Aj.Siwarak Kitchanapaibul School of Health ScienceMae Fah Luang University
Course code : 1804316Course name : Health Education and Behavioral ScienceFor : Bachelor of Public Health ProgramCredit : 3(3-0-6)
Assessment 1. Midterm Examination 35 % 2. Final Examination 35 % 3. Assignment 20 % 4. Class attendanceAssessment : Fix-rate 10 % From total : 100% Total 100 % > 80 A> 75 – 79 B+> 70 – 74 B > 65 – 69 C+ > 60 – 65 C > 55 – 59 D+ 3
Course ObjectivesAt the completion of the course students should be able to 1. Explain the principles and theories of health education and behavioral science. 2. Analyse a health behavior in order to identify its background, causes, and form a strategy to modify it. 3. Apply the principles and theories of health Education and behavioral Science to develop strategies for the modification and problem- solving in health behavior of the population.
Course contentIntroduction to course and the concept of health education and behavioral scienceTheory in health behavior and health educationModels of Individual health behavior 1 The Health Belief Model (HBM) Protection Motivation Theory (PMT)
Course contentModels of Individual health behavior 2 Theory of Planned Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of ChangeModels of Interpersonal Health Behavior Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Social network and Social support
Course contentCommunity and group model of health behavior change: Health CommunicationSocial MarketingThe methods of health educationThe methods of health educationHealth education and health promotion in schools.Health promotion in hospitalHealth promotion in communityHealth education and health promotion in workplacePlanning, Implementation and evaluate of Health Education programs
At the end of classstudents should be able to:Defined key definitions of health, health education, behavioral science, health behavior and health promotion.List the role of health educator.Defined terms related to antecedent of health education and health behavior.
Definition of healthThe World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1947 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
Definition of healthThe limitations of WHO’s definition of health 1. Health is dynamic not a state. 2. The dimensions are in adequate. 3. The definition is subjective. 4. Measurement is difficult. 5. The definition is too ideal and realistic. 6. Health is not an end but a means. 7. The definition lacks a community orientation.
Definition of healthThe WHOs 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion furthered that health is not just a state, but also "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."
The determinants of health.Income and social statusSocial support networksEducation and literacyEmployment/working conditionsSocial environmentsPhysical environments
The determinants of health.Personal health practices and coping skillsHealthy child developmentBiology and geneticsHealth care servicesGenderCulture
Behavior ScienceThe term behavioural sciences encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world.It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behavior through controlled and naturalistic observation, and disciplined scientific experimentation.
Behavior ScienceIt attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective conclusions through rigorous formulations and observationExamples of behavioral sciences include psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology.
BehaviorMerriam-Webster’s Dictionary defines behavior as anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation.A behavior is any overt action, conscious or unconscious, with a measurable frequency, intensity, and duration.
Behavior A behavior is any observable response of a person to a stimulus or an action that has a “specific frequency, duration and purpose whether conscious.” Internal responses such as thinking or feeling may be inferred from observable behavior. Behavior may also refer to hoe people react with one another as well as their environment and can be considered as a product of heredity, culture and environment.
BehaviorOvert behavior Overt behavior is any behavior that is observable by others. Covert behavior Covert behavior opposed to covert behavior which is not observable by others.
Any behavior is influenced by factors at fivelevel.1. Intrapersonal or Individual factors Individual characteristics that influence behavior, such as knowledge, attitudes, belief, and personality traits2. Interpersonal factors Interpersonal process and primary groups, including family, friends and peers that provide social identity, support, and role definition
3. Institutional or Organizational factors Rules, regulations, policies and informal structures, which may constrain or promote recommended behaviors4. Community factors Social networks and norms or standards which exist as formal or informal among individuals, groups, and organizations.5. Public policy factors Local, state and federal policies and laws that regulate or support healthy actions and practices for disease prevention, early detection, control and management.
Health behaviorThe World Health Organization (1998) defines health behavior as “ any activities under taken by an individual regardless of actual or perceived health status, for the purpose of promoting, protecting or maintaining health, wheather or not such behavior is objectively effective toward that end.
Health behaviorGochman (1997) defined health behavior as: “ those personal attributes such as beliefs, expectation, motives, values, perceptions and other cognitive elements; personality characteristics, including affective and emotional states and traits; and behavioral patterns, actions, and habits that related to health maintenance, to health restoration, and to health improvement.
Health behaviorKasl and Cobb define three catagories of health behavior as follow : Preventive health behavior any activity undertaken by an individual who believes himself to be healthy for the purpose of preventing or detecting illness in an asymptomatic state"
Health behaviorIllness behavior Any activity undertaken by an individual who perceives himself to be ill, to defined the state of health , and to discover a suitable remedy.
Health behaviorSick-role behavior Any activity undertaken by an individual who considers himself to be ill, for the purpose of getting well. It includes receiving treatment from medical providers, generally involves a whole range of dependent behaviors, and leads to some degree of exemption from one’s usual responsibilities.
Risk behaviorSpecifics forms of behaviors which are proven to be associated with increased susceptibility to a specific disease or ill-health.WHO 1998
Health – directed behaviors Health – directed behaviors are those behavior that person consciously pursues for health improvement or health protection.Health – related behaviors Health – related behaviors are those actions that are performed for reasons other than health but which have health effects.
Health educationHealth education is the profession that deals with facilitation of modifying health behavios.
The definition of health educationDownie, Fyfe and Tannahill (1990) defined it as “ communication activity aimed at enhancing positive health and preventing or diminishing ill- health in individual and groups through influencing the belief, attitudes and behavior of those with power and of the community at large.
The definition of health educationThe World Health Organization (1998) defined health education as “comprising consciously constructed opportunities for learning involving some form of communication designed to improve health literacy, including improving knowledge, and developing life skills which are conductive to individual and community health”
The definition of health educationGreen and Kreuter (1999) define health education as “any combination of learning experiences designed to predispose, enable and reinforce voluntary health behavior conductive to health in individuals, groups, or communities.
Aims of health educationMotivating people to adopt health-promoting behaviors by providing appropriate knowledge and helping to develop positive attitude.Helping people to make decisions about their health and acquire the necessary confidence and skills to put their decisions into practice.
Health educatorA health educator is an individual who specializes in health education through academic preparation and assists other individuals in making informed decisions in matters affecting their health.
Role of health educatorAssess need, asset and capacity for health education by variety method such as talking to the people and listening of their problems.Plan health education.Implement health educationConduct evaluation and research related to health education
Role of health educatorManage health educationCommunicate and advocate for health educationThe good health educator must helping people to look as their ideas so that could see which were the most useful and simplest to put into practice and encourage people to choose the idea best suited to their circumstances that mean health educator must use the participatory learning with people.
The definition of Health promotionGreen and Kreuter (1991) defined health promotion as “any planned combination of educational, political, regulatory and organizational supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups or communities”
The definition of Health promotionThe Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, 1986) defined health promotion as “The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health.”
The Ottawa Charter identified five keyaction strategies for health promotion :Building healthy public policy.Creating supportive environment.Strengthen community action.Develope personal skill.Reorient health services.
Terms that related to antecedent of healtheducation and health behaviorAttitude Attitude are favorable or unfavorable evaluative reactions or dispositions toward something, a situation, a person, or a group, exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior. An attitude that a person holds toward obesity, for example, will help to guide or influence behavior intentions with respect to the problem. For example: I (dis)like high-fat foods.
Awareness Awareness refers to becoming conscious about an action, idea, object, person, or situation. An example of building awareness is a health educator screening a film about avian flu in a community in which there have been no cases of avian flu and no one knows about this disease. However, if people are already aware of an issue for example, that smoking is harmful to health there is no need to build awareness regarding that issue.
Belief Beliefs are convictions that a phenomenon is true or real.In other words, beliefs are statements of perceived fact or impressions about the world. These are neither correct nor incorrect. For example, a student may enter a classroom and say that the classroom is big. She may be used to smaller classrooms, and thus from her perspective the current classroom seems big.
Values Values are highly esteemed cultural perspectives or beliefs shared and transmitted among people who hold a common history or identity. Value are enduring beliefs or systems of beliefs regarding whether a specific mode of conduct or end state of behavior is personally or socially preferable (Rokeach, 1970).
Communication Communication is the process by which message are transferred through a channel to a receiver and information is shared with other individuals.
Community health Community health is concerned with health promotion and education directed at populations rather than individuals, and involves the science and art of promoting health, preventing disease and prolonging life through organized community effort.
Culture Culture is the sum values and traditional ideas transmitted to individuals in a community over period of time or patterns of behavior acquired and transmitted by human group. Culture includes how people behave, think and communicate their values, attitudes, belief and mores.
Education Education is a complex process of experience influencing the way people perceived themselves in relation to their social and physical environments. It is a purposeful process for expediting learning.
Environment Environment encompasses the physical, social emotional and spiritual influences of human functioning and behavior, including animate and inanimate surroundings, and the external and internal surroundings that influence health and behavior.
ExercisesExplain why personal behaviors are important to health.List the top 5 causes of death in Thailand then explain health behaviors that related to causes of death.
References E.D. Klemke, R. Hollinger & A.D. Kline.(1980). Introductory Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Prometheus Books, New York: Prometheus. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons. Glanz, K., Marcus Lewis, F. & Rimer, B.K. (1997). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. National Institute of Health. Goshman, D. S. (1997). Handbook of health behavior research III: Demography, development, diversity. New York, NY: Plenum. Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1991). Health promotion planning: An educational and environmental approach. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. Naomi N. Modest. (1996). Dictionary of public health promotion and education: Terms and concept. California: SAGE Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes. (2001). International encyclopedia of the Social & Behavior Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier.