202 March 9th


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202 March 9th

  1. 1. ENG:202 Research Writing March 9 th , 2009
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Literature Reviews: Your favorite mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>The next step in your research projects: Methodology. How to collect rich data? How to conduct interviews? </li></ul><ul><li>Class Activity: Investigating Spring Break 2009 Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about “Covering” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Your favorite mistakes <ul><li>Any one person could be a child abuser </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that….(you need some research examples) </li></ul><ul><li>Some research suggest that… </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Yurkerwich argues that minority couches have never had fair shot at trying to become a head coach in the NFL. “Qualified black candidates will now be provided with the opportunity to interview for head coaching vacancies” (Yurkerwich, Kevin) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The following literature review attempts to analyze….The first article is about..the second article focuses on…. </li></ul><ul><li>Great use of action verbs!-Try to stick with past tense when you report studies….examinED, studiED, statED, FOUND… </li></ul><ul><li>Article 1 deals with…Article 2 talks about… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research Methods <ul><li>Qualitative Methods </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Ethnography, Auto-ethnography, Life History, Narratives, case studies) </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to understand individual’s cultural worlds. </li></ul><ul><li>Relying on observations, interviews, field notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Methods </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., Statistical Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys) </li></ul><ul><li>Relying on counting the themes, survey results etc. (frequency counts) Quantifying the data </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to see patterns of language use. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The more a theme appears the more warranted is your claim” </li></ul><ul><li>Without some qualitative analysis, the numbers are meaningless! </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Qualitative Methods of Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>People’s words and actions represent the data of qualitative inquiry and this requires methods that allow the researcher to capture language and behavior. The key ways of capturing these are: </li></ul><ul><li>Observation – both participant and direct </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Group Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>The collection of relevant documents </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs and Video Tapes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Interviews <ul><li>Set the interview time and location with the person you will be interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Write your interview questions (what do you need to know) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your questions open ended. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to record your interviews </li></ul>
  8. 8. Question categories <ul><li>Opening questions </li></ul><ul><li>Could you please describe…? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell me about…? </li></ul><ul><li>Please discuss… </li></ul><ul><li>I am interested in….What can you tell me about this subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Really? How so? Can you elaborate on X point? </li></ul><ul><li>Probing Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell me more about…? Could you please give me an example…? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Class Activity on Interview <ul><li>Find out what your classmate did in her spring break. Research Question: How do U.S. college students spend their spring breaks? </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with at least 5 questions that can best answer this large research question </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a 5 minutes long interview. </li></ul><ul><li>After your interview, write one paragraph about your participant’s views/experiences on spring break. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Book Discussions <ul><li>Covering by Kenji Yoshino </li></ul><ul><li>review, analyze, and synthesize the reading material. </li></ul><ul><li>tell us the social, political and cultural importance of this reading to our everyday life and give some solid examples from the reading. </li></ul><ul><li>lead the class in a critical discussion by using class activities (e.g. asking discussion questions, showing a short movie/documentary, sharing visuals anything that you think might be useful to facilitate the class discussion). </li></ul><ul><li>create a short handout outlining the major points of your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>post a blog entry about your presentation experience.    </li></ul>
  11. 11. Assignment <ul><li>Start thinking about your methodology. Come up with 10 tentative interview questions about your research topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology Papers due next Wednesday (March 18 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Read Covering part 1 (pages 3-73) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Agenda <ul><li>Continue with conducting effective interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Polishing our interview questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Covering by Kenji Yoshino (Presented by Emily, Zack and Julie) </li></ul><ul><li>--Moving beyond the notion of “melting pot” </li></ul><ul><li>--Inclusive approaches in contemporary civil rights issues </li></ul><ul><li>--Understanding how people struggle from self-expression and “cover” selves. (an excellent critique of assimilation) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Interviews <ul><li>Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant’s experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to question e.g., to further investigate their responses. (McNamara,1999) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Training for the interviews <ul><li>It is crucial that you organize in detail and prepare some good interview questions before the actual interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your questions with a peer to get some feedback. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Selecting participants for your research <ul><li>Interview individuals who have some expertise/first hand experience on your research topic. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: if you are researching African American women’s experiences in college, you need to interview…. If you’re researching about the abuse of prisoners in the US, you need to interview…. If you’re researching about interracial relationships and stereotypes, you interview… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Preparation for the Interview <ul><li>Choose a setting with the least distraction—try not to meet at a noisy cafeteria or at a party. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain your research and the purpose of the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Address terms of confidentiality. Tell your participants that their names will not be used for confidentiality reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the format of the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate how long the interview usually takes. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow interviewee to clarify any doubts about the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a method for recording data, e.g., take notes, audio record the interview. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Important Tips! <ul><li>Be knowledgeable about your topics! Use your lit. reviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare questions that are easy to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>To control the conversation, avoid any digressions form the main topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak clearly. Take notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask follow up questions. Encourage more responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to remain as neutral as possible. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The content of the questions <ul><li>Questions based on participant’s background. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions based on experience </li></ul><ul><li>Questions based on opinions and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions based on feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions based on knowledge. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Generating Interview Questions <ul><li>Take a few minutes to polish your interview questions based on what you learnt from the last two class session. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your questions with a class-mate. Give feedback. </li></ul>
  20. 20. covering The hidden assault on our civil rights Kenji Yoshino
  21. 21. Who is Kenji Yoshino? <ul><li>Professor of Constitutional Law at the NYU School of Law. </li></ul><ul><li>received his undergraduate degree from Harvard College, took a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford University </li></ul><ul><li>earned his law degree at Yale Law School. </li></ul><ul><li>A specialist in constitutional law, antidiscrimination law, and law and literature </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kenjiyoshino.com/ </li></ul>
  22. 22. What is covering? <ul><li>“ Covering” is sociologist Erving Goffman’s term for how we try to “tone down” stigmatized identities, even when those identities are known to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of covering: </li></ul><ul><li>Religious covering, gay covering, sex-based covering, racial covering, disability-based covering </li></ul>
  23. 23. The story of uncovered selves… <ul><li>All of us struggle for self expression; we all have covered selves… (p.25) </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone covers. To cover is to downplay a disfavored trait so as to blend into the mainstream. Because all of us possess stigmatized attributes, we all encounter pressure to cover in our daily lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Kenji Yoshino </li></ul>
  24. 24. How do we all cover? <ul><li>Racial minorities are pressed to “act white” by changing their names, languages, or cultural practices. Women are told to “play like men” at work. Gays are asked not to engage in public displays of same-sex affection. The devout are instructed to minimize expressions of faith, and individuals with disabilities are urged to conceal the paraphernalia that permit them to function. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Agenda <ul><li>INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH WEEK (March 23 rd -27 th ) No class meeting. You will be collecting your data and transcribing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Guest Speaker from Criminology Department—She will talk about her survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Working on your methodology papers (due wed. March 18 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop on methodology papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Covering—Presentation by Cyreene </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment </li></ul>
  26. 26. How do you find experts to interview/send out surveys? <ul><li>See the tips in Curious researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Pages 99-113 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Methodology <ul><li>DATA COLLECTION PROCEESES </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVIEW CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER METHODS? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Free writing about Yoshino’s Covering (PART 1 AND 2) <ul><li>Take a look at the parts that you read from Covering. </li></ul><ul><li>Write 5 minutes about what he means by covering (use quotes). What strikes you as the most important thing the author is saying? </li></ul><ul><li>Also, write about his writing style. Is he using first personal pronoun? Is he using facts/citing other research/talking about personal experience? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Yoshino’s writing <ul><li>Personal narrative, or as he calls, literary narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Legal arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Autobiography </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Story: a story against demands of assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Examples drawn from his personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Cites important works on civil rights to strengthen his claims </li></ul><ul><li>His main argument: SEE PAGE 27! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Presentation <ul><li>Volunteers for oral feedback and written feedback </li></ul>
  31. 31. Assignment <ul><li>Work on your methodology paper—Due on Wednesday, March 18 th </li></ul><ul><li>Read covering Part II </li></ul>