Autism Spectrum Disorder Le Juan Richardson


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Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Autism Spectrum Disorder Le Juan Richardson

  1. 1. Autism Spectrum Disorder Le Juan L. Richardson
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Autism is a neurological condition that affects one or more of the senses along with the child’s communication skills. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 5 types of Autism <ul><li>Autistic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood Disintegrative Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Rhett’s Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive Developmental Disorder </li></ul>
  4. 4. Autistic Disorder <ul><li>There is substantial delay in communication and social interaction associated with development of &quot;restricted, repetitive and stereotyped&quot; behavior, interests, and activities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder <ul><li>Children develop normally for the first two years of life, but then lose skills in areas such as language, play, and bowel control. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (continued) <ul><li>Children manifest impaired social interaction and communication associated with &quot;restrictive, repetitive, stereotyped&quot; behaviors. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rett's Disorder <ul><li>Children develop normally at first, but their head growth slows. </li></ul><ul><li>There is also psychomotor retardation and impairment of language development. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Asperger's Disorder (AD) <ul><li>Language, curiosity, and cognitive development proceed normally while there is substantial delay in social interaction and &quot;development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How Did We Get Here? <ul><li>Although there are several theories, the medical field does not know what causes Autism. </li></ul><ul><li>The term Spectrum Disorder was added because we now know there are many levels of involvement. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Impact on the Childs Learning <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Response to sensory information </li></ul>
  11. 11. Communication <ul><li>Lack of pointing to direct others' attention to objects (occurs in the first 14 months of life) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not adjust gaze to look at objects that others are looking at </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot start or sustain a social conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Develops language slowly or not at all </li></ul>
  12. 12. Communication (continued) <ul><li>Repeats words or memorized passages, such as commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Does not refer to self correctly (for example, says &quot;you want water&quot; when the child means &quot;I want water&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses nonsense rhyming </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates with gestures instead of words </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social interaction <ul><li>Shows a lack of empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Does not make friends </li></ul><ul><li>Is withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers to spend time alone, rather than with others </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social interaction (continued) <ul><li>May not respond to eye contact or smiles </li></ul><ul><li>May actually avoid eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>May treat others as if they are objects </li></ul><ul><li>Does not play interactive games </li></ul>
  15. 15. Behaviors <ul><li>Has a short attention span </li></ul><ul><li>Uses repetitive body movements </li></ul><ul><li>Shows a strong need for sameness </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Acts up&quot; with intense tantrums be aggressive, and be prone to self-injury. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Behaviors (continued) <ul><li>Has very narrow interests </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates perseveration (gets stuck on a single topic or task) </li></ul><ul><li>Shows aggression to others or self </li></ul><ul><li>Is overactive or very passive </li></ul>
  17. 17. Response to Sensory Information <ul><li>Has heightened or low senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, or taste </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to have a heightened or low response to pain </li></ul><ul><li>May withdraw from physical contact because it is over stimulating or overwhelming </li></ul>
  18. 18. Response to Sensory Information (continued) <ul><li>Does not startle at loud noises </li></ul><ul><li>May find normal noises painful and hold hands over ears </li></ul><ul><li>Rubs surfaces, mouths or licks objects </li></ul>
  19. 19. Impact on Family Life <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul><ul><li>Extracurricular </li></ul>
  20. 20. Family Safety / Security <ul><li>Families purchase dead bolt locks, alarms and window locks to prevent the child from exiting. </li></ul><ul><li>Families of autistic fence in the yard to maintain the child in the play area. </li></ul><ul><li>Families are asked to obtain GPS bracelets to prevent the child from wandering off. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Family Income <ul><li>Family income, education, and lifestyle do not seem to affect the risk of autism. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Extracurricular time with family <ul><li>Children with autism show little imagination or imaginative play </li></ul><ul><li>Children with autism prefers solitary or ritualistic play </li></ul>
  23. 23. Teaching Strategies to Increase Comprehension <ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul>
  24. 24. Modeling strategies <ul><li>Hands on demonstration allows the child to construct learning and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Using constant reminders through speech to enhance metacognition. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Scaffold strategies <ul><li>Visual Aides with easy to read call outs </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics that include images of reference, instead of busy sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Use numbers to help show process instead of letters. (Step 1, Step 2 etc.) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reciprocal strategies <ul><li>Reinforce the students learning by using audio, and visual imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify comprehension of complex forms by providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Make Predictions </li></ul>
  27. 27. Visualization strategies <ul><li>Use large picture books from literature and other images of reference to communicate ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Use images to increase comprehension for retention and increase memory </li></ul><ul><li>Using short practice sessions over long periods of time </li></ul>
  28. 28. Other Autism Notes <ul><li>More children will be diagnosed with autism this year than with AIDS, diabetes, and cancer combined </li></ul><ul><li>67 children are diagnosed with autism per day—a new case is diagnosed almost every 20 minutes. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Other Autism Notes <ul><li>A child who is diagnosed with high-functioning autism today may have been thought to simply be odd or strange 30 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomal abnormalities and other neurological problems are also more common in families with autism. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Other Autism Notes <ul><li>A report released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that autism and related disorders are more common than previously thought, although it is unclear if this is due to an increasing rate of the illness or an increased ability to diagnose the illness. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Other Autism Notes <ul><li>A developmental disorder, autism is a lifelong condition. </li></ul><ul><li>The severity of symptoms varies. Children with autism may demonstrate repetitive behaviors, focus on narrow interests, and have difficulty with social interaction and communication. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Other Autism Notes <ul><li>In addition, they may be aggressive, throw tantrums and be prone to self-injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Autism is the fastest growing serious developmental disability in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>A number of other possible causes have been suspected, but not proven. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Other Autism Notes <ul><li>Boys are 3 to 4 times more likely than girls to have autism </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 166 children is diagnosed with some form of autism </li></ul><ul><li>There is no known cure for autism </li></ul><ul><li>The exact number of children with autism is not known. </li></ul>