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Severe Vision Impairment


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Severe Vision Impairment

  1. 1. Severe Vision Impairment  Jennifer Singh 3004817841
  2. 2. Content  Meeting Laila  Severe Vision Impairment  How Does Our Vision Work?  Vision Chart  Children and their Enviornment  Modifying the Environment  Guidelines for Teachers  Areas of Development  Possible Ideas for Activities  Resources & Agencies in Local Area  Final thoughts  Biblography2
  3. 3. Meet Laila  Laila is a 15 month old infant. She has been diagnosed with severe vision impairment. Her parents are concerned about her safety and how she will form friendships. The family has been living in Toronto all their lives3
  4. 4. Meet LailaWhat Laila and her Family Will Need:  Resources to understand Severe Vision Impairment  Inclusive Environment  Support from child care center  Agencies and programs in the community that will Laila and her family4
  5. 5. Severe Vision Impairment A visual impairment takes place when a portion of the optical system is defective, diseased, or malfunctions. If the visual impairment is caused by a defective part, it is usually present at birth. The eye specialist (ophthalmologist/optometrist) is qualified to identify or diagnose these concerns. A visual impairment can also occur when the central nervous system is damaged. The brain controls and coordinates the optical system as well as interprets the visual stimuli sent to it by the eyes. 5
  6. 6. How Does Our Vision Work? Our vision is an structured process. It is composed of the optical system (eyes, eye muscles, optic nerve) and the perceptual system (brain). Perfect vision requires all systems to be in order. Optical components (eyes, eye muscles, optic nerve) collects visual stimuli and sends them to the brain. The brain identifies, classifies, and files stimuli in memory. The brain sends instructions to the body regarding how to respond to an object or situation. In order for the optical system to function properly, the brain must be capable of detecting the adjustments (the eye alignment, pupil response, lens adjustment). It must also be able to process information it has already received. Brain malfunction can cause failure in both optical and perceptual systems. This results in a visual impairment. Light rays move through the cornea (where they are bent slightly, or refracted), they continue on through the aqueous, then through the lens (which makes additional refractive adjustments) and finally through the vitreous, where they are focused on the macular area of the retina. The retina starts the sorting process and sends the images (by electrical impulses) through the optic nerve to the brain. Any defect or malfunction at any point of the visual process can result in impaired vision. 6
  7. 7. How Does Our Vision Work?7
  8. 8. Vision Chart • This chart reflects the development of Laila’s visionAge Normal Vision Development1 Month Follows moving object; regards face2 Months Eyes fixate, converge and focus. Child can follow vertical movements; prefers faces, attends to objects up to 6 feet away. Child becomes aware of bright lights and colours (yellow, orange and red)3 Months Eye movements become smoother4 Months Eyes begin to shift focus; recognize familiar faces, visually explores surroundings, capable of horizontal, vertical and circular eye movements but uncoordinated5 Months Eye hand coordination developed. Child can gaze at objects close to eyes6 Months Eye movements are coordinated and smooth, child can shift visual attention easily. Child can recognize faces up to 6 feet away. Begins to anticipate position of falling object. (20/200 vision)7 Months Manipulates objects, depth perception begins to develop8 Months Turns objects in hand and observes them visually9-10 Months Can see tiny objects nearby, observes facial expressions and tries to imitate. Child looks for objects hidden. Visually alert to new environments12 Months Near and far acuity is good, binocular vision is strong. Child has focus and good depth perception. 812-18 Months Vertical Orientation (walking, building block towers) develops, points to pictures in books, matches identical objects
  9. 9. What Does This Mean for aChild and Their Environment?  Psychological factors play a meaningful role in vision. Sensory integration (the ability of the brain to make sense out of all sensory input) is extremely important. If the child has optical aids (e.g. magnification, telescopes, glasses) visual perception (the ability to make sense of visual information) is critical. Cognitive skills can motivate children to learn, and understand abstract concepts. Personality characteristics such as curiosity, motivation, and perseverance can play a part towards the developing a child’s understanding of their vision.  Environmental factors color, contrast, time, space, and illumination. Some children may rely on color cues, while others need variation of printed or graphic materials. Many children need good lighting. Some children may require extra time when using vision for tasks, and others might find it easier when pictures, words, or numbers are displayed differently. The ECE and teachers in the room can make suggestions for visual comfort and efficiency, based on each childs individual needs. 9
  10. 10. Modifying the Physical Environment Modifying the Physical Environment Safety: Modify stairs such as adding non-slip rubber mats. Add different colours and stripes to the areas with stairs. Position rubber covers or rubber stoppers on sharp corners. Decrease the amount of obstacles present in room - make sure the room is always kept tidy and free of unnecessary objects and clutter. Modifying the Physical Environment Sensory Cues: Use a varieties and different types of shelving that have textures. Have specific textures to define certain toys. Use auditory cues to associate with specific transitions. All of the signs and labels around the room should also have a raised image, braille, or a texture. Outline spaces with specific textures on the floor such as carpets, tiles, wood. Lighting should be placed behind the child. Teaching Strategies should incorporate toys and activities that stimulate the child’s other 4 senses. For example, when reading a book make sure you allow the child to hold objects that are in the book. Direct the child’s body when singing active songs like head and shoulders and rolleypolley.10
  11. 11. Teacher’s Guidelines for Visually Impaired Children 1. Lack of vision, in itself, does not inhibit learning, but lack of opportunity to function does. 2. The less interaction (socially, and with objects) there is, the less cognitive growth there will be. 3. The child must act upon, not be acted upon. 4. If you cant take the child to the world, bring the world to the child. 5. Critical to the visually impaired child is his/her inability to observe the results of actions ("what happens when..."). Help to alleviate this potential problem by providing verbal, tactual and concrete experiences. 6. Motoric experience/development teaches spatial orientation and spatial imagery. 7. "Motor" the visually impaired child through actions, to teach him/her the imitation of movement. Use hand over hand, arm to arm or leg to leg motion to help communicate.11 Bishop, Virgina,"Preschool Children with Visual Impairments by Virginia Bishop." Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. < >.
  12. 12. Teacher’s Guidelines forVisually Impaired Children 8. Use play as a teaching technique. Use real things; manipulate objects; structure experiences to permit the child to discover for himself/herself "what happens if..." You cant play until you have mental imagery, which is acquired through experience. 9. Representations of things (eg. pictures) must follow concrete experience, and they precede mental imagery. 10. Language is the manipulation of symbolic representations (words). Echolalia is speech without language; verbalisms are a kind of echolalia. 11. Concrete reasoning precedes abstract thought. 12. When internalization of things/objects (mental imagery) occurs, the child is ready to begin to think, and NOT BEFORE! 13. Provide an explanation of what will happen next; because the child cannot see visual cues, she/he may be unaware of activities to follow. 14. If there are visitors (e.g.observers) in the classroom, make a casual statement to this effect (e.g. "We have some visitors today who want to see how nicely we work.12 Bishop, Virgina, "Preschool Children with Visual Impairments by Virginia Bishop." Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. < >.
  13. 13. Role of the Teacher  This video shows the role and functions of a teacher of students with visual impairments. It helps show teachers what they can expect and how to plan activities. This video also shows different techniques teacher use in the classroom and can offer parents ideas to use at home. 
  14. 14. Critical Areas of Motor: Development - Mobility (encourage exploration) - Body Image (play body games) - Body in Space (MOVE to learn spatial concepts such as up, down, over, under, on top, underneath, above, behind, in front, in back, etc. Cognitive: - Object Permanence (that objects continue to exist even though they are not visible) - Cause/Effect (use toys, blocks, etc.) - Environmental Events ("motor" the child through the motions) - Sensory Awareness/Discrimination (developed through manipulation) - Seriation (nesting toys, rows or "lines" of objects) - Comparisons (size, shape, height, weight, etc.; grouping and classification) - One to one Correspondence ("one for you and one for me") Self Help: (VITAL) - Eating (its messy; be patient) - Dressing (practice with large fasteners first) - Grooming (washing/drying hands; combing/brushing hair)14 Bishop, Virgina, "Preschool Children with Visual Impairments by Virginia Bishop." Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. < >.
  15. 15. Critical Areas of Development  Social/Personal: -Social Interactions ("me" vs "notme") - Imitation (gestures; manners) - Play (experience with real things first) - Conversation as a Social Skill.  Language: - Nouns and Verbs (must have meaning! Provide labels for things and experiences.) - Pronouns (separation of "me" from "notme") - Adjectives/Adverbs (concepts and comparisons can help here)  LOTS OF CONCRETE EXPERIENCES! Words need meaning. Meanings may not be observed automatically and labeled incidentally.15 Bishop, Virgina, "Preschool Children with Visual Impairments by Virginia Bishop." Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. < >.
  16. 16. Possible Ideas for Activities  Motor Activities Gross motor: • marching, running, jumping, hopping, climbing, rolling, stretching, twisting • Games at circle (where children hold hands, follow directions, do directed movements, e.g., "The Hokey Pokey") action songs Fine motor: • finger plays (e.g., "Where is Thumbkin," "Two Little Blackbirds," "Eensy, Weensy Spider," etc.) • pounding (play dough, clay, bread dough) and kneading • block play (cubes, Lego, etc.) • finger painting and "pudding painting" • "school skills:" coloring, cutting, pasting, tracing stencils (both with fingers and with a writing tool)16
  17. 17. Possible Ideas for Activities  Sensory Activities Using Vision: • Treasure Hunt (using large or brightly colored objects) • talking about what things look like (shape, size, color, weight, texture) • looking for things in the environment that resemble circles, squares, triangles, rectangles Using Hearing: • listening games (e.g., "Simon Says“ “Eye Spy”) • singing songs • listening for sounds in the environment (e.g., birds, traffic, airplanes, voices, motors) “eg. Sound bingo”17
  18. 18. Possible Ideas for Activities Using Touch: • sorting by touch (e.g., texture blocks, cloth samples) • talking about what things feel like (e.g., smooth, rough, soft, hard, furry, "picky," bumpy, etc.) • guess whats in the box, purely through touch) • tracing raised lines • sorting shapes blindfolded (GOOD EXPERIENCE FOR ALL CHILDREN) Using Smell:. • talking about how things smell • pointing out particular and specific smells • used film cans, filled with things that have unique smells, e.g., chocolate, vanilla, vinegar, orange peel, mint, licorice – helps child identify and remember18
  19. 19. Possible Ideas for Activities  Cooking Activities – Great way to demonstrate physical changes. • Make: popcorn, Jello, fudge, applesauce, meatloaf, hamburgers, hard-boiled eggs, cookies, smores, Rice Krispies squares • Bake: a cake, gingerbread, potatoes, cookies • Stirr dry beans, macaroni, rice, mud • Fine Motor: placing one M&M on each cookie • Setting the table as one-to-one correspondence practice and self-help training.19
  20. 20. Possible Ideas for Activities  Science Activities – Great way to demonstrating physical change and concept of matter. • Plant seeds and watch them grow, record daily observations. • Check the weather • Boil water – feel water vapour, encourage dialogue • Freeze water into ice, melt ice into water. • Talk about temperature; relate it to weather, personal comfort, needs of plants and animals.20
  21. 21. Possible Ideas for Activities  Play • Dress-up • Use a toy telephone for conversation, play house etc • Use a sand table or water table for "messing" and pouring. • Perform housekeeping activities with real but small-sized implements (e.g., broom, iron & iron board, dishes, etc.) • Make a "mailbox" from a cardboard box and paint it to look like a real comer mailbox; "send letters." ("Letters" should be identifiable, and "delivered" to the right recipients.) • Act out stories; devise original dialogue when needed.  Field Trips and Visits – Experiences should be as practical and "hands-on" as possible. • Visit as many community resources as much as possibe (e.g., grocery store, bakery, firehouse, airport, post office, farm where children can touch the animals) • Nature walks – allow child to touch and feel surroundings (with interaction with the environment, such as putting arms around a tree trunk, wading in a stream, collecting leaves or shells or stones, comparing the shapes of leaves, smelling pine trees, etc.)21
  22. 22. Resources & Agencies in Local Area Educational & Medical Ophthalmologist: a medical doctor who has specialized in the treatment of eye defects/diseases. Are capable of performing eye surgery and prescribing drugs. Optometrist: a nonmedical but licensed practitioner who can measure refractive errors and prescribe glasses. Can prescribe optical devices in special cases. Optician: A trained technician who makes glasses; creates the lenses to prescriptions, fits them into frames, and adjusts frames to the wearer. Early Childhood Educator: “observes, participates in creating and implementing IPP’s, making adaptations in the environment, supports families, links with other professionals, and much more” Special Education Teacher: “Specialty teacher who overseas and may also implement the education and development of children with special needs” Resource Teacher or Consultant: “promote the inclusion of children with special needs in the childcare community, gather information in relation to children with special needs, assist families and childcare staff in identifying strengths, needs and goals for the child with special needs, access and coordinate resources to support children, families and childcare staff, develop appropriate strategies and service plans to support inclusion of the child with special needs and interact with related professionals in the community” 22 Bishop, Virgina, "Preschool Children with Visual Impairments by Virginia Bishop." Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. < >.
  23. 23. Resources & Agencies in Local Area  The Early Intervention Program (CNIB) 1929 Bayview Avenue TORONTO, ON M4G 3E8 HELP LINE: 1-800-563-2642 PHONE: (416) 486-2500 - Ext. 7616 FAX: (416) 480-7028 WEBSITE: Central Contact: Office of Beverley Ginon - Ext.7616 who will direct you to the service nearest you Sponsoring Agencies: Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) Area: Ontario Division Population Served: Families and their children up to 6 years who are blind or visually impaired  Services: rehabilitation and support. CNIB’s shop offers products that can help make tasks easier. Has one of the worlds largest libraries designed for people who have challenges with reading traditional printed books. Provides workshops, support classes and group meetings. 23
  24. 24. Resources & Agencies in Local  Area Family Support Network 1645 Sheppard Avenue West TORONTO, ON M3M 2X4 PHONE: (416) 633-0515 FAX: (416) 633-7141 WEBSITE: E-mail: E-mail: Contact: Barbara Powell/Rochelle Fine Sponsoring Agency: The Hincks-Dellcrest Centre/Community Prevention Program Area: North York West of Bathurst Population Served: Isolated families and/or children (0 to 7 years) with or at risk of, developmental delas, and/or parents requesting parenting support  “We provide approach to infant and young child development in family-centred intervention that is responsive to parent strengths, competencies and priorities, and is based on up-to-date research data regarding evidence-based practices. Infant and child development consultants provide the expertise needed to assist the family to make informed decisions regarding goals and objectives for their child that will support optimal development and functional outcomes.”  Services: formal and informal assesments, interventions, help families find community resources, support children in transitions, programs in place to support family and child’s specific needs, supportive counciling 24
  25. 25. Resources & Agencies in Local Area  COTA Health 700 Lawrence Avenue West, Suite 362 TORONTO, ON M6A 3B4imgres PHONE: (416) 785-9230 FAX: (416) 795-9358 WEBSITE: Contact: Carey Lucki, Manager of Client Services Ext. 1103 Sponsoring Agencies: Community Care Access Centres Area: Toronto Central LHIN, Central LHIN, Mississauga Halton LHIN, Central West LHIN, Central East LHIN Population Served: Families with infants and children with physical, functional, and/or sensory motor needs  Services: provider of mental health and community support services; case management, supportive housing, short-term residential beds, an adult day program, court and justice-related services and outreach to individuals who are homeless or living in shelters. 25
  26. 26. Final Thoughts  It is important to remember thateverything and anything is possible. We (parents and teachers) should have great expectations, we should provide infinite training and education, and keep every door of opportunity open for our children. Nothing should stop a person from accomplishing goals and fulfilling their dreams and it is important to teach that in our children  It is our job to assist children in becoming independent and knowledgeable adults who will have the same oppertunities as every other child out there in the world.  Remember, there are no limits 
  27. 27. Resources & Agencies in Local Area  North York General Hospital - Branson Division 555 Finch Avenue West 5th Floor TORONTO, ON M2R 1N5 PHONE: (416) 632-8703 FAX: (416) 632-8704 WEBSITE: E-mail: Executive Director: Clara Will Sponsoring Agencies: Adventure Place Child & Family Centre Area: North Quadrant Toronto (formerly North York) Population Served: Children birth to 6 years of age who are experiencing (or are at risk of experiencing) difficulties in one or more of the following areas: behavioural, social, emotional, communication and/or developmental  Services: medical support to families, address concerns and share resources in the community, provide additional support with follow up care 27
  28. 28. Biblography  Bishop, Virgina, "Preschool Children with Visual Impairments by Virginia Bishop." Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. < >.  Supporting children with visual impairments. (n.d.). Education articles, resources and products. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Apple: How iPads could help children with severe vision impairments see the light | Mail Online. (n.d.). Home | Mail Online. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Vision impairment. (n.d.). CYH Home. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from
  29. 29. Biblography  Vision Impairment Or Blindness - Circle of Moms. (n.d.). Circle of Moms - Online mom groups, mom blogs, and parenting resources around motherhood, new.... Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  About Us. (n.d.). The National Coalition for Vision Health. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Ages & Stages Hand Book  McCaie, L. Connectability-inclusion workshop, 2013  McCaie,L. Adaptive learning environment, 2013  McCaie, L. The role of the early childhood educator,2013  McCaie, L. Connectability-giving instructions, 2013  McCaie, L. Inclusion of children with special needs, 201329
  30. 30. Biblography  1, L. E. (n.d.). CDC - Kids Quest - Vision Loss - NCBDDD. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Porter, P. (n.d.). blind children | Lighthouse for the Visually Impaired and Blind. Lighthouse for the Visually Impaired and Blind | Helping the Visually Impaired and Blind. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from   Visual Impairment in Children: Identifying Causes, Signs & Symptoms and Learning How To Support Them. xixi12 on HubPages. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Holiday Guide for Parents of Children Who Are Visually Impaired - FamilyConnect . (n.d.). FamilyConnect . Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Lighthouse International - Services for Children & Youth. (n.d.). Lighthouse International. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Round Rock ISD : Teaching Students with Visual Impairments. (n.d.). Round Rock ISD : MAIN SITE HOME. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from
  31. 31. Bibliography  Rubber Tiles & Pavers. (n.d.). Rubber All. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from   Pre-School for Blind Children | Education for Blind Children. (n.d.). Welcome to Resources for the Blind. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from  Paths to Literacy | for students who are blind or visually impaired. (n.d.). Paths to Literacy | for students who are blind or visually impaired. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from