Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism is one of five disorders that fall under the spectrum of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD). Autism Asperger Syndrome Child hood Disintegrative Disorder Rett’s Disorder Non- specified PDD All of these disorders vary in intensity. For this PowerPoint we will be focusing on Autism. Nielsen (2009)
The Definition of Autism Autism is a life long developmental disability. It is generally evident before the age of 3, affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interactions that affects a child's performance. Nielsen (2009)
Who Does Autism Effect? Autism occurs in all socioeconomic classes. Boys are affected four to five times more than girls. It is rarely found to affect more than one child in a family.
Causes of Autism Autism has no single, known cause. Leading investigators believe Autism to have many causes . The following are three probable causes.
Genetic problems - A number of genes appear to be involved in autism.
Genes may make a child more susceptible to the disorder
Genes may affect brain development or the way brain cells communicate.
Genes may determine the severity of symptoms.
Environmental factors - Many health problems are caused by environmental factors.
viral infections may and air pollutants may role in triggering autism.
Inheritance Factors- Children may have a predisposition to Autism
Twin studies show that if one twin is affected by Autism, there is 90% chance the other will be to.
Autism Research Institute (2010)
Characteristics of Autism They fail to respond to their names and often avoid eye contact. They have difficulty interpreting what others are thinking and feeling. They lack empathy They engage in repetitive movements such as rocking or twirling. They engage in self abusive behavior such as biting or head-banging. Autism (2010)
Early Signs of Autism Signs vary widely in severity and symptom. They may go unrecognized, especially in mildly affected children or when it is masked by more debilitating handicaps. Very early indicators that require evaluation by an expert include: No babbling or pointing by age 1. No single words by 16 months or two-word phrases by age 2 No response to name Loss of language or social skills Poor eye contact Excessive lining up of toys or objects No smiling or social responsiveness. Autism research Institute (2010)
Later Signs of Autism impaired ability to make friends with peers impaired ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others absence or impairment of imaginative and social play stereotyped, repetitive, or unusual use of language restricted patterns of interest that are abnormal in intensity or focus preoccupation with certain objects or subjects inflexible adherence to specific routines or rituals. Autism research Institute (2010)
Strategies for Teaching a Child with Autism in a Classroom. Give step by step directions
Teachers should give directions in a clear broken down steps. However, they should avoid any repetition of the steps.
Use the picture exchange Communication System ( PECS)
In this system children are taught to exchange pictures for an item that they want. The teacher should immediately respond and give the student what he or she wants.
Strategies for teaching a child with Autism in a classroom. Do not make generalizations
Autistic students have a very challenging time making generalizations. The use of the real object is helpful during teaching. For example when you are teaching about finances and counting, use real money to explain rather than fake money or counting beans.
Use concrete, tangible visual aids
Autistic students are visual learners. They will excel when you teach them with visual aids.
Create education planes
There should be planes in place on how to remove a child out of a stressful situation and how to return them back to the classroom setting.
References Autism. (2010). Mayo Clinic.Retrieved08 29, 2010, from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/autism/D500348 Autism Reaserch Institute. (2010). Autism is Treatable. Retrieved 08 29, 2010, from Autism Reaserch Institute: http://www.autism.com/index.asp Autism Society. (2010). About Autism. Retrieved 08 29, 2010, from Autism Society: http://www.autism-society.org/site/pageserver Nielsen, L. B. (2009). BreifReferance of Student Disabilities (second ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Crown Press.