Session 3 & 4


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  • Reference to skeletal structures could be enhanced by using a skeleton or skeletal models if available. Use this presentation to remind students of the names of a range of bones. Students must be confident in naming the bones of the skeleton and their position/ location in the body. Without this understanding they will struggle to identify the bones that form joints.
  • Fixed or immoveable joints such as those of the flat bones of the skull allow very slight movement – ask students why they should allow a little movement. Movement is necessary for expansion of the soft tissues of the brain and to absorb some of the force of impacts – if joints were completely fixed they might crack with an impact such as a blow on the head.
  • Discuss with students the structure of the spinal column and why slightly moveable joints are the most suitable type of joint for the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine areas. Ask them why the sacrum and coccyx areas of the spine are fixed joints? Answer: for attachment of lower back muscles (Sacrum) and balance (coccyx).
  • Synovial joints offer a wide range of sporting movement.
  • Session 3 & 4

    1. 1. Anatomy & Physiology For Sport Session 3 - Types of Bones
    2. 2. Session Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this session : </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody will Re-cap the previous session (Major bones of the body) </li></ul><ul><li>Most will Identified the different types of bones in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Few will explain the purpose of each type of bone </li></ul>
    3. 3. Re-cap <ul><li>Write down the numbers 1-26 and try to identify as many bones as you can on the skeleton </li></ul>
    4. 4. Answers <ul><li>1. Skull </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mandible </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hyoid Bone </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cervical Vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>5.Clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sternum </li></ul><ul><li>7. Costal Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>8. Ribs </li></ul><ul><li>9. Scapula </li></ul><ul><li>10. Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>11. Radius </li></ul><ul><li>12. Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>13. Carpal Bones </li></ul><ul><li>14.Metacarpal Bones </li></ul><ul><li>15.Phalanges of Fingers </li></ul><ul><li>16. Thoracic Vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>17. Lumbar Vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>18. Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>19.Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>20.Femur </li></ul><ul><li>21.Patella </li></ul><ul><li>22.Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>23.Fibula </li></ul><ul><li>24.Tarsal Bones </li></ul><ul><li>25.Metatarsal Bones </li></ul><ul><li>26.Phalanges of Toes </li></ul>
    5. 5. Watch the video – What type of bones are there?
    6. 6. Types of Bones <ul><li>Long Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Short Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular bone </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Bone </li></ul>
    7. 7. Long Bones <ul><li>Long bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility </li></ul><ul><li>A long bone has a shaft and two ends </li></ul><ul><li>Long bones contain yellow bone marrow and red bone marrow (which produces blood cells). </li></ul><ul><li>Principal function is to act as a lever </li></ul><ul><li>What are the negative aspects of a long bone? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Short Bone <ul><li>Short bones in the human body are cubelike, with length, width, and height measurements approximately equal. </li></ul><ul><li>They include the meta-carpal bones (hands, wrist) and meta-tarsal bones (feet, ankles). </li></ul><ul><li>Principal function is for strength </li></ul>
    9. 9. Flat Bone <ul><li>Flat bones consist of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include the skull and ribs. Flat bones have marrow, but not a bone marrow cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>Principal function is to act as a surface area for muscle attachement </li></ul>
    10. 10. Irregular Bones <ul><li>Bones that don’t fall into the other 3 categories </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of any irregular bones? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer – Vertebral column/Coccyx </li></ul>
    11. 11. Activity 2 <ul><li>On the diagram (in different colours) show the different types of bones. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – Yellow = Long, blue = short e.t.c </li></ul>
    12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>Name the different types of bone </li></ul><ul><li>What bones fall into each category – Flat = ? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain one function of each type of bone </li></ul>
    13. 13. Anatomy & Physiology For Sport Session 4 - Joints
    14. 14. Session Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this session : </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody will identify the different types of synovial joints in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Some will explain the functions of the types joint in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody will take part in a small quiz associated with bones/joints </li></ul>
    15. 15. Naming bones
    16. 16. What are joints? <ul><li>Joints can most simply be described as : </li></ul><ul><li>“ the hinges that hold the skeletal system together” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    17. 17. Watch the short video – Take notes
    18. 18. Types of Joints <ul><li>Ball & Socket – ball shaped bone fits into cup shaped socket </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge – Convex/Concave surfaces fitting together </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot – Ring shaped surrounding cone </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle – Shaped like a saddle </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding – Two flat gliding surfaces </li></ul>
    19. 19. What Joints?
    20. 20. Task Label the diagram of the joints
    21. 21. Different types of joint 1. Immovable (or fixed) joints 3. Movable (or synovial) joints 2. Slightly movable joints
    22. 22. 1. Fixed or immovable joints There are fewer than 10 immovable joints in the body. They are sometimes called fibrous joints because the bones are held together by tough fibres. Immovable joints can be found in the skull and pelvis, where several bones have fused together to form a rigid structure.
    23. 23. 2. Slightly movable joints Slightly movable joints are sometimes called cartilaginous joints . The bones are separated by a cushion of cartilage. The joints between the vertebrae in the spine are cartilaginous joints. The bones can move a little bit, but ligaments stop them moving too far. This is why we can bend, straighten and rotate through the back, but not too far. bone ligaments cartilage bone
    24. 24. 3. Freely movable or synovial joints 90% of the joints in the body are synovial joints . They are freely movable . Synovial joints contain synovial fluid which is retained inside a pocket called the synovial membrane. This lubricates or ‘oils’ the joint. All the moving parts are held together by ligaments . These are highly mobile joints, like the shoulder and knee. Synovial fluid Knee Synovial membrane
    25. 25. Different types of joint
    26. 26. Task <ul><li>Two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Connect 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Losers punishments!!!!! </li></ul>
    27. 27. ©
    29. 29. How many bones do you have as an adult?
    30. 30. Where would we find a hinge joint in lower body?
    31. 31. Where would we find a fixed joint?
    32. 32. What is the longest bone in our body?
    33. 33. Where would you find the smallest bone in our body?
    34. 34. What is the correct name for the skull?
    35. 35. What is the correct name for the jaw?
    36. 36. Where would we find a ball and socket joint?
    37. 37. Name two flat bones in the body
    38. 38. These protect your spinal column
    39. 39. What bone can be found opposite the ulna?
    40. 40. What is the principle purpose of a short bone?
    41. 41. How many pairs of ribs do we have?
    42. 42. What are the bones of the fingers and toes called?
    43. 43. What type of bone is the metatarsal?
    44. 44. Over 300
    45. 45. 206
    46. 46. knee
    47. 47. Skull
    48. 48. Femur
    49. 49. The Ear
    50. 50. Cranium
    51. 51. Mandible
    52. 52. Shoulder, Hip
    53. 53. Cranium, Sternum & Scapula
    54. 54. Vertebrae
    55. 55. Radius
    56. 56. Strength
    57. 57. 12
    58. 58. Phalanges
    59. 59. Short
    60. 60. Conclusion <ul><li>The types of joints in the body are……………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>The types of freely movable joints are……………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Next Week - Functions of the skeletal system in more detail & technical movements available through the skeletal system </li></ul>