Firebird in 2011/2012: Development Review                         Dmitry Yemanov        mailto:dimitr@firebir...
             Packages Released in 2011                         <ul>                 <li>Firebird 2.1.4 </li>              ...
             What's New in v2.5.1                         <ul>                 <li>Key enhancements </li>               </...
             Maintenance Releases in 2012                         <ul>                 <li>Firebird 2.0.7 </li>           ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Introduction                         <ul>                 <li>Development summary </li>       ...
             Firebird 3.0 : New Features                         <ul>                 <li>Implemented SQL features </li>  ...
             Firebird 3.0 : New Features                         <ul>                 <li>Implemented SQL features (contin...
             Firebird 3.0 : New Features                         <ul>                 <li>Security </li>               </u...
             Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache                         <ul>                 <li>Basic architecture </li>        ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache                         <ul>                 <li>Configuring the architecture </l...
             Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache                         <ul>                 <li>Synchronization </li>           ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache                         <ul>                 <li>Concurrency test: 1GB database, ...
             Firebird 3.0                         <ul>                 <li>MySQL: single thread performance </li>         ...
             Firebird 3.0 : ODS 12                         <ul>                 <li>“Primary” and “secondary” data pages <...
             Firebird 3.0 : ODS 12                         <ul>                 <li>“Swept” data pages </li>              ...
             Firebird 3.0 : ODS 12                         <ul>                 <li>SCN inventory page </li>              ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer                         <ul>                 <li>Detailed plan output </li>         ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer                         <ul>                 <li>Materialized sub-queries </li>     ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer                         <ul>                 <li>Hash joins </li>               </ul...
             Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer                         <ul>                 <li>Miscellaneous </li>               <...
             Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer                         <ul>                 <li>Table statistics </li>             ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer                         <ul>                 <li>Column statistics </li>            ...
             Firebird 3.0 : Monitoring                         <ul>                 <li>General </li>               </ul> ...
             Firebird 3.0 : API                         <ul>                 <li>Extending the length limits </li>        ...
             Questions?
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Review of the firebird development in 2011 2012

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Understanding the lock manager internals via the fb_lock_print utility

This session will provide a short introduction to the Firebird lock manager and its usage patterns. It will describe how the lock manager can affect the performance of highly loaded systems and outlines the possible bottlenecks and other problems like unexpected lock-ups/freezes that may require special analysis. The structure of the lock table will also be explained.
It will also include a detailed description of the fb_lock_print utility and its usage that will enable the research of issues that are related to the lock manager. A few practical examples illustrating how to analyze the utility output will be provided. This session is mainly of interest to Classic Server users and DBAs.

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  • Review of the firebird development in 2011 2012

    1. 1. Firebird in 2011/2012: Development Review Dmitry Yemanov mailto:dimitr@firebirdsql.org Firebird Project http://www.firebirdsql.org/
    2. 2. Packages Released in 2011 <ul> <li>Firebird 2.1.4 </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>March 2011 </li> <li>96 bugs fixed </li> <li>4 improvements, new port (Renesas SH) </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <li>Firebird 2.5.1 </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>October 2011 </li> <li>140 bugs fixed </li> <li>16 improvements, 1 new feature </li> <li>New ports: Linux/M68K, Linux/HPPA, Linux/Alpha </li> </ul> </ul>
    3. 3. What's New in v2.5.1 <ul> <li>Key enhancements </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>SQLSTATE as a PSQL context variable ( like GDSCODE/SQLCODE) </li> <li>Record compression ratio estimations </li> <li>Write operations for GTTs in RO transactions </li> <li>Performance improvements for GTTs </li> <li>GBAK restore performance </li> <li>Canceling waits inside the lock manager </li> <li>Persistent statement IDs in the MON$ tables </li> </ul> </ul>
    4. 4. Maintenance Releases in 2012 <ul> <li>Firebird 2.0.7 </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>24 bugfixes up to date </li> <li>4 months overdue, expected in Q1 2012 </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <li>Firebird 2.1.5 </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>32 bugfixes and 2 improvements up to date </li> <li>No delay, expected in Q2-Q3 2012 </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <li>Firebird 2.5.2 </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>13 bugfixes up to date </li> <li>No delay, expected in Q2-Q3 2012 </li> </ul> </ul>
    5. 5. Firebird 3.0 : Introduction <ul> <li>Development summary </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Started in October 2009 </li> <li>433 total tickets assigned </li> <li>379 of them are already resolved </li> <li>More than 2000 changes committed </li> <li>Code cleanup, only ODS 12 is supported </li> <li>New layout of binaries </li> </ul> </ul>
    6. 6. Firebird 3.0 : New Features <ul> <li>Implemented SQL features </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>External procedures / functions / triggers </li> <li>PSQL functions </li> <li>PSQL packages </li> <li>Sub-procedures and sub-functions </li> <li>DDL triggers </li> <li>Window (analytic) functions </li> <li>Identity columns </li> <li>Scrollable PSQL cursors </li> </ul> </ul>
    7. 7. Firebird 3.0 : New Features <ul> <li>Implemented SQL features (continued) </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Standard compliant BOOLEAN data type </li> <li>ALTER statements for changing NULL / NOT NULL </li> <li>ALTER DATABASE for changing the default charset </li> <li>MERGE enhancements (multiple MATHED clauses, RETURNING clause, DELETE command) </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>CONTINUE statement </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Parametrized exceptions </li> </ul> </ul>
    8. 8. Firebird 3.0 : New Features <ul> <li>Security </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Pluggable authentication </li> <li>Per database user management </li> <li>Over-the-wire encryption </li> <li>Database encryption </li> <li>DDL permissions </li> <li>Aggregated privileges for roles </li> <li>User groups (implicit roles) </li> </ul> </ul>
    9. 9. Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache <ul> <li>Basic architecture </li> </ul> Page cache Database Lock manager
    10. 10. Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache <ul> <li>Configuring the architecture </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>SharedCache – whether multiple connections of a single process can share the database page cache </li> <li>SharedDatabase – whether database pages can be shared among multiple page caches </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <li>Matrix of working modes </li> </ul> SharedDatabase = 0 SharedDatabase = 1 SharedCache = 0 SharedCache = 1 Singleton SuperServer Classic / SuperClassic Special (*)
    11. 11. Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache <ul> <li>Synchronization </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Latches and locks </li> <li>Database file open mode (SharedDatabase) </li> <li>Cache start up (no locks) </li> <li>New connection (SharedCache) </li> <li>Acquire ”lazy” locks </li> <li>Two level synchronization </li> </ul> </ul>
    12. 12. Firebird 3.0 : Shared Cache <ul> <li>Concurrency test: 1GB database, 10 terminals </li> </ul>
    13. 13. Firebird 3.0 <ul> <li>MySQL: single thread performance </li> </ul>
    14. 14. Firebird 3.0 : ODS 12 <ul> <li>“Primary” and “secondary” data pages </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>New flag for both pointer pages and data pages </li> <li>Primary page contains some “head” version of the record version chain </li> <li>Secondary page contains only back versions, fragments or small blobs inside </li> <li>Full table scans (plan NATURAL) skips secondary data pages </li> </ul> </ul>
    15. 15. Firebird 3.0 : ODS 12 <ul> <li>“Swept” data pages </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>New flag for both pointer pages and data pages </li> <li>Swept data page means that all records stored there have no back versions and they are known to be created by already committed transactions </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Set by the sweeper / garbage collector, cleared when new version is created on the page </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Sweep process skips swept data pages </li> </ul> </ul>
    16. 16. Firebird 3.0 : ODS 12 <ul> <li>SCN inventory page </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>New page type </li> <li>Global array of SCNs for the every database page </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>SCN inventory pages are distributed evenly across the database file </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Slots are updated when some page gets a new SCN assigned </li> <li>Nothing is changed for a level 0 backup </li> <li>Incremental (level N) backups read only pages modified since the last (level N – 1) backup </li> </ul> </ul>
    17. 17. Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer <ul> <li>Detailed plan output </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>An alternative (optional) way to analyze the plan </li> <li>All operations are reported in the hierarchical view </li> <li>Some additional details are available </li> <li>Cardinality and cost estimations will be reported </li> <li>Run-time information </li> </ul> </ul>
    18. 18. Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer <ul> <li>Materialized sub-queries </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Underlying stream is sequentially read and cached inside a record buffer </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Pipeline nature of the record buffer, both sequential and random access are supported </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Storage is provided by the temporary space manager and is dynamically balanced between memory and disk (see TempSpaceLimit in firebird.conf) </li> <li>Useful for invariant sub-queries, hash joins, etc </li> </ul> </ul>
    19. 19. Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer <ul> <li>Hash joins </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Larger input stream becomes an outer one, smaller input stream becomes an inner one </li> <li>Inner stream is read in advance row by row, hash value is calculated for the join keys, row is stored in the buffer corresponding to the given hash group </li> <li>Outer stream is read sequentially, hash value is calculated for the join keys and probed against the hash table </li> <li>For a positive match, collisions are compared by the binary comparison of the join keys </li> </ul> </ul>
    20. 20. Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer <ul> <li>Miscellaneous </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Semi-materialized nested loop joins </li> <li>Reworked FULL OUTER JOIN implementation that is able to utilize indices </li> <li>Support for hash and merge algorithms for LEFT OUTER joins </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Conditional retrievals, e.g. WHERE (COL = :VAL OR :VAL IS NULL) </li> <li>Constant predicates can be evaluated beforehand </li> <li>Hashing is considered for aggregates </li> </ul> </ul>
    21. 21. Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer <ul> <li>Table statistics </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Number of data pages, average fill ratio </li> <li>Number of rows, average row size </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <li>Index statistics </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Tree depth </li> <li>Number of leaf pages, average fill ratio </li> <li>Number of nodes, average node size </li> <li>Clustering factor </li> </ul> </ul>
    22. 22. Firebird 3.0 : Optimizer <ul> <li>Column statistics </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Number of distinct values </li> <li>Number of NULLs </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <li>Histogram </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Endpoint boundary </li> <li>Endpoint value </li> </ul> </ul>
    23. 23. Firebird 3.0 : Monitoring <ul> <li>General </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>More details about page I/O </li> <li>Temporary space I/O statistics </li> <li>Statement statistics: parses / compiles / executes </li> <li>Misc extensions </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <li>Timing statistics </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Total elapsed time </li> <li>CPU time: user mode and kernel (system) mode </li> <li>Waiting time: I/O, lock waits, latch waits, etc </li> </ul> </ul>
    24. 24. Firebird 3.0 : API <ul> <li>Extending the length limits </li> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>API: SQL statements and their BLR counterparts </li> <li>API: input/output messages </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Internal: intermediate (non-persistent) records </li> </ul> </ul> <ul> <ul> <li>Internal: sorting records </li> <li>Not about the ODS records! </li> </ul> </ul>
    25. 25. Questions?
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