Outlook and Update on Phosphate Fertilizer Use in South America with emphasis on Brazil and Argentina Eng.Agr. Martín Torres Duggan Tecnoagro S.R.L (Argentina). firstname.lastname@example.org
Outline Agriculture overview in Brazil and Argentina Current fertilizer consumption and trends (Brazil and Argentina) Phosphorus as plant nutrient (Brazil and Argentina) Agronomic overview of phosphate fertilization (Brazil and Argentina) Brief overview of phosphate fertilizer use in Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile
Importance of Brazilian agriculture Austria Hungary Rumania Holland Lituania Italy Poland EstoniaChecoslovaquia Duluth France Mato Grosso Irlanda Greece Belgium Ukraine Albania Bosnia Des Moines Portugal Croacia Columbus Macedonia Spain Bulgaria Iceland CornOeste (E. U. A) Meio belt (USA) UK Yugoslavia Germany Norway Nashville Letonia Finland Switzerland Denmark Bielo Rússia Sweden Image from Coelho (John Deere, 2001). Fonte: J. L. Coelho, John Deere, 2001. Fonte: J. L. Coelho, John Deere, 2001. Fertilizer consumption Grain productionAdapted from Da Cunha et al. (2011) Adapted from Da Cunha et al. (2011)
What about the Argentine agriculture? Grain production Soybean cultivation expansionCrop production (x 1000 MT) Fertilizer consumption Melgar et al. (2011)IPNI, Southern Cone and Fertilizer AC.
Brazil and Argentina fertilizer consumption Brazil 76% of South American fertilizerSouthern Cone region consumption Bolivia Paraguay Pacific Ocean Argentina Chile 60% of Southern Cone Uruguay fertilizer consumption Atlantic Ocean
Main trends in fertilizer use in Brazil, Argentina and other Southern Cone countriesSteady consumption of phosphate fertilizers (Brazil & Argentina). Increasing demand of bulk blends and compound fertilizers (Brazil &Argentina).Upward trend in liquid fertilizer demand (Argentina).Promising research and development studies on phosphate rock use inagriculture (Brazil).Steady increase in P and S fertilizer consumption mainly driven bysoybean cultivation expansion (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay andParaguay).
Phosphorus in Brazilian soils Major soils are tropical and Soil fertility constraints in Brazil sub-tropical Most soils are P deficient Widespread N, P and K fertilization High restriction Restrictive Moderate restrictive P fertilization is applied in all the Low restrictions Without restriction cropped area P fertilizers are critical to obtain high-yielding crops.Image from Roberts, 2009.
What about phosphorus in Argentine agriculture?Most “Pampas” soils are P deficient.Phosphorus is applied together with N and S.Current soil K levels are high and hence K fertilization is not acommon practice.About 50-60% of cropped land receive P fertilization.Only 40% of P removed in grains is replenished by fertilization, but Pbalance has been improving significantly over recent years.
Phosphorus status in the Pampas’ soils Current soil P availability (Bray 1 P, 0-20 cm, ppm).Region Average Prob. Prob. Prob. 25% 50% 75%Southeastern Buenos Aires 12.9 7.2 10.3 15.5(n=4540) Santa FeWestern Buenos Aires 13.6 7.7 11.4 16.8 Córdoba(n=7519)Northern Buenos Aires 13.6 6.5 9.9 15.8(n=8445)Southern Santa Fe 22.9 10.5 16.8 30(n=4293)Southern Córdoba 19.2 10.5 15.6 23.9(n=2641)) Low availability Buenos Aires Medium availability Good availability Map prepared with 2005 -06 soil data.Adapted from Sainz Rozas et al. (2011).
Phosphorus status in the Cerrados (Brazil) % % % % % Note: % of soil samplesAdapted from Melgar et al. (2011)
Phosphate fertilizer consumption in Brazil and Southern Cone countries Country Year Nutrient consumption (X 1000) N P2O5 K2O Total N+P2O5+ K2O Brazil 2008 2.502 3.196 3.689 9.387 Argentina 2007 894 702 54 1650 Bolivia 2007 13 12 4 29 Chile 2003 270 180 81 532 Paraguay 2007 42 167 82 291 Uruguay 2007 128.4 178.4 21 328Adapted from García & Salvagiotti (2009)
Phosphate fertilizer consumption by crop Argentina BrazilImage adapted from Darwich (2005), Lavado & Taboada, 2009
How do farmers decide P fertilization ?In both countries (Brazil and Argentina) there are P fertilization models(calibrations) available for different crops and regions.Diagnosis is based on soil testing and other soil characteristics.Although current soil analysis use is low in Brazil and Argentina,compared to developed countries, it has been growing over recent years.The “sufficiency” criteria is the most common under P fertilization rentedlands (short term leasing).Build up and maintenance schedules are used mainly by owners of theland or farmers who rent the land for many years.
Current soil testing useCountry N° of soil Ha/soil sample Reference samples per yearBrazil > 1 million 32 Van Raij et al. (2008), García (2011).Argentina ~ 160.000 249 García (2011). Soil Analysis done by Tecnoagro (the largest private soil laboratory in Argentina). Dry years
Soil P testing used in Brazil and ArgentinaCountry Method ReferenceBrazil Mehlich 1 or resin Van Raij et al. (2008), Melgar et al. (2011)Argentina Bray & Kurtz 1 Van Raij et al. (2008), Ciampitti et al. (2011) 100 Relative Grain Yield (%) 90 Example of diagnosis model used for P fertilizaiton for soybean in the 80 Pampas of Argentina. 70 y = 100 (1 - e (-0.1562 (x + 6.69)) R 2 = 0.70 , n = 47 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 P Bray1 (ppm, 0-20 cm) Gutierrez Boem et al. , (2006)
Phosphorus fertilization modelsBrazil (soybean in the Cerrado region) Clay (%) Total correction Partial correction Very low P Low P Very low P Low P …………………………..kg P2O5 ha-1………………………………….. 61-80 240 120 100 90 41-60 180 90 90 80 21-40 120 60 80 70 <20 100 50 70 60Adapted from Melgar et al. (2011)Argentina (soybean in the Pampas region) Yield Soil P status (ppm) <4 4.1-6 6.1-8 11.1-15 8.1-11 -1 …………………….……………….kg P2O5 ha ……………………………………… 2 43 33 28 24 - 3 55 45 40 36 25 4 67 57 52 48 37 Adapted from Echeverría & García (1998)
Agronomic effectiveness of phosphate sources Most P fertilizers used in Brazil and Argentina are water-soluble sources (e.g. MAP, DAP, SPS, TSP, etc.)Phosphate rock (reactive forms) is also a significant P source in Brazil.Clear upward trend towards bulk blends and “multi-nutrient” fertilizerproducts.Interesting potential for adoption of P fluid fertilizers.Most research studies have shown similar agronomic effectiveness andagronomic use efficiency among water-soluble P fertilizers both in Braziland Argentina.Most field research shows higher residual effect with phosphate rocksthan water-soluble P fertilizers.
Application methods of phosphate fertilizersThe P fertilization at planting, in rows (i.e. banded) is the traditionalapplication method used by farmers in Argentina and Brazil. However, in no-till systems, broadcast application has been evaluated over recent years.Soybean in the Cerrado region. (adapted from Ceretta et al. 2007) Adapted from Barbagelata (2011). Differences between P placement methods are not statistically significant (p<0.05)
Phosphate fertilizer consumption over time Brazil It is expected a firm P demand for near andmedium term. P demand (annual growth): ~4%(projection baseline 2001-2011). Soybean cultivation in the Cerrado isand will be a key driving of P demand. World economic crisis can change Adapted from Da Cunha et al. (2011)prospects… Argentina Firm P demand for the near andmedium term expected P demand for near and medium run wouldbe 10-12% (annually). Soybean cultivation expansion isboosting P demand. IPNI Southern Cone and Fertilizar AC
Phosphate current use and prospects in Southern Cone countries Current P fertilizer consumption Total P2O5 consumption: ~1.3 mill. MT Argentina is the largest P fertilizer consumer. Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay aresignificant P fertilizer markets. Current P fertilizer consumption in Boliviais incipient. Future demand of P fertilizers The higher P fertilizer demand will comefrom Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Soybean cultivation expansion is a keyfactor driving the P demand for near future. Chile is a “mature” (stabilized) fertilizermarket, interesting for specialtys fertilizers. Adapted from IPNI, Southern Cone.