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Presentation 6.pptx

  1. 1. Concept of Public Health
  2. 2. Outline Presentation i. Major definitions of public health ii.History of public health theory and practice iii.Core areas of public health iv.The 10 essential public health operations (services)
  3. 3. Major definitions of public health
  4. 4. Public Health Defined i. “The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organized community efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private communities, and individuals.” —CEA Winslow
  5. 5. i. What is Public Health? Public health connects us all. Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. Public Health Defined
  6. 6. i. Public Health is concerned with the health of the whole population and the prevention of disease from which it suffers. ii. It is also one of the efforts organized by society to protect, promote, and restore the peoples’ health. Public Health Defined
  7. 7. i. It is the combination of sciences, skills and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective social actions. Public Health Defined
  8. 8. i. This work is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing and responding to infectious diseases. Public Health Defined
  9. 9. The Mission of Public Health i. “Fulfilling society’s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy.” — Institute of Medicine ii. “Public health aims to provide maximum benefit for the largest number of people.” — World Health Organization
  10. 10. WHY IS PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANT? 1.Public health professionals try to prevent problems from happening or recurring through implementing educational programs, recommending policies, administering services…
  11. 11. WHY IS PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANT? 1.and conducting research—in contrast to clinical professionals like doctors and nurses, who focus primarily on treating individuals after they become sick or injured.
  12. 12. WHY IS PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANT? 1.Public health also works to limit health disparities. A large part of public health is promoting health care equity, quality and accessibility.
  13. 13. Public Health Key Terms 1.Clinical care: prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by medical and allied health professions; also known as health care.
  14. 14. Public Health Key Terms 1) Factors that contributes to the generation of a trait. 2) Epidemic or outbreak: occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health- related behavior, or other health-related event clearly in excess of normal expectancy.
  15. 15. Public Health Key Terms 1)Both terms are used interchangeably; however, epidemic usually refers to a larger geographic distribution of illness or health- related events.
  16. 16. i. Health outcome: result of a medical condition that directly affects the length or quality of a person’s life. Public Health Key Terms
  17. 17. What is epidemiology? i. Epidemiology is the method used to find the causes of health outcomes and diseases in populations. ii. In epidemiology, the patient is the community and individuals are viewed collectively. Public Health Key Terms
  18. 18. i. By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighbourhood, school, city, state, country, global). Public Health Key Terms
  19. 19. i. It is also the application of this study to the control of health problems. Public Health Key Terms
  20. 20. What is public health surveillance? i. Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health-related data essential to planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practice. Public Health Key Terms
  21. 21. What are health disparities? i. Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence or in opportunities to achieve optimal health experienced by socially disadvantaged racial, ethnic and other population groups and communities. Public Health Key Terms
  22. 22. i. Achieving health equity, eliminating disparities and improving the health of all population groups are all goals of public health. Public Health Key Terms
  23. 23. Defining Health Promotion i. “Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.
  24. 24. Defining Health Promotion i. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment.
  25. 25. i. Health promotion is a guiding concept involving activities intended to enhance individual and community health well-being. ii. It seeks to increase involvement and control of the individual and the community in their own health. Public Health Key Terms
  26. 26. i. It acts to improve health and social welfare, and to reduce specific determinants of diseases and risk factors that adversely affect the health, well-being, and productive capacities of an individual or society, setting targets based on the size of the problem but also the feasibility of successful interventions, in a cost-effective way. Public Health Key Terms
  27. 27. i. Health promotion is a key element in public health and is applicable in the community, clinics or hospitals, and in all other service settings. ii. Raising awareness and informing people about health and lifestyle factors that might put them at risk requires teaching. Public Health Key Terms
  28. 28. The Elements of Health promotion comprises of :- 1.Addressing the population as a whole in health related issues , in every day life as well as people at risk for specific diseases: Public Health Key Terms
  29. 29. The Elements of Health promotion comprises of :- 2. Directing action to risk factors or causes of illness or death; 3. Undertaking activities approach to seek out and remedy risk factors in the community that adversely affect health; Public Health Key Terms
  30. 30. 4. Promoting factors that contribute to a better condition of health of the population; 5. Initiating actions against health hazards ,including communication ,education, legislation ,fiscal measures, organizational change ,community development , and spontaneous local activities ; Public Health Key Terms
  31. 31. 6. Involving public participation in defining problems ,deciding on action; 7. Advocating relevant environmental ,health , and social policy ; 8. Encouraging health professionals’ participation in health education and health policy. Public Health Key Terms
  32. 32. i. Prevention: Prevention refers to the goals of medicine that are to promote, to preserve, and to restore health when it is impaired, and to minimize suffering and distress. There are five levels of prevention: Public Health Key Terms
  33. 33. Public Health Key Terms 1. PRIMORDIAL PREVENTION: This primary prevention is purest in its sense. 2. It implies prevention of the emergence or development of risk factors in population groups in which they have not yet appeared. 3. The main intervention in primordial prevention is through individual & mass education.
  34. 34. i. Primary Prevention refers to those activities that are undertaken to prevent the disease and injury from occurring. ii. It works with both the individual and the community. Public Health Key Terms
  35. 35. i. It may be directed at the host, to increase resistance to the agent (such as immunization or cessation of smoking), or may be directed at environmental activities to reduce conditions favorable to the vector for a biological agent, such as mosquito vectors of malaria. Public Health Key Terms
  36. 36. 1.Secondary Prevention is the early diagnosis and management to prevent complications from a disease. 2. It includes steps to isolate cases and treat or immunize contacts to prevent further epidemic outbreaks. Public Health Key Terms
  37. 37. i. Tertiary Prevention involves activities directed at the host but also at the environment in order to promote rehabilitation, restoration, and maintenance of maximum function after the disease and its complications have stabilized. Public Health Key Terms
  38. 38. i. Providing a wheelchair, special toilet facilities, doors, ramps, and transportation services for paraplegics are often the most vital factors for rehabilitation. Public Health Key Terms
  39. 39. i. Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation is the process of restoring a person’s social identity by repossession of his/her normal roles and functions in society. Public Health Key Terms
  40. 40. i. It involves the restoration and maintenance of a patient’s physical, psychological, social, emotional, and vocational abilities. Public Health Key Terms
  41. 41. i. Interventions are directed towards the consequences of disease and injury. The provision of high quality rehabilitation services in a community should include the following: Public Health Key Terms
  42. 42. 1.Conducting a full assessment of people with disabilities and suitable support systems; 2.Establishing a clear care plan; 3.Providing measures and services to deliver the care plan. Public Health Key Terms
  43. 43. The History of Public Health
  44. 44. The History of Public Health Sanitation and Environmental Health 1. 500 BCE - Greeks and Romans practice community sanitation measures. 2. 1840s - The Public Health Act of 1848 was established in the United Kingdom. 3. 1970- The Environmental Protection Agency was founded
  45. 45. History of public Health i. In the Ancient Societies (before 500 BC) the history is that of archeological findings from the Indus valley (North India) around 2000 BC with the evidence of bathrooms and drains in homes and sewer below street level.
  46. 46. i. There was evidence of drainage systems in the middle kingdom of ancient Egypt in the time 2700 -2000 BC. ii. There were written records concerning public health, codes of Hammurabi of Babylon, 3900 years ago. History of public Health
  47. 47. i. The Book Of Leviticus (1500 BC) had guidelines for personal cleanliness, sanitation of campsites, disinfection of wells, isolation of lepers, disposal of refuse and hygiene of maternity. History of public Health
  48. 48. i. In The Classical Cultures (500 BC - 500 AD) public health was practiced as Olympics for physical fitness, community sanitation and water wells in the era golden age of ancient Greek; and aqueducts to transport water, sewer system, regulation on street cleaning and infirmaries for slaves by Romans. History of public Health
  49. 49. i. In the middle ages (500 - 1500 AD), health problems were considered as having spiritual cause and solutions. ii. They were supernatural powers for pagans and punishments for sins for Christians. History of public Health
  50. 50. i. Leprosy, plague (Black Death) during the 14th century and syphilis were some of the deadliest epidemics resulted from failure to consider physical and biological cause. History of public Health
  51. 51. i. The era of renaissance and exploration (1500 - 1700 AD) was the rebirth of thinking of about nature of the world and humankind. ii. There was a growing belief that diseases were caused by environment, not by spirits and critical thinking about disease causation e.g. "malaria" - bad air. History of public Health
  52. 52. i. In the eighteen century, there were problems of industrialization, urban slums leading to unsanitary conditions and unsafe work places. ii.Edward Jenner (1796) demonstrated vaccination against smallpox. History of public Health
  53. 53. i. In the nineteenth century there were still problems of industrialization but agricultural development led to improvements in nutrition and there was real progress towards understanding the causes of communicable diseases towards the last quarter of the century. History of public Health
  54. 54. i. The Luis Pasture's germ theory (1862) and Koch's Postulate (1876) were remarkable progresses. History of public Health
  55. 55. i. Twentieth century has been the period of health resources development (1900-1960), social engineering (1960 - 1973), health promotion (Primary Health Care), and market period (1985 and beyond). History of public Health
  56. 56. i. The challenge in the twenty first century are reducing the burden of excess morbidity and mortality among the poor; counter reacting the threats of economic crisis, unhealthy environment and lifestyle; developing more effective health system and investing in expanding knowledge base. History of public Health
  57. 57. i. The new public health is compressive in scope. ii. It relates to or encompasses all community and individual activities directed towards reducing factors that contribute to the burden of disease and foster those that relate directly to improved health. History of public Health
  58. 58. i. Its programs range from Immunization, health promotion, and childcare to food labeling and food fortification to the assurance of well managed, accessible health care service. History of public Health
  59. 59. i. The planning, management, and monitoring functions of a health system are indispensable in a world of limited resources and high expectations. History of public Health
  60. 60. i. This requires a well developed health information system to provide the feedback and control data needed for good management. History of public Health
  61. 61. i. It includes responsibilities and coordination at all levels of government and by non governmental organizations (NGO’S) and participation of a well-informed media and strong professional and consumer organization. History of public Health
  62. 62. i. No less important are clear designations of responsibilities of the individual for his/her own health, and of the provider of care for human, high quality professional care History of public Health

Editor's Notes

  • What is clinical care?
    The prevention, treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by medical and allied health professions; also known as health care.