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  1. 1. Skeletal Physiology
  2. 2. WHAT IS THE GAME? The game is where our host goes on the streets and ask question to see what the people know. Some people know almost everything to the question while other can’t even get the slightest bit right. This episode is over skeletal physiology there are many different questions over this topic. Now lets get started. Lets see how many people can get these right.
  3. 3. LIST THE FOUR TYPES OF BONES AND GIVE EXAMPLES OF EACH. Game host: You Sir, yes you, do you want to take part in our game called, Whatdoes the Street know?Sir: While yes I’d love to take part in this game.Host: Alright then, this topic is over Anatomy. Can you list the four types of bonesand give examples of each?Sir: Well I can tell you that there are Long bones and Short but on the other two Iam completely clueless.Host: You are correct on two of them but can you name examples for the long andshort bones?Sir: Well for Long bone I know for sure would be the femur. As for the short bone theknee?Host: Very good on the long bone yes. But for the Short bone it would be the wrist orankle bones.Sir: Oh darn, well do you mind telling me the other two times of bones andexamples?Host: Of course, the other two types of bones are Flat bones and irregular bones.Examples for each would be Shoulder blades for flat and for irregular would be thefacial bones.Sir: Yeah there would have been no way I would have ever got that right.Host: Well thank you Sir for joining us on What Does the Street Know?
  4. 4. IDENTIFY THE SIX MAJOR STRUCTURES OF A TYPICAL LONG BONEGame host: Hello ma’am thank you for joining the game What Does the Street Know? Todaywe are going to test your anatomy.Ma’am: Oh no, guess I got to go way back to high school to see if I remember any of this.But bring it on!Host: That’s the sprit okay here we go, what are the six major structures of a typical longbone?Ma’am: well I know that an example of the long bone would be the tibia. Oh one majorstructure would be the medullary cavity, which is where the marrow is in the bone.Host: Very good that is one of the structures.Ma’am: Also the Articular cartilage, which is cartilage that covers the joints on the bone.The Epiphyses is also one it is one the ends of the long bone space for joints. But that is allI can tell I have no idea what the other three would be.Host: well Ma’am you have done wonderful! The other three are, diaphysis; which is used tosupport weight, periosteum; which is where cells are forming and blood vessels are. Andlast but no least Endosperm a thin membrane that lines medullary cavity.Ma’am: well dang I would have got the last one right if I really thought about it. But thankyou for including me your game.Host: No thank you for joining me today on the game What Does the Street Know.
  5. 5. IDENTIFY EACH OF THE MAJOR CONSTITUENTS OF BONE AS ATISSUE AND DISCUSS HOW STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATIONCONTRIBUTES TO FUNCTION.Host: Do you know what the bone matrix is compromised of?American: Inorganic salts and organic matrix.Host: Yes!! Inorganic salts are the minerals in the bone. Thehardness of the bone results from the deposition of calcium andphosphate through a process called calcification. Other mineralsfound in the bone are magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and fluoride.The organic matrix is compromised of collagenous fibers andamorphous mixture of protein and polysaccharides called groundsubstance. It supports the bone and provides adhesion betweencellular metabolic functions for growth, repair, and remodeling.Chondroitin sulfate is a compound called glycosaminoglycan.Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine work together to repair andmaintain bone and cartilage. The components help with strengthand add some plastic-like resistance to stress.
  6. 6. COMPONENTS OF A HAVERSIAN SYSTEM.Me: What is the Haversian System?American: Lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi, and the haversian canal.Me: Yes!!Lamellae- Concentric, cylinder shaped layers of calcified matrixLacunae- small spaces containing tissue fluid in which bone cells lieimprisoned between the hard layers of the lamellaeCanaliculi- ultra small canals radiating in all directions from the lacunaeand connecting them to each other and into a larger canal, theHaversian CanalHaversian Canal- extends lengthwise through the center of eachhaversian system; contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, andnerves from the Haversian canal; nutrients and oxygen move throughthe canal to the lacunae and their bone cells- a short distance of about.1 mm or less
  8. 8. JOINTS OF THE BODYMe: What are the 5 joints of the body?Person: Uhm....the elbow, the leg, your neck, yourwrist, and your hip?Me: Nope, they are the: Hinge, Ball and Socket,Pivot, Saddle, and Gliding joints.
  9. 9. PIVOT JOINTMe: What kind of joint isthis?Person: A circle joint?Me: No, it’s the pivot joint.Do you know where it islocated?Person: Pivot means turn,so I’m guessing in yourneck?Me: Right!!
  10. 10. HINGE JOINTMe: Can you name thisjoint of the body?Person: Ball and Socket?Me: No, it is actually theHinge joint.Person: Oh, so like theones in your elbows?Me: Exactly! Who taughtyou that?Person: Coach Gatlin
  11. 11. BALL AND SOCKETMe: Where is the Ball andSocket joint found in thebody?Person: The Hip?Me: Correct!! What kindof movement does itprovide?Person: Rotationalmovement?Me: Exactly!!
  12. 12. GLIDING JOINTMe: Give me 2examples of glidingjoints in the body?Person: I don’t evenknow what that is.Me: A gliding joint isone that glides in anydirection, for exampleyour wrist and ankles
  13. 13. SADDLE JOINTMe: Can you tell mewhere the only saddlejoint is in the body?Person: uhm…your knee?Me: That’s a good guess,but no because eventhough it acts like one, itisn’t directly attached toyour bones.Person: So where is it?Me: In your thumb
  15. 15. Answer: While many people believe that afracture is a "hairline break," or a certain type of broken bone, this is not true. A fracture and a broken bone are the same thing!
  16. 16. Both of these words mean that the normal bonearchitecture has been disrupted. This does notimply a certain type of treatment, but in general,bones heal best when immobilized. Thereforetreatment often involves casting of the brokenbone (or fracture) and may require surgery to fixthe bone into place
  17. 17. THE STEPS OF BONE REPAIRThe fracture occursThey are described by the direction of the fractureTransverse- perpendicular to the long axis of the boneDiagonal- caused by a force in the same direction as the longaxis of the boneLongitudinal- along the long axis of the boneSpiral- a twisting or winding fractureBy the relationship of the fragmentsDisplacementAngulationShorteningrotation
  18. 18. THE STEPS OF BONE REPAIR CONT.By the number of fragmentsBy the communication with the atmosphereThe formation of fracture hematoma (mass of clotted blood) atfracture site. Tissure aroud the fracture site swells, very painful,obvious inflammation, bone cells begin to die.Callus formationNote that the fibrocartilaginous callus serves to splint thefracture.3. Bony callus begins forming after 3 to 4 weeks after injury and isprominent 2 to 3 months following the injury. Continued migrationand multiplying of osteoblasts and osteocytes results in thefibrocartilaginous callus turning into a bony callus.4. Remoldeling. Any excess material of the bony callus is removedand compact bone is laid down in order to reconstruct the shaft.Remoldeling is the final stage.Bone remodeling complete
  20. 20. Answer: No, a baby has partial bones, and therest of their skeletal structure is cartilage and other connective tissues.
  21. 21. Bone marrow- is a soft spongy tissue found inside the bones. The bone marrowin the hips, breast bone, spine, ribs, and skull contain cells that produce thebodys blood cells. The bone marrow is responsible for the development andstorage of most of the bodys blood cells.Bone marrow transplantation- is a special therapy for patients with certaincancers. A bone marrow transplant involves taking cells that are normally foundin the bone marrow (stem cells), filtering those cells, and giving them backeither to the patient or to another person. The goal of BMT is to transfusehealthy bone marrow cells into a person after their own unhealthy bone marrowhas been eliminated.Osteoporosis- a disorder in which the bones become increasingly porous,brittle, and subject to fracture, owing to loss of calcium and other mineralcomponents, sometimes resulting in pain, decreased height, and skeletaldeformities: common in older persons, primarily postmenopausal women, butalso associated with long-term steroid therapy and certain endocrine disorders.
  22. 22. The epiphyseal plate is an area at the long end of the bone whichcontains growing bone. As people develop, the bone grows longer as aresult of activity inside the epiphyseal plate, allowing them to grow taller.These growth plates permit growth after birth, allowing the long bones ofthe body to extend as someone reaches maturity. It’s because they arestill growing.Skeletal framework- Beginning at around age 35 in both men andwomen, calcium is lost and bones become less dense. This can result inosteoporosis and a reduction of weight bearing capacity, leading to thepossibility of spontaneous fracture. Thinning of the vertebrae alsoresults in a reduction in height. In addition, the vertebrae calcify,resulting in postural changes and increasing rigidity, making bendingdifficult. The joints also undergo changes.
  23. 23.  ME: Compare the mechanism of growth in bone and cartilage! AMERICAN: That’s a hard question. ME: Well most bones are formed through the process of endochondral ossification, which means formed in cartilage and cartilage is formed in two ways, interstitial growth and appositional growth. AMERICAN: Yeah. I would have never known that… ME: Compare the classification of joints according to structure and function! AMERICAN: I have no idea… ME: Structural classifications- joints are named according to the type of tissue that joins the bones together (fibrous or cartilaginous) and the presence of fluid in the joint capsule (synovial) Functional classification- joints are named according to the degree of movement allowed (synarthroses- immovable joint, amphiarthroses- slightly movable, diarthroses- freely movable). AMERICAN: Oh! Well you learn something new every day! Syndesmoses joints connect two bones and some movement is possible. Sutures are only found in the skull, the bones of the skull interlock with a thin layer of fibrous tissue. Gomphoses are found at the root of the
  24. 24.  ME: What are the three major types of cells found in the body? AMERICAN: OSTEOCLASTS are large cells that have more than one nucleus that dissolve the bone. OSTEOBLASTS are cells that have one nucleus that build new bone called osteoid. It is made of bone collagen and other protein. Osteoblasts control calcium and minerals. OSTEOCYTES are found inside the bone. Osteoblasts can turn into osteocytes when new bone is being formed. ME: What are the five homeostatic functions of the bone? AMERICAN: Support, protection, movement, storage, and blood cell formation! ME: Compare and contrast the development of intramembranous and endochonondral bone! AMERICAN: Intramembranous bones are flat and endochonondral bones are short, long, and irregular.
  25. 25.  Q; How many types of bones are there? A: 4 Q: What are the types of bones called? A: Long, Short, Flat, and Irregular Long: extended longitudinal axes and oddly shaped ends that are constructed to work with the coinciding bones to perform a specific movement (humerus) Short: cube or box-shaped structures about as broad as they are long (carpals and tarsals) Flat: broad and thin with a flat and slightly curved surface (scapula) Irregular: clustered in groups and come out in various sizes and shapes (vertebra) Parts of the bone: Diaphysis- the shaft of the bone, cylindrical and hollow, crates structural support Epiphyses-the ends of, or bulky parts of the bone. It provides structure for muscle to connect to, and gives stability to joints. Made of cancellous or spongy bone(bone with small spaces in it) red marrow fills the holes in it Articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage that covers joint surfaces. Resiliency helps absorb shock Periosteum- white, fibrous bone that covers bone accept at joint surfaces, penetrating the underlying bone for extra support. Depending on its location, either creates or destroys bone cells, important for bone cell survival….medullary- (marrow cavity) hollow space in the bone filled with connective tissue and fat known as yellow marrow….endosteum- thin epithelial membrane that lies in the hollow part of the bone
  26. 26.  Q: What type of bone covers joints? A: Hayline Cartilage Q: Which cartilage is considered Articular Cartilage? A: Hayline Cartilage Hyaline- hyaline cartilage is found covering the articular surfaces of bones in synovial joints. Here, it reduces friction and acts as shock- absorbing tissue. Hyaline cartilage also forms the costal cartilages where ribs attach to the sternum and is the precursor to bone in most of the embryonic skeleton. Elastic- Elastic cartilage has a preponderance of dark-staining elastic fibers embedded in ground substance. Perichondreum is typically found around elastic cartilage. Elastic cartilage is found in the epiglottis, and ear lobes where needs dictate supportive tissues possess elasticity. Fibrocartilage- Fibrocartilage (fibrous) is a type of cartilage that contains fine collagen fibers arranged in layered arrays. In contrast to the very uniform appearance of hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage possesses a more open or spongy architecture with gaps between lacunae and collagen fiber bundles. It is this open spongy structure that makes fibrocartilage a good shock-absorbing material in the pubic symphysis and intervertebral disks