
Chinese InventionsPaperInvented during the Han dynasty around 105, paper was one of thegreatest of all Chinese inventions. It gave the Chinese a cheap andeasy way of keeping records and made printing possible.PorcelainPorcelain was first madeduring the Tang dynasty, butit wasn’t perfected for manycenturies. Chinese artistswere famous for their workwith this fragile material.Woodblock printingThe Chinese invented printing during the Tang dynasty, centuriesbefore it was known in Europe. Printers could copy drawings ortexts quickly, much faster than they could be copied by hand.GunpowderInvented during thelate Tang or early Songdynasty, gunpowder wasused to make fireworksand signals. The Chinesedid not generally use it asa weapon.Movable typeInventors of the Song dynasty created movable type, which madeprinting much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged andreused to print many different messages.Magnetic compassInvented no later thanthe Han period, thecompass was greatlyimproved by the Tang.The new compassallowed sailors andmerchants to travel vastdistances.Paper moneyThe world’s first paper money was invented by the Song. Lighterand easier to handle than coins, paper money helped the Chinesemanage their growing wealth.
Japan’s early culture was influenced A golden age of Japanese art and culture After the Heian Period, the Japaneseby China and Korea. occurred during Japan’s Heian Period. created a military society.
Samurai Society Emperor The emperor was a figurehead for the powerful shogun. Shogun A powerful military leader, the shogun ruled in the emperor’s name. Daimyo and Samurai Daimyo were powerful lords who often led armies of samu- rai. Samurai warriors served the shogun and daimyo. Peasants Most Japanese were poor peasants who had no power.
Life in Europe was based onAfter Rome fell, feudalism andChristianity spread manor life.into northern Europe. JAPAN Rome Both Europe and Japan developed feudal societies.
Feudal Society Kings and Queens Kings and queens were the greatest lords of Europe, and all nobles and knights were their vassals. Nobles Nobles were vassals of kings and queens. Many were also lords of lower- ranking nobles and knights. Knights Knights served their noble lords in exchange for land. Peasants Peasants owned no land, so they were not part of the feudal system. But many peasants worked on land owned by nobles or knights.
The Renaissance Trade Growth ofwith Asia trading cities Humanism Printing press The Renaissance was built on trade with Asia and the growth of independent trading cities. Renaissance thinkers focused on the ideas of humanism, and the printing press helped spread their ideas across Europe.
Protestant CatholicUnhappy with the Catholic Church, The Protestant Reformation led to The split in the church changed thereformers in Europe began to break efforts to reform the Catholic Church. religious map of Europe.away and form Protestant churches.
The roots of the Scientists like The ideas of Scientific Copernicus and Bacon and Revolution Newton made Descartes helped included Greek important create the and Muslim discoveries about scientific method. science, the universe. Renaissance humanism, andworld exploration.
Trade Exploration Market economies The Age of Explo- Beginning in the late ration led to the 1400s, European exchange of plants New trading patternsexplorers sailed around and animals and to led to the development the globe and discov- the growth of world of market economiesered the true size and trade. based on supply and shape of the world. demand.
People arrived in the By 2500 BC people The Maya built cities in The Maya civilizationAmericas sometime in Mesoamerica had the Americas during their eventually collapsed, butbefore 10,000 BC. domesticated maize. Classic Age. no one knows why.
The Aztecs built a greatempire from their capitalat Tenochtitlán. Spanish explorers led by Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs in 1521. The Inca Empire stretched along the west coast of South America. Francisco Pizarro and a group of Spanish explorers conquered the Incas in 1537.
Enlightenment ideas helped inspire revolutions in America and Europe. The Enlightenment New governments created influential documents based on EnlightenmentEnlightenment thinkers developed new ideas that guaranteed people’s rightsideas about government and society. and freedoms.
Ideas of the Enlightenment■ The ability to reason is what makes humans unique.■ Reason can be used to solve problems and improve people’s lives.■ Reason can free people from ignorance, superstition, and unfairgovernment.■ The natural world is governed by laws that can be discoveredthrough reason.■ Like the natural world, human behavior is governed by natural laws.■ Governments should reflect natural laws and encourage educationand debate.
Documents of DemocracyThe growth of moderndemocracy was greatlyinfluenced by severalkey documents, whichare shown here.Which two documentscontain some of JohnLocke’s ideas? Magna Carta (1215) The English ■ Limited the power of the Bill of Rights (1689) monarchy ■ Outlawed cruel and ■ Identified people’s rights unusual punishment to property ■ Guaranteed free ■ Established people’s speech for members right to trial by a jury of Parliament The United States Declaration The French Declaration of Independence (1776) of the Rights of Man and ■ Declared that people have of the Citizen (1789) natural rights that governments ■ Stated that the French government must protect received its power from the people ■ Argued that people have the ■ Strengthened individual rights and right to replace their government equality