The Motor Planning Training Ladder.We aim to improve the students pointing skills by starting with activities where weknow the answer and they know the answer so that we can help them to correctpointing errors. As we work up the ladder and the students pointing skills improve wecan offer appropriate physical support without needing to know what the studentshould be typing. We can also work on fading physical support.Using the Motor Planning Ladder with a normal in-class activity - A tool for differentiation as well asMotor Planning Training.Always have some written materials for the student tolook at. This example lesson is cookery so the ingredientsand method is the written input to the student. Thishappens to be an example taken from the Christiantradition but you could of course apply the same principles
to recipes such as Sandesh for Diwali or Klaicha for Eid.The same approach can be used across the curriculum fordifferent subjects.If they need symbol support “Communicate in Print” or asimilar symbol generating programme can be utilised asshown in this example:
HOT CROSS BUNS:Traditional spiced, sticky glazed fruit buns with pastrycrosses. Served as a classic Easter treat, the buns can bealso enjoyed at any time of year.IngredientsFor the ferment starter:1 large egg, beaten215ml/7½fl oz warm water15g/½oz fresh yeast1 tsp sugar55g/2oz strong white flourFor the dough:450g/1lb strong white flour1 tsp salt2 tsp ground mixed spice85g/3oz butter cut into cubes85g/3oz sugar1 lemon, grated, zest only170g/6oz mixed dried fruit2 tbsp plain flouroil, for greasing1 tbsp golden syrup, gently heated, for glazingMethod1. Prepare the ferment starter for the dough by combiningthe beaten egg with enough warm water to giveapproximately 290ml/½ pint of liquid. Whisk in the yeast,sugar and flour, cover and put in a warm place for 30
minutes.2. make the buns: sieve the flour, salt and spice into alarge mixing bowl and rub in the butter. Make a well in thecentre and put the sugar and lemon zest in the well. Pouron the ferment starter.3. Gradually draw in the flour and mix vigorously, thenknead to a smooth, elastic dough.4. Carefully work in the mixed dried fruit. Shape thedough into a ball, put it in a warm, greased bowl, coverwith a clean tea towel and leave to rise in a warm placefor 1 hour.5. Turn out the dough and knead to knock out any airbubbles and give an even texture. Shape it into a ballagain, put back into the bowl, cover and put back to risefor another 30 minutes.6. Turn out the dough again and divide into 12 evenpieces. Shape them into buns and leave to rest for a fewminutes on the work surface covered with the tea towel.7. Place the buns on a lightly greased baking sheet.Slightly flatten each bun and then cut into quarters,cutting almost all the way through the dough, so that aseach bun rises, it has a well-marked cross on it.8. Grease a large polythene bag and place the tray withthe buns in it and tie the end. Put in a warm place andleave to rise for 40 minutes.9. Meanwhile, heat the oven to 240C/475F/Gas 8. Make apaste for the crosses on the buns with the plain flour and2 tbsp cold water. Mix until it is soft enough to pipethrough a nozzle.
10. Remove the polythene bag and pipe a cross on each bun. Bake the buns for 8 -12 minutes or until risen and golden. Brush the buns with hot golden syrup as soon as they are ready. Cool on a wire rack. For Learners with more needs the language can be simplified as follows (in this example you pre-prepare the ferment starter for the students):1. Sieve the flour, salt and spice into a large mixing bowl.2. Rub in the butter.3. Make a well in the centre and put the sugar and lemon zest in the well. Pour on the ferment starter.4. Mix the flour, then knead to a smooth, elastic dough.5. Carefully work in the mixed dried fruit.6. Shape the dough into a ball, put it in a warm, greased bowl, cover with a clean tea towel and leave to rise in a warm place for 1 hour.7. Knead the dough again and put back into the bowl, cover leave for another 30 minutes.8. Turn out the dough divide into 12 even pieces shaped like buns.9. Cut the shape of a cross on each bun,10. Put in a polythene bag in a warm place and leave to rise for 40 minutes.11. Meanwhile, heat the oven to 240C/475F/Gas 8
12. Make a paste for the crosses on the buns with the plain flour and 2 tbsp cold water. Mix until it is soft enough to pipe through a nozzle.13. Take the buns out of the bag, pipe a cross on each bun.14. Place the buns on a lightly greased baking sheet.15. Bake the buns for 8 -12 minutes or until risen and golden.16. Brush the buns with hot golden syrup as soon as they are ready.17. Cool on a wire rack. The above could be symbolised in “Communicate in Print”. For learners with significant needs you could provide the key points in a picture supported plans like this (even if you think the student is at the concrete level requiring objects of reference they should be exposed to pictures and words so that progression is built in):
1.Sieve the flour 2.Put in the sugar, lemon and 3.Knead the dough ferment starter4.Add the currents 5.Cover and leave 6.Divide the dough for 1 hour into small bunsN.B. When making multiple choice options for studentsyou need to be aware of the best size and spacing of thechoices. Every students needs may be different.Example Ladder Step 2 Activities (single point):What are we making today? Point to the correct choice:Hot Cross Doughnuts Roly Poly BapsBuns Pudding
You can include pictures if you think the student needsthem.Hot Cross Doughnuts Roly Poly BapsBuns PuddingYou could even turn it into a very basic exercise for thosewho are working at lower levels by giving them the correctpicture to match.Make sure you put the correct answer in a different placeeach time.Example Ladder Step 3 Activity (sequence):Point to things we need to do in the correct order:Add the Rub in the Sieve the Knead thecurrents butter flower doughFor those with greater needs the above could havepictures added and a correct model could be shown to thestudent.
For those who are typing or writing a Step 4 sequencing activity could be to copy type a key sentence from the method. Example Ladder Step 5 (simple quiz) Which of these pieces of equipment will you need for cooking hot cross buns? Baking tray spoon Frying pan shovel cloth jumper Wire rack sieve For those who are typing or writing a Step 6 quiz could be as follows:1. What fruit do we use to make Hot Cross Buns?2. What do we do with the dough when we have mixed it in the bowl?3. How long do we leave the dough under the cloth when we knead it the first time?4. How many buns are we going to divide the dough up into?5. What shape are we going to cut on the top of each bun? Example Ladder Step 7 (choice of 2 – assistant does not know which should be chosen) Do you like Hot Cross Buns? YES NO
Example Ladder Step 8 (choice of 3 or more –assistant does not know which should be chosen)Which do you like best?Hot Cross Doughnuts Roly Poly BapsBuns PuddingExample Ladder Step 9 (quiz questions where thereare a very few possible answers-usually one wordanswers)List 4/6 of the ingredients we need to make Hot CrossBuns.Example Ladder Step 10 (quiz questions wherethere are a more possible answers-usually morethan one word answers)List 4/6 sweet foods.Example Ladder Step 11 (quiz questions wherethere are a range of possible answers-usuallyrequiring more than a sentence)Why do you think we put a cross on the Hot Cross Bun?What other shapes could we use?(The real answer to this question is: The tradition datesback to pagan times when the cross represented themoon and its four quarters. It was claimed for the
Christian church in 1361 when Father Thomas Rockcliffedistributed the buns to the poor of St Albans.)The student doesn’t need to give a correct answer. Justone that makes sense.Example Ladder Step 12 (quiz questions where youdon’t know what the student will write – usuallyrequiring more than a paragraph)Finish this story:One day Sam came into the kitchen and smelt the lovelyaroma of the Hot Cross Buns his mother had taken out ofthe oven and left on a rack to cool. They looked delicious.Mum was upstairs making the beds soSam ......................Steps 13 to 16 are communicative ones which isfree speech on the part of the student withencouragement at 13 and initiated by them at 16.