Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. chapter 4ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 1 2011
  2. 2.  You will write a paragraph in which you describe places. You will study also:  Space order  Descriptive details  The order of adjectives  Prepositional phrases  Varying sentence openings. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 2 2011
  3. 3. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Organization  Writing a description means: telling what something – a person, an object, or a place looks like.  There are 2 keys to writing good descriptions:  Use space order to organize your description  Use lots of descriptive details. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 3 2011
  4. 4. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Organization  Space order is a way to organize your description of something. In space order you describe thing from top to bottom, bottom to top, left to right, right to left, near to far, far to near, outside to inside and inside to out side… etc. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 4 2011
  5. 5. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Organization  Topic sentence: the topic part usually names the person, place or thing to be described. The controlling idea part usually gives a general impression.  Example: The old house looked ready to fall down.  The concluding sentence: a. it may repeat the idea stated in the topic sentence. b. it may gives the writer’s opinion or feeling about the topic.  Example: In short, I think the old house will not survive one more month. ( feeling) ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 5 2011
  6. 6. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Organization  Describing something looks like painting a picture with word.  The goal is to make the reader see what is described.  You have to use a lot of details.  The more specific you can be, the better your reader can see what you are describing. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 6 2011
  7. 7. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Organization  Decide which space order to use  List your details in that order  Make an outline by adding a topic sentence, capital letters to each detail, and a concluding sentence. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 7 2011
  8. 8. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Grammar  Adjectives mean: words that describe nouns and pronouns.  Adjectives tell what things or people look like/ what kind they are/ how many of them there are.  Adjectives answer the questions: what kind? Which one? How many?  Adjectives always come before nouns such as I meet a pretty lady, or after linking verbs such as, Serena looks beautiful today.  A Compound adjective is a kind of adjectives that has more than one word and function together as one word. Example: ten-week semester.  Adjectives are always singular. Never add S to an adjective  Nouns can be adjectives, such as, the English book, a shoe store.  Proper adjectives( that refers to nationalities, languages, geographic places, …. ) are capitalized. Egyptian guy. Asian languages  Words with –ing and –ed can be adjectives: swimming pool, used car. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 8 2011
  9. 9. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Grammar  When you write several adjectives, some time you have to put them in a particular order, and sometimes you can choose your own order depending on the kind of adjectives. There are 2 kinds: cumulative adjective and coordinate adjectives Cumulative Adjectives CoordinateAdjectives They go before a noun They can go: before a noun or after a linking verb They must be in a particular The can be in any order order Don’t put commas between Use commas to separate cumulative adjectives them from each other Example: a poor hungry The boy was young, poor, young boy was crying. and hungry. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 9 2011
  10. 10. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Grammar Example: The two expensive big new white Italian stone wedding hall. Don’t use too Kind of adjective example many adjectives because it Articles, demonstrative The confuses the pronouns, possessives reader and Quantity two weaken the Opinion Expensive description. In Appearance Big general don’t age, color New, white use more than Nationality, religion Italian three cumulative Material, purpose Stone adjectives. Noun used as an adjective. Wedding ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 10 2011
  11. 11. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Grammar  Coordinate adjectives come before a noun: You can put and before the last one. (optional) A young, poor, andhungry boy was outside. A young, poor, hungry boy was outside. Don’t forget putting  After a linking verb: commas you must put and before the last one. (required) The boy was young, poor, and hungry. ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 11 2011
  12. 12. Chapter 4 Describing a PlaceSentence structure  Prepositions are little words such as of, to, from, in, on, at ……  A few prepositions are two words ( because of) or three words ( in front of)  A preposition is usually followed by a noun or noun phrase. To is sometime proposition and sometime another part of speech. We went to the market. ( to + noun phrase)= preposition We want to buy some fruit. ( to + verb)= infinitive verb phrase ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 12 2011
  13. 13. Chapter 4 Describing a PlaceSentence structure A preposition is usually followed by a noun or noun phrase. These make a prepositional phrase ( preposition + noun/ noun phrase)= Prepositional phrase. My pen is onthe table. Prepositional phrases Kind of paragraph Example Answer the question of Space order paragraph On the table where (place) Next to the window Answer the question of How to paragraph At last when (time) Before the test Possession - The color of the rainbow The name of my boss Describe or identify - The woman with black hair someone or something The girl in the blue shirt ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 13 2011
  14. 14. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Grammar You can start your sentence with prepositional phrase. This can help to improve your writing and vary your sentences. Sentences with objects:  Put the prepositional phrase, a comma, then your sentence. You have to study hard before the final exam. Before the final exam, you have to study hard. ( PP +,+ S)  Sentences begin with there is/are there was/were. Put the prepositional phrase, a comma, then your sentence. There is a book on the table. On the table, there is a book. ( PP +,+ S) Sentences with a subject and an intransitive verb: prepositional phrase can exchange places with subject. ( NO COMMA) A chair is in the corner. In the corner is a chair. (PP + verb+ subject) PP=Prepositional Phrase ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 14 2011
  15. 15. Chapter 4 Describing a Place Writing • Decide the space order. • Think about lots of specific details. Prewriting • Make your outline • Rough form • Topic sentence (place/ main idea) • Space order 1st Draft • Descriptive sentences/ a lot of specific details/ prepositional phrases • Concluding sentence ( feeling) • Checking your writing – make changes – correct the errors … • You have to check: 1- the paragraph as a whole( the meaning) Editing • 2- the paragraph form, organization, grammar …etc • Write a well paragraph that can be submitted to your teacher. The final copy ENGL 1220 - Sara Alshamran - 15 2011