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Seasonal Depression Test File

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  • Spring and summer seasonal affective disorder (summer depression) Summer-onset seasonal affective disorder symptoms include: * Anxiety * Trouble sleeping (insomnia) * Irritability * Agitation * Weight loss * Poor appetite * Increased sex drive Reverse seasonal affective disorder In some people, spring and summer can bring on symptoms of mania or a less intense form of mania (hypomania). These can include elevated mood, agitation, and rapid thoughts and speech. Reverse seasonal affective disorder is a form of bipolar disorder. Signs and symptoms of reverse seasonal affective disorder include: * Persistently elevated mood * Increased social activity * Hyperactivity * Unbridled enthusiasm out of proportion to the situation
  • Chris - How do plants detect time? We know humans do it well. We know there are clusters of nerve cells in the brain that have this sort of genetic domino effect which keeps time. How do plants do it? Will grow in the dark but will die, not food/energy; but some can be induced by being give sugar/sucrose. Some of the plants in the forest labSteve - Plants have a localised clock like we do in our brain. Plants have distributed their clock into every cell. For a human, our clock is reset by light entering our eyes. Although this may sound a little creepy there are eyes in every cell of the plant. There are proteins that transmit light to the plant and reset the plant every day. Chris - But plants would be interesting because the ones you’ve got on your shelf here, they have flowers. This means certain bits of this plant know it’s now time for me to make a flower. How does the plant tell one bit of the plant ‘stop growing leaves and start growing modified leaves called flowers’? Steve - It’s a fascinating story. Plants use their leaves to tell daily time and to measure the amount of light that’s around. They combine the measurement of dawn and dusk with an internal timekeeper to actually discriminate day length. These plants that are sitting next to us can actually tell when the days are getting shorter because they’re short-day plants. That will induce flowering. Other plants are long-day plants as they measure the days getting longer they send a signal to the tip of the plant and they start making flowers.
  • Clockwork Genes: Discoveries in Biological Time Lecture 1 – Biology in Four Dimensions by Joseph S. Takahashi, Ph.D. Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  • Sad presentation5a

    1. 1. Seasonal Affective Disorder It’s Not Just the Winter Blues Judith Gusky Counseling Services September 27, 2010
    2. 2. What is SAD? <ul><li>Subtype of depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal onset & remission of symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter SAD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer SAD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse SAD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsyndromal SAD </li></ul></ul></ul>Oct Jan April July Oct Winter Summer Depression Anxiety Hypomania Reverse Symptoms Winter Blues
    3. 3. Symptoms of Major Depression <ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul>Sad, anxious, empty Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness Irritability, restlessness Suicidal thinking Loss of interest in activities Reduced sex drive Social withdrawal Increased Decreased Increased Decreased Increased Decreased Fatigue Trouble concentrating Persistent aches or pains
    4. 4. Symptoms of Winter SAD <ul><li>Depressed mood </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of pleasure in things previously enjoyed </li></ul><ul><li>Social withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Increased appetite (carbohydrate craving) </li></ul><ul><li>Weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper-somnia </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble concentrating </li></ul>Not “Winter Blues” Significant impairment in daily activities
    5. 5. Causes of Winter SAD <ul><li>Lack of sunlight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter days (seasonal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud cover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreased serotonin levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Cloudiest Cities Pittsburgh 203 cloudy days per year (59%) Yuma, AZ 52 cloudy days per year (14%)
    7. 7. Latitude and Winter SAD <ul><li>No Winter SAD at equator </li></ul><ul><li>Winter SAD increases with latitude but only to a point </li></ul><ul><li>Winter weather and cloud cover also key factors </li></ul>
    8. 8. Siberia Iceland Japan Alaska New Hampshire Florida <ul><li>Stockholm </li></ul><ul><li>Helsinki </li></ul><ul><li>Oslo </li></ul>Equator 75  60  30  9.2 16.5 3.8 3.9 7.1 14.0 0.9 1.4 9.7 New York City 4.7 Pittsburgh: 40  Latitude
    9. 9. Explaining SAD <ul><li>Circadian Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 24-hour cycle (rising/setting of sun) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circannual Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A yearly cycle, e.g. bird migrations, animal hibernation, SAD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological Clock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal mechanisms that control the rhythm or timing of biological functions, e.g. sleep cycles (animals), photosynthesis (plants) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Synchronizing Our Biological Clock <ul><li>Daylight alternating with darkness is not the source of human circadian rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>It only synchronizes our internal biological clock to the 24-hour cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Human circadian rhythm is 24.5 hours </li></ul>
    11. 12. What does it mean to be out of sync? <ul><li>Shift work </li></ul><ul><li>Jet lag </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal slow down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waking up in dark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting home in dark </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. How do I know if I have SAD? <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seasonal recurrence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall onset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring remission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-assessment </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Seasonal Pattern Assessment