HELPING CHILDREN WITH
VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS
EXPLORE, LEARN AND
COMMUNICATE USING
THE IPAD 

Julie Johnson, M. ED, TVI, ATS
An...
ABOUT JULIE






Teacher of the Visually Impaired with a certification in
Assistive Technology from California State ...
ABOUT ANDREA






Speech-Language Pathologist working primarily with
children 0-3 years of age, many of whom use AAC
B...
YOUR ROLE IN WORKING WITH
CHILDREN WITH VISUAL
IMPAIRMENTS

A. Teacher of the Visually Impaired / Orientation & Mobility
S...
OBJECTIVES


Identify outstanding iPad apps in the areas of
play, literacy and communication



Demonstrate the benefits...
THE IMPACT OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS ON
LEARNING IN YOUNG CHILDREN



Children who are typically developing learn an estimate...
THE IMPACT OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS
ON LEARNING IN YOUNG CHILDREN (CONT’D)



Children with vision loss are generally kinest...
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY (AT) IS….
“Any item, piece of equipment, or product system,
whether acquired commercially, off the sh...
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR
CHILDREN WITH VISUAL
IMPAIRMENTS
IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
Infants and toddlers with visual impairments ...
AT FOR COMMUNICATION

Smooth Talker

T10 by DynaVox
Technologies

Communication
Builder

iTalk2 Step
Communicator
AT FOR PLAY ACCESS

Jellybean
Switches

Power Link

Switch Accessible Light
Up Piano
AT FOR LITERACY ACCESS

Low-vision monocular

Perkin’s Brailler

Low-tech adapted book
IPAD

DISCLAIMER

The iPad is NOT, and will NEVER be, a replacement for
human interaction. We are not claiming a causal
re...
WHEN IS THE IPAD
APPROPRIATE?
“The iPad is a fabulous learning and teaching and
assistive technology tool. Of course, we a...
ANOTHER IPAD DISCLAIMER

The iPad is not always superior to other Assistive
Technology. A thorough AT assessment is always...
LITERACY APPS
LITERACY SKILLS AND THE IPAD


Looking and Recognizing -a child may be able to recognize the
picture of her mother in a l...
PICTELLO
PICTELLO (CON’D)


Recommended by Speech-Language Pathologists and
teachers of the visually impaired because of it’s
cust...
PICTELLO (CON’D)
PICTELLO (CON’D)
Reflective Question: How would
you engage with the child who
uses the Pictello app in this play
routine?
PLAY APPS
PLAY SKILLS AND THE IPAD

For children with visual impairments, the iPad can
facilitate key developmental play skills when...
PLAY SKILLS AND THE IPAD
(CONT’D)


Basic Cause and Effect- Touching the screen
makes the blue lights appear



Fine Mot...
PLAY APPS – CAUSE AND EFFECT


Cause and Effect: Noting a relationship between
actions or events such that one or more ar...
CAUSE AND EFFECT APPS & EARLY
COMMUNICATION
Description of
Activity
Sensory Light Box
Independent play
Nonverbal cause and...
CHOOSING CAUSE AND EFFECT APPS
FOR CHILDREN WITH VISUAL
IMPAIRMENTS


Troubleshooting: Cause and effect apps and visual
i...
TAP-N-SEE ZOO
TAP-N-SEE ZOO (CON’D)





What works?
What could be improved upon?
How would you make this interactive?
PLAY APPS AND SOCIAL SKILLS





Turn-taking
Cooperative play
Language stimulation
 Parallel talk – describe what chil...
PEEK-A-BOO BARN
PEEK-A-BOO BARN (CON’D)


Recommended by Dr. Christine Roman, a key research
expert on cortical visual impairments (CVI)
...
PEEK-A-BOO BARN (CON’D)
Description of
Activity
Access to skills via
touchscreen interface:
Independent play
Cause and eff...
PEEK-A-BOO BARN (CON’D)



Reflection: How would you integrate the use of real objects
or toys into your child/student’s ...
SKILLS DEMONSTRATED


The caregiver is fostering language development during an
age-appropriate play activity.



The ca...
EDA PLAY
EDA PLAY


An app designed specifically in cooperation with specialists in the
field of vision impairments.



Four inte...
EDA PLAY (CON’D)
EDA PLAY (CON’D)
Description of
Activity
Access to skills via
touchscreen interface
Independent play
Direct cause and effe...
EDA PLAY

(CON’D)

Reflection: What are some other ways
you could socially engage your student
or child using the EDA Play...
EDA PLAY (CON’D)

Can be used to teach a child the proper way to use a
dome magnifier to visually follow a line for
pre-li...
EDA PLAY (CON’D)

For the child learning to use a telescope, consider
holding the iPad at a distance and have the child
fo...
COMMUNICATION
AUGMENTATIVE & ALTERNATIVE
COMMUNICATION APPS


AAC: The use of modes of communication other than speech to
supplement or...
TALKBOARD
TALKBOARD (CON’D)



What went well?



What challenges occurred during this activity?



How did this child feel about...
MAKING A COMMUNICATION BOARD


Consider:
 Cell border
 Cell background color
 Visual simplicity



Helpful accessorie...
MAKING A COMMUNICATION BOARD (CON’D)

This is a less-than-perfect communication board made with TalkBoard.
Notice the clut...
MAKING A COMMUNICATION BOARD (CON’D)

The same communication board, with a few tweaks.
What has been changed? How could th...
ACCESSIBILITY AIDS: IPAD KEYGUARDS

www.laseredpics.biz

www.logan-technologies.co.uk

This iPad user can rest her hand
on...
ACCESSIBILITY AIDS: SWITCHES



For some children, direct access (i.e., touching the screen of the
iPad) is not the best...
SUMMARY


The iPad can be a fantastic tool for building literacy, play and
communication skills when it is incorporated i...
RESOURCES


iPad keyguards:
 www.laseredpics.biz
 www.beyondadaptive.com

Jane Farrall Consulting: www.janefarrall.com
...
RESOURCES (CON’D)


Adapted Innovation Blog: An AT Resource
adaptedinnovation.blogspot.com



Adapted Innovation Faceboo...
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Helping Children with Visual Impairments Explore, Learn and Communicate Using the iPAd

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This is the slide from the webinar presentation I did via Assistive Technology Coalition on December 5 about incorporating the iPad as a learning tool into a child with visual impairment's daily routine.

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  • Andrea is excited by iPad technology, which has expanded AAC options exponentially!
  • Interactivity poll about who is listening to the webinar. Who is our audience? Insert interactivity poll
  • Glasses ONLY address issues with acuity, not other problems with the visual system.
  • He may not understand that there is a complex world outside of himself, that he is separate from it, that he can both act on it and be the recipient of action.
    Review the defintion of assistive technology
  • Segway into assistive technology
  • Bullet point: There are so many apps to choose from! How do I choose an appropriate app for my child with visual impairment?
  • Troubleshooting: Parent Involvement
    My child loves cause and effect apps: How can I be involved in his/her play?
    Think of iPad play as an opportunity to build social skills and stimulate language growth!
  • This can be an extremely challenging task for an infant or toddler with a visual impairment.
  • Explain cell border
  • Helping Children with Visual Impairments Explore, Learn and Communicate Using the iPAd

    1. 1. HELPING CHILDREN WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS EXPLORE, LEARN AND COMMUNICATE USING THE IPAD  Julie Johnson, M. ED, TVI, ATS Andrea Schario, M.A., CCC-SLP
    2. 2. ABOUT JULIE     Teacher of the Visually Impaired with a certification in Assistive Technology from California State at Dominguez Hills Currently employed at the Delta Gamma Center for Children with Visual Impairments in St. Louis, MO Research in iPad accessibility, switch access, and literacy for children with visual impairments Content creator and contributor to Adapted Innovation Assistive Technology Blog
    3. 3. ABOUT ANDREA    Speech-Language Pathologist working primarily with children 0-3 years of age, many of whom use AAC B.A. in Communication Disorders from Truman State University and M.A. in Speech-Language Pathology from The University of Iowa Independent practioner and former member of the Augmentative & Alternative Communication (AAC) Team at St. Louis Children’s Hospital
    4. 4. YOUR ROLE IN WORKING WITH CHILDREN WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS A. Teacher of the Visually Impaired / Orientation & Mobility Specialist B. Paraprofessional C. Related Service Provider (Speech/Language Pathologist, Occupational Therapist, Physical Therapist, etc.) D. Parent E. Other
    5. 5. OBJECTIVES  Identify outstanding iPad apps in the areas of play, literacy and communication  Demonstrate the benefits of using the iPad during hands-on learning experiences for children with visual impairments  Define Augmentative & Alternative Communication (AAC) and describe how an iPad can be used as an AAC device  Explain how cause-and-effect apps can support early communication development  Name and describe strategies or tools that can be used to improve access to AAC apps for children with visual impairments
    6. 6. THE IMPACT OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS ON LEARNING IN YOUNG CHILDREN  Children who are typically developing learn an estimated 80% of their skills through vision.  Children with visual impairments need to learn these same skills by using their other senses.  Children with visual impairments also benefit from modification to the environment.
    7. 7. THE IMPACT OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS ON LEARNING IN YOUNG CHILDREN (CONT’D)  Children with vision loss are generally kinesthetic learners.  They learn about the world through play and exploration.  They learn with the help of assistive technology.
    8. 8. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY (AT) IS…. “Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such a device.” –(IDEA, 2004)
    9. 9. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR CHILDREN WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Infants and toddlers with visual impairments need assistive technology in early childhood for the following reasons: Access to communication Access to play Access to literacy Access to the family computer 
    10. 10. AT FOR COMMUNICATION Smooth Talker T10 by DynaVox Technologies Communication Builder iTalk2 Step Communicator
    11. 11. AT FOR PLAY ACCESS Jellybean Switches Power Link Switch Accessible Light Up Piano
    12. 12. AT FOR LITERACY ACCESS Low-vision monocular Perkin’s Brailler Low-tech adapted book
    13. 13. IPAD DISCLAIMER The iPad is NOT, and will NEVER be, a replacement for human interaction. We are not claiming a causal relationship between iPad use and mastery of play, language or literacy skills.
    14. 14. WHEN IS THE IPAD APPROPRIATE? “The iPad is a fabulous learning and teaching and assistive technology tool. Of course, we always need to keep good practice in mind when using it. We always need to consider the student, the environment and the task when picking the best tool for each situation…. And always remember that the iPad is only a tool – we need to make the decisions about how to use it well and it isn’t suitable for everything and everyone.” -Jane Farral, CCC-SLP, Speech-Language Pathologist, Special Educator and AT Consultant (2011)
    15. 15. ANOTHER IPAD DISCLAIMER The iPad is not always superior to other Assistive Technology. A thorough AT assessment is always recommended to determine appropriate device options, e.g.,SETT Framework, FEET Assessment .
    16. 16. LITERACY APPS
    17. 17. LITERACY SKILLS AND THE IPAD  Looking and Recognizing -a child may be able to recognize the picture of her mother in a literacy app on the iPad because of the LED backlight on the screen.  Picture and Story Comprehension- the iPad offers several apps that provide opportunities for a parent and child to create personalized, interactive stories that increase understanding of sequencing events.  Reading Exposure-the iPad offers ways for a child to increase verbal interaction during story time such as babbling in imitation of reading.
    18. 18. PICTELLO
    19. 19. PICTELLO (CON’D)  Recommended by Speech-Language Pathologists and teachers of the visually impaired because of it’s customizable voice over feature (users can record a family member’s voice)  Users can easily create social stories with personal pictures that can help a child transition from one activity to the next within his or her daily routine.  The child activates the voice over feature within the app by touching the picture on the screen  A child with no vision can benefit from this app by touching middle of the screen and activating the text to speech voice over feature.
    20. 20. PICTELLO (CON’D)
    21. 21. PICTELLO (CON’D) Reflective Question: How would you engage with the child who uses the Pictello app in this play routine?
    22. 22. PLAY APPS
    23. 23. PLAY SKILLS AND THE IPAD For children with visual impairments, the iPad can facilitate key developmental play skills when incorporated into hands-on activities.
    24. 24. PLAY SKILLS AND THE IPAD (CONT’D)  Basic Cause and Effect- Touching the screen makes the blue lights appear  Fine Motor Abilities - tracing different types of lines or shapes with his or her index finger, swiping to turn a page in an adapted book app  Pretend Play - where a child uses his or her imagination to complete a task or activity within an app  Social/Emotional- a child can take turns completing tasks with in an app with sibling, friend or parent seated beside them
    25. 25. PLAY APPS – CAUSE AND EFFECT  Cause and Effect: Noting a relationship between actions or events such that one or more are the result of the other or others.  iPad play can be a motivating and exciting way for children to solidify their understanding of cause and effect! What does using play-based apps have to do with communication?
    26. 26. CAUSE AND EFFECT APPS & EARLY COMMUNICATION Description of Activity Sensory Light Box Independent play Nonverbal cause and effect Intentional communication via use of gesture Child points to bottle Mom brings bottle Cause Effect
    27. 27. CHOOSING CAUSE AND EFFECT APPS FOR CHILDREN WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS  Troubleshooting: Cause and effect apps and visual impairment There are so many apps to choose from! How do I choose an appropriate app for my child with visual impairment?  In iTunes, a search for “educational games for kids” returns 1874 results! Consider:  Visual simplicity and high contrast  Multisensory feedback  Large target areas  Auditory reinforcers that are interesting, motivating and varied  Language learning opportunities
    28. 28. TAP-N-SEE ZOO
    29. 29. TAP-N-SEE ZOO (CON’D)    What works? What could be improved upon? How would you make this interactive?
    30. 30. PLAY APPS AND SOCIAL SKILLS    Turn-taking Cooperative play Language stimulation  Parallel talk – describe what child is doing/seeing/hearing (e.g., “you are touching the bear”)  Description – describe what the child is interacting with (e.g., “that’s a yellow giraffe!”)  Repetition – repeat what the child has said (e.g., “oooh!”, “wow!”)
    31. 31. PEEK-A-BOO BARN
    32. 32. PEEK-A-BOO BARN (CON’D)  Recommended by Dr. Christine Roman, a key research expert on cortical visual impairments (CVI)  In order for the child to open the barn door in this app, the child has to maintain visual attention on the red barn, bring his or her hands to mid-line and touch the screen.   The child’s voice over feature models age appropriate speech and language development for the infant or toddler.
    33. 33. PEEK-A-BOO BARN (CON’D) Description of Activity Access to skills via touchscreen interface: Independent play Cause and effect Visual motor coordination Language acquisition Child experiences farm life as a hands on experience Child applies lessons to pretend play Cause Effect
    34. 34. PEEK-A-BOO BARN (CON’D)  Reflection: How would you integrate the use of real objects or toys into your child/student’s interaction with the PeekA-Boo Barn app?
    35. 35. SKILLS DEMONSTRATED  The caregiver is fostering language development during an age-appropriate play activity.  The caregiver is presenting the child with actual objects that can be touched, bringing the app to life.  The iPad becomes a multi-sensory learning experience between caregiver and child.
    36. 36. EDA PLAY
    37. 37. EDA PLAY  An app designed specifically in cooperation with specialists in the field of vision impairments.  Four interactive visual task levels and fine motor task levels that can be adjusted depending on the child’s skill level.  The Skills section records the child’s progress over time so parents and caregivers can see how their child has advanced.  The child’s voice in the app gives clear directions and acts as an audio guide for those with significant vision loss or no vision.
    38. 38. EDA PLAY (CON’D)
    39. 39. EDA PLAY (CON’D) Description of Activity Access to skills via touchscreen interface Independent play Direct cause and effect Visual motor coordination Sound exploration Child hears the teacher play drums Child imitates the sound on the toy drum when her hand hits the surface Cause Effect
    40. 40. EDA PLAY (CON’D) Reflection: What are some other ways you could socially engage your student or child using the EDA Play app?
    41. 41. EDA PLAY (CON’D) Can be used to teach a child the proper way to use a dome magnifier to visually follow a line for pre-literacy and literacy activities.
    42. 42. EDA PLAY (CON’D) For the child learning to use a telescope, consider holding the iPad at a distance and have the child follow the movement of the train across the screen.
    43. 43. COMMUNICATION
    44. 44. AUGMENTATIVE & ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION APPS  AAC: The use of modes of communication other than speech to supplement or provide an alternative for spoken communication.  Communication involves TWO (or more) people and is inherently interactive.  The focus of this webinar is on symbol-based apps for children who are preliterate.
    45. 45. TALKBOARD
    46. 46. TALKBOARD (CON’D)  What went well?  What challenges occurred during this activity?  How did this child feel about using AAC?
    47. 47. MAKING A COMMUNICATION BOARD  Consider:  Cell border  Cell background color  Visual simplicity  Helpful accessories:  Keyguards  Give access to a larger number of messages while limiting “miss-hits”  Provide tactile cues (a user can find a desired button “by feel”)  Must be customized for specific apps  Switches with bluetooth interface  Typically used when direct access (i.e., touching the screen with a finger) is not an ideal option
    48. 48. MAKING A COMMUNICATION BOARD (CON’D) This is a less-than-perfect communication board made with TalkBoard. Notice the cluttered background, small picture size, and lack of highlighted cell borders.
    49. 49. MAKING A COMMUNICATION BOARD (CON’D) The same communication board, with a few tweaks. What has been changed? How could this board be improved further?
    50. 50. ACCESSIBILITY AIDS: IPAD KEYGUARDS www.laseredpics.biz www.logan-technologies.co.uk This iPad user can rest her hand on the screen of the iPad without accidentally hitting any buttons. www.laseredpics.biz
    51. 51. ACCESSIBILITY AIDS: SWITCHES   For some children, direct access (i.e., touching the screen of the iPad) is not the best option due to motor and/or visual impairment Switches can allow for improved access to play/literacy/AAC apps  Consider:  multisensory input (visual/auditory/tactile)  switch size  touch pressure  Bluetooth switch interface required (e.g., Bluetooth Switch Interface by R.J. Cooper; Blue2 Switch by Ablenet, Inc.) Large Lens Switch (Enabling Devices) Big Red Switch (Ablenet, Inc) Switch & Glow (Enabling Devices)
    52. 52. SUMMARY  The iPad can be a fantastic tool for building literacy, play and communication skills when it is incorporated into motivating and meaningful interactions between caregiver and child.  Consider app features and accessibility aids when using the iPad with young children with visual impairments.
    53. 53. RESOURCES  iPad keyguards:  www.laseredpics.biz  www.beyondadaptive.com Jane Farrall Consulting: www.janefarrall.com  Perkins School for the Blind: www.perkins.org  Robinson, N.B. & Sadao, K.C.: Assistive Technology for Young Children: Creating Inclusive Learning Environments. Brooks Publishing, 2010.  AT Evaluation Models:   SETT:  http://www.joyzabala.com/  FEET:  Student, Environment, Tasks & Tools Functional Evaluation for Assistive Technology Available at nprinc.com
    54. 54. RESOURCES (CON’D)  Adapted Innovation Blog: An AT Resource adaptedinnovation.blogspot.com  Adapted Innovation Facebook Page www.facebook.com/adaptedinnovation  Julie Johnson’s Scoop It page www.scoop.it/julie-ann-johnson
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