Should I Build With
Open Source Software?
Joe Levy
IEEE/ACM Information Technology Professional Conference
at TCF
March 14...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 2
Open Source Myths
● Open Source software isn't in the mainstream
● You have to give away y...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 3
Introduction
● What is Open Source?
● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time
● Building with Op...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 4
Disclaimer
● I am not an attorney!
● I am not an Intellectual Property expert!
– Discussio...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 5
What is Open Source?
● One of many protocols for the management of
Intellectual Property (...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 6
What is Open Source?
● A protocol for managing intellectual property,
combining copyright ...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 7
What is Open Source?
● An Open Source license is permission to
develop & extend
● Open Sou...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 8
Where did it come from?
● Richard M. Stallman
● GNU Project (1983)
● Free Software
Foundat...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 9
Introduction
● What is Open Source?
● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time
● Building with Op...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 10
Where is Open Source?
U.S.S. Zumwalt (DDG-1000)
Photo of U.S.S. Zumwalt from:
http://farm...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 11
Where is Open Source?
● U.S.S. Zumwalt IT Infrastructure
– The Navy moves from custom to ...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 12
Where is Open Source?
Photo of U.S.S. Zumwalt Electronic Modular Enclosure, from:
http://...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 13
Where is Open Source?
Tactical applications can be proprietary, classified, or open sourc...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 14
Who Uses Open Source?
Captain James A. Kirk Richard M. Stallman
Photo of Richard M. Stall...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 15
Risk-Adverse Management
● 1970's:
– "Nobody ever got fired for picking IBM." -anon.
● 199...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 16
Google's Standard Desktop
● Ubuntu LTS, tailored by & for Google
(Goobuntu)
– Not just fo...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 17
Who Uses Open Source?
● You use Open Source!
– Android phones & tablets
– Many routers / ...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 18
Open Source In Orbit
"We migrated key functions from Windows to Linux because we needed
a...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 19
Open Source Myths
● Open Source software isn't in the mainstream
● You have to give away ...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 20
Introduction
● What is Open Source?
● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time
● Building with O...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 21
Building With Open Source
● Rights and obligations under licenses
– Right to modify
● Rig...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 22
Building With Open Source
● No downstream obligation for internal products
– Custom inter...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 23
Actiontec Router
● Obligations apply
when you distribute
your product
Stock photo of Acti...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 24
Actiontec Router
● Hardware
– Single board computer, RAM
– Flash non-volatile storage
– E...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 25
Actiontec Router
● Benefits of Open Source development
– Operating system, device drivers...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 26
Actiontec Router
● Business Need, Architecture and Licensing
– Must Actiontec make switch...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 27
Actiontec Router
● Implications of using Open Source components
– Modifications to operat...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 28
Actiontec Router
● Does license compliance put Actiontec's secret
family recipe at risk?
...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 29
Actiontec Router
● Actiontec meets their obligations on the
installation CD
– Open Source...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 30
Actiontec Router
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 31
Actiontec Router
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 32
Open Source Licenses
● Major Open Source licenses
– GNU General Public License v2, v3
– G...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 33
Distributing With Open Source
● Provide an Open Source license
● Provide unmodified Open ...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 34
Distributing With Open Source
● Don't provide source code for proprietary
components
– If...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 35
Open Source Myths
● You have to give away your secrets to meet
license requirements
● You...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 36
Introduction
● What is Open Source?
● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time
● Building with O...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 37
Business Models
● Sell support, not software
– e.g.: Canonical (Ubuntu Advantage)
– e.g.:...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 38
Business Models
● Use Open Source software for internal
productivity
– Google's Goobuntu ...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 39
Open Source Myths
● You can't make a profit if you use Open Source
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 40
Bad Business Models
● Sell shrink-wrapped software
● Depend on unmodified product for rev...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 41
Linksys Comes Around
● Introduced WRT54G in 2002
– Developed with Open Source
– Linksys m...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 42
Linksys Comes Around
● Introducing WRT1900AC in 2014
– High-end hardware
● Encouraging pa...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 43
Credits
● This presentation was prepared with Open
Source desktop tools
– OpenSUSE Linux ...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 44
Footnotes
● [1] Red Hat's “opensource.com”
● [2] “What is free software?”, at “www.gnu.or...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 45
Resources
30+ links to source material in one place, on my
“Your Life, Your Tech” blog, h...
Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 46
Creative Commons License
"Should I Build WIth Open Source Software?" by
Joseph Levy is li...
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Should I Build With Open Source Software?

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"Should I Build With Open Source Software?" is an introductory talk defining Open Source concepts, identifying mainstream applications of Open Source Software, and describing the rights and obligations that follow when you choose to build according to the Open Source Intellectual Property model.

The author delivered this presentation at the Information Technology Professional Conference at the Trenton Computer Festival, on March 14, 2014.

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Should I Build With Open Source Software?

  1. 1. Should I Build With Open Source Software? Joe Levy IEEE/ACM Information Technology Professional Conference at TCF March 14, 2014 Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ (Photos not licensed for redistribution removed from this file.)
  2. 2. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 2 Open Source Myths ● Open Source software isn't in the mainstream ● You have to give away your secrets to meet license requirements ● You can't make a profit if you use Open Source
  3. 3. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 3 Introduction ● What is Open Source? ● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time ● Building with Open Source software ● Business models
  4. 4. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 4 Disclaimer ● I am not an attorney! ● I am not an Intellectual Property expert! – Discussion of licensing, copyright and other Intellectual Property issues in this presentation is illustrative, and not to be taken as legal advice ● No Warranty
  5. 5. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 5 What is Open Source? ● One of many protocols for the management of Intellectual Property (IP) – Trade Secret – Patent – Copyright – License – Open Source – Public Domain
  6. 6. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 6 What is Open Source? ● A protocol for managing intellectual property, combining copyright and licensing ● “Something that can be modified because its design is publicly accessible” [1] – And permitted by license ● Also called FOSS – Free / Open Source Software – Free, as in “Free Speech”, not “Free Beer” [2]
  7. 7. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 7 What is Open Source? ● An Open Source license is permission to develop & extend ● Open Source licensing promotes continuous improvement of software ● Rights and obligations under licenses – Right to modify ● Right to obtain source code – Obligation to preserve those rights for downstream users
  8. 8. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 8 Where did it come from? ● Richard M. Stallman ● GNU Project (1983) ● Free Software Foundation (1985) – Ideological ● Open Source Initiative (1998) – Pragmatic Photo of Richard M. Stallman from http://static.fsf.org/fsforg/img/rms-web.jpg
  9. 9. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 9 Introduction ● What is Open Source? ● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time ● Building with Open Source software ● Business models
  10. 10. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 10 Where is Open Source? U.S.S. Zumwalt (DDG-1000) Photo of U.S.S. Zumwalt from: http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5505/1 0563518254_81b4653962.jpg Photo of U.S.S. Zumwalt from: http://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp- content/uploads/2013/10/ddg1000 -ready-640x426.jpg
  11. 11. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 11 Where is Open Source? ● U.S.S. Zumwalt IT Infrastructure – The Navy moves from custom to COTS, in shock isolated ruggedized Electronic Modular Enclosures (EMEs) ● IBM “Blade” servers ● Red Hat Linux, Lynx OS (Open Source) ● Applications on Open Source infrastructure need not be Open Source, themselves
  12. 12. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 12 Where is Open Source? Photo of U.S.S. Zumwalt Electronic Modular Enclosure, from: http://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/EME-1.jpg
  13. 13. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 13 Where is Open Source? Tactical applications can be proprietary, classified, or open source Photo of U.S.S. Zumwalt OPS Center, from: http://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/zumwalt-ops-center.jpg
  14. 14. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 14 Who Uses Open Source? Captain James A. Kirk Richard M. Stallman Photo of Richard M. Stallman, from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jadwi sin_2009_Richard_Stallman.jpg Photo of Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Zumwalt, Capt. James A. Kirk: http://www.public.navy.mil/surfor/ddg1 000/PublishingImages/CO_Kirk.jpg
  15. 15. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 15 Risk-Adverse Management ● 1970's: – "Nobody ever got fired for picking IBM." -anon. ● 1990's: – "Nobody ever got fired for picking Microsoft." -anon. ● 2012: – "You'd be a fool to use anything but Linux." -Thomas Bushnell, Google desktop tech lead[3]
  16. 16. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 16 Google's Standard Desktop ● Ubuntu LTS, tailored by & for Google (Goobuntu) – Not just for the techies – Admins, Marketing & Sales, Graphics, HR – Security waiver required for Windows – Google buys “Ubuntu Advantage” support ● Countless servers & web-facing applications
  17. 17. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 17 Who Uses Open Source? ● You use Open Source! – Android phones & tablets – Many routers / devices with browser access – Firefox web browser – E-commerce sites: The LAMP stack ● Linux - Apache - MySQL – PHP – Wikipedia – Google
  18. 18. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 18 Open Source In Orbit "We migrated key functions from Windows to Linux because we needed an operating system that was stable and reliable -- one that would give us in-house control. So if we needed to patch, adjust, or adapt, we could." [4] [4] Manager of Space Operations Computing (SpOC) for NASA Keith Chuvala Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) photo of the ISS, from: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0904/iss_sts119_big.jpg
  19. 19. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 19 Open Source Myths ● Open Source software isn't in the mainstream ● You have to give away your secrets to meet license requirements ● You can't make a profit if you use Open Source
  20. 20. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 20 Introduction ● What is Open Source? ● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time ● Building with Open Source software ● Business models
  21. 21. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 21 Building With Open Source ● Rights and obligations under licenses – Right to modify ● Right to obtain source code – Obligation to preserve those rights for downstream users ● Obligations apply when, and if you distribute your product
  22. 22. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 22 Building With Open Source ● No downstream obligation for internal products – Custom internal systems ● Laboratory ● Test Equipment – Content creation – Internal systems that support business processes and services, even services sold externally ● Special case for Affero GPL software
  23. 23. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 23 Actiontec Router ● Obligations apply when you distribute your product Stock photo of Actiontec consumer routers
  24. 24. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 24 Actiontec Router ● Hardware – Single board computer, RAM – Flash non-volatile storage – Ethernet ports, Wi-Fi transceiver ● Software – Operating system, device drivers – Switching / routing / control – Web server for configuration
  25. 25. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 25 Actiontec Router ● Benefits of Open Source development – Operating system, device drivers, web server available immediately and easily tailorable for custom use – Significant development effort required only for switching / routing / control ● Don't re-invent the wheel – Increased reliability ● Shorter development cycle / lower cost
  26. 26. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 26 Actiontec Router ● Business Need, Architecture and Licensing – Must Actiontec make switching / routing / control source code available under an Open Source license? ● Yes, if integrated with Open Source operating system ● No, if loaded as an application by the operating system ● Architecture may affect downstream obligations
  27. 27. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 27 Actiontec Router ● Implications of using Open Source components – Modifications to operating system, device drivers, web server must be made available under Open Source license – Proprietary applications on Open Source platforms are permitted under most licenses – Actiontec's switching / routing / control software may be kept proprietary, or distributed under an Open Source license
  28. 28. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 28 Actiontec Router ● Does license compliance put Actiontec's secret family recipe at risk? – Switching / routing / control software remains proprietary – Little new code is released to meet Open Source license requirements – Actiontec sells routers, not software – Verizon sells Internet access, not software
  29. 29. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 29 Actiontec Router ● Actiontec meets their obligations on the installation CD – Open Source license – Collection of Open Source product components ● Original ● From Actiontec's suppliers – Ralink, Jungo... ● From Actiontec, itself
  30. 30. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 30 Actiontec Router
  31. 31. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 31 Actiontec Router
  32. 32. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 32 Open Source Licenses ● Major Open Source licenses – GNU General Public License v2, v3 – GNU Lesser GPL v2.1, v3 – GNU Affero General Public License v3 – Apache License version 2.0 – GNU Free Documentation License ● Many more... ● Compatibility varies, but usually not a problem
  33. 33. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 33 Distributing With Open Source ● Provide an Open Source license ● Provide unmodified Open Source components as received – All licenses, copyright notices intact ● Provide modified Open Source components under their license of origin ● Provide original Open Source components under a compatible license of your own choosing
  34. 34. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 34 Distributing With Open Source ● Don't provide source code for proprietary components – If permitted by your architecture, and licenses – Proprietary applications can run on Open Source infrastructure under major licenses
  35. 35. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 35 Open Source Myths ● You have to give away your secrets to meet license requirements ● You can't make a profit if you use Open Source
  36. 36. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 36 Introduction ● What is Open Source? ● Open Source: Ready for Prime-time ● Building with Open Source software ● Business models
  37. 37. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 37 Business Models ● Sell support, not software – e.g.: Canonical (Ubuntu Advantage) – e.g.: Red Hat Enterprise Linux ● Sell a subscription-based service – Running on your servers ● (Presumes no Affero licensed S/W) – ...or sell data ● Sell advertising
  38. 38. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 38 Business Models ● Use Open Source software for internal productivity – Google's Goobuntu desktop – Servers ● Sell a whole product, not just the software – Actiontec, Linksys – Countless other consumer products
  39. 39. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 39 Open Source Myths ● You can't make a profit if you use Open Source
  40. 40. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 40 Bad Business Models ● Sell shrink-wrapped software ● Depend on unmodified product for revenue – Early TiVo products
  41. 41. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 41 Linksys Comes Around ● Introduced WRT54G in 2002 – Developed with Open Source – Linksys met obligations only under pressure ● Linksys ultimately benefited – Longer market lifetime and extra sales Stock photo of Linksys WRT54G
  42. 42. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 42 Linksys Comes Around ● Introducing WRT1900AC in 2014 – High-end hardware ● Encouraging participation of third-party developers – Providing early hardware, SDKs, APIs Photo of Linksys WRT1900AC from: http://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp- content/uploads/2014/01/Linksys_ WRT1900AC_Router_Front_Final1 -640x353.jpg
  43. 43. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 43 Credits ● This presentation was prepared with Open Source desktop tools – OpenSUSE Linux desktop distribution – Firefox web browser – LibreOffice “Impress” presentation application – Ksnapshot screen grabber
  44. 44. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 44 Footnotes ● [1] Red Hat's “opensource.com” ● [2] “What is free software?”, at “www.gnu.org” ● [3] Google Desktop Lead Thomas Bushnell, as quoted in ZDNet, August 29, 2012 ● [4] Manager of Space Operations Computing (SpOC) for NASA Keith Chuvala, as quoted by Adrian Bridgwater in “computerweekly.com” on May 13, 2013
  45. 45. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 45 Resources 30+ links to source material in one place, on my “Your Life, Your Tech” blog, here: http://yourlifeyourtech.blogspot.com (e-mail through the “Contact Joe” box on the blog page) ...and thank you for attending! Questions?
  46. 46. Copyright 2014 by Joseph Levy 46 Creative Commons License "Should I Build WIth Open Source Software?" by Joseph Levy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of the license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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