It's a Snap: The Future of Photography
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It's a Snap: The Future of Photography

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It's a Snap: The Future of Photography is a consideration of photography as a social media, new technologies, methods of organization and storage. The presentation is directed at amateaur,......

It's a Snap: The Future of Photography is a consideration of photography as a social media, new technologies, methods of organization and storage. The presentation is directed at amateaur, professional photographers and archivists. How will archivists preserve the photographic record when it is social?

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  • 1. City of Ottawa Archives It’s a Snap: The Future John D. Lund, 2011
  • 2. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography “ … now we must see it for what it has always been, t he image wit hin t he flows and ex changes t hat give t he images access, meaning, and cont ex t .” A ric M ayer, O n Post -Phot ography, June 2 8 , 2 0 1 0
  • 3. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Democratization - Death of the Original From Here On exhibit manifesto begins, “Now, we‟re a series of editors. We all recycle, clip and cut, remix and upload. We can make images do anything. All we need is an eye, a brain, a camera, a phone, a laptop, a scanner, a point of view.”  Corinne Vionnet, featured in From Here On, finds photos of tourist cities and sites on photo-sharing sites on the web, and layers one on top of the other resulting in an impressionistic photo-painting;  Each image contains about a hundred images taken from photo-hosting websites.
  • 4. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Corinne Vionnet, http://www.corinnevionnet.com/site/1-photo-opportunities.html
  • 5. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Photo-layering, Mash-ups Who is the photographer/the artist? What is an original? Does the original have value anymore?
  • 6. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Joan Fontcuberta on future of photography  Fontcuberta prioritizes not the methods of communication but the accessibility of images to everyone,  “We are therefore passing through an age of access….”
  • 7. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Joan Fontcuberta on future of photography  Fontcuberta outlines 10 points on the future of photography, here are 4 of those points:  ON THE ROLE OF THE ARTIST: no longer a case of producing works, but of prescribing meanings;  ON THE FUNCTION OF IMAGES: the circulation and management of the image will prevail over the content of the image;  ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF ART: discourses of originality will be delegitimized and appropriationist practices will be normalized;  ON THE EXPERIENCE OF ART: creative practices which accustom us to dispossession will be privileged: it is better to share than to own.
  • 8. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Greater control in hands of the Creator  In the past the public mind focused on the individual photographer risking life for the iconic war photograph yet behind that photograph were publishers, news rooms, and fiscal realities:  “Which meant that the canon that we understand to be the history of photography was largely shaped by these structural and economic forces, and continue to be shaped by them today.” (Aric mayer, On Post-Photography June 28, 2010)  However, technological advances have brought much more of the entire sphere under the control of the creators, now a film can be made with a camera and a laptop.
  • 9. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Questions for the Archivist Will greater control in hands of a creator benefit archives? Will archivist see more voices/perspectives preserved? The role of the archives is to ensure authenticity, but how will an authentic record be defined amid the plethora of images and photo sharing, democratized distribution?
  • 10. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Information Overload  “Right. I talked to Joao Silva in Baghdad and I said, “Do you think there are any great images to come out of Iraq, the way there were in Vietnam.” And he said, “The problem isn‟t that we haven‟t taken that classic image. The problem is that we have taken too many.” - Michael Kamber in conversation with Tim Hetherington, creator of Restrepo
  • 11. City of Ottawa Archives Post-Photography Post-photography in the Archives  Will what archives are able to, or determine to, save become the iconic image for future generations?  Archivist may provide a voice of authority in the midst of the din.  At what point will the image be fixed?  Must the archivist move away from the role of custodian to one of a manager?
  • 12. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social “When you leave everything to the crowd, where everything is democratized, when everything is determined by the number of clicks, you are by definition undermining the seriousness of the artistic endeavour,” he says, “There is no evidence that we are on the verge of a great new glittering cultural age, there is evidence that we may well be on the verge of a new dark age in cultural terms… where the creative world is destroyed and where all we have is cacophony and self opinion, where we have a crisis of democratised culture.” - Andrew Keen speaking in film, PressPausePlay
  • 13. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Social is driving the Tech To date digital cameras have emulated traditional film photography rather than transform:  On Oct 19, 2011 the Lytro camera was introduced to the world;  Potentially a game changer;  It is a light field camera;  One to one relationship between pixels & micro lenses;  Focus after the fact, 3D potential;  No need for aperture or shutter speed;  Instant photo button – no time delay.
  • 14. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Social is driving the Tech  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDyRSYGcFVM
  • 15. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Social is driving the Tech  The target market for the Lytro is not the enthusiast or professional photographer, rather the social media market, photo sharing:  Photographs are instant and can be uploaded to Facebook or an iPhone;  Photographs are interactive, focus and key subjects may be manipulated;  Images are relatively low resolution.
  • 16. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Social is driving the Tech  As Andy Crowe points out in a discussion forum on Digital Photography Review:  The simple design of the camera, lack of controls and instant on, all point to letting people take photos instantly so they don t miss an important moment.  This camera allows someone to quickly pull it out of a bag, take a shot without waiting for focus or worrying about what part of the image to focus on and then upload it to Facebook without doing any processing. Once uploaded they and all their friends can play director by pulling focus on different parts of the image in real time.
  • 17. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps There are a plethora of photo applications designed for the iPhone and Android OS, a few examples: Instagram (instagr.am) - a Hit Parade star; Color (www.color.com) – a cautionary tale; Waddle & ZangZing – some privacy please; Photovine – so promising, yet DOA.
  • 18. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Instagram
  • 19. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps  Instagram is probably the most successful photo app to date, it is available for the iPhone and Android users wait in anticipation:  Kevin Systrom, one of the creators of Instagram, argues that unlike 90% of apps that are solution-based, they set out to solve a problem;  The three key problems that Instagram sought to solve were: - Beauty – aesthetically pleasing and simple design; - Speed – designed for the iPhone, 612 x 612 resolution, upload time masked by starting immediately, before any tagging activity starts; - Distribution – seamless social integration with sites like Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, FourSquare and Tumblr;
  • 20. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps Lots of excitement around Color back in March, 2011 when it was known that investor, Bill Nguyen, had invested $41 million;  With Color there is no need for accounts, friending, following, uploading or sharing; you simply take the picture;  Take a photo using the app and it is instantly available to anyone to view within 150 feet of your location;  Elastic Network – prioritizes by strength of connection to contacts;  Only see stream of photos from those within 150 feet of you or a 150 feet of your friends/contacts. Without a built network of friends one is either looking at nothing or a stream of photos from strangers.
  • 21. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps  Color required a statistically significant percentage of people to participate and there were considerable privacy concerns:  By September of 2011 Color made a last ditch effort of relevance by switching gears to become a Facebook photo/video app;  Without the real time interface there is little to distinguish Color from other Facebook photo browsers.
  • 22. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps  With all the socializing going on, it is not surprising that some folks are calling for a little privacy. Waddle and ZangZing are two apps responding to this market:  ZangZing launched April 2011, Waddle launched October 2011;  Waddle emphasizes privacy concerns, “A waddle is a mobile photo journal where groups capture experiences together. Private, instant, conversational, memorable and super fun.” – waddleapp.com;  ZangZing emphasises its group photo sharing features, for which, privacy is a featured component. See video at www.zangzing.com;  Waddle co-founder, Parker Emmott, indicated that while the number of photos being taken has exploded, “… that most sharing was still done through either direct text messaging or emailing photos to a group.” Not photo sharing apps.
  • 23. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps  Waddle: “It doesn‟t force you to log in with your Facebook account. It doesn‟t pull in the photos you‟ve shared on Instagram. It doesn‟t encourage you to share your photos publicly at all. In fact, its goal is to allow you to privately share and comment on your photos with other individuals, or small groups of friends and family. That‟s it.” – Colleen Taylor
  • 24. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps July, 2013 Google unveils Photovine a new photo-sharing social network (by invitation) Aug 26, 2011 – “Google Kills Photovine”: Photovine had debut only a week earlier for the general public; One Twitter member, Gayle Schneider, commented, “Why are they shutting down Photovine? It just became popular?”; Speaking of twitter, pic.twitter.com, soft launch July 2011, available to all Aug 2011.
  • 25. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social It’s All About the Apps Archives in the future will likely need to expect to receive low resolution quality digital photos well below the ideal. Do we need to re-evaluate what constitutes archival quality? When it comes to apps, do archives need to preserve the content, the software and/or the social environment?
  • 26. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social My iPhone 4 is killing my Digital Cameras - Guerson Meyer, Feb 20, 2011  100% Mobile: “my iPhone 4 phone is always with me…”;  Geolocation: An iPhone always has access to it‟s GPS;  100% Instant: Instant now means that directly after a photo is taken it can be disseminated to the world immediately:  Done directly from iPhone;  Videos edited, shared or uploaded to YouTube;
  • 27. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social My iPhone 4 is killing my Digital Cameras - Guerson Meyer, Feb 20, 2011  Social: iPhone photos can be instantly shared with friends or the entire world. Half the fun is discovering new and cool pics from friends and strangers alike via the web;  Software: “The iPhone 4 is not a telephone, not a camera but a powerful super-mini-computer…”
  • 28. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social My iPhone 4 is killing my Digital Cameras - Guerson Meyer, Feb 20, 2011  How will archivist respond to this paradigm shift – instant photography as the primary way of visualizing the world?  Lee Morris – fstoppers – fashion shoot with an iphone _
  • 29. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Everything Old is New Again Lomography: www.lomography.com Diana f+  http://www.flickr.com/photos/danielygo/2576920796/
  • 30. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Everything Old is New Again Lomography, 10 Golden Rules:  1. Take your camera everywhere you go;  2. Us it any time – day and night; e  3. Lomography is not an interference in your life, but part of it;  4. Try the shot from the hip;  5. Approach the objects of your Lomographic desire as close as possible;  6. Dont think (William Firebrace);  7. Be fast;  8. You dont have to know beforehand what you captured on film;  9. Afterwards either;  10. Dont worry about any rules .
  • 31. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Everything Old is New Again Polaroid:  http:/ / www.wiissa.com/ #1881553/ mongolia;  Fuji: http:/ / www.fujifilm.ca/ products/ instax/ index.html;  The impossible project: http:/ / www.the-impossible- project.com/ about/ #team.
  • 32. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Everything Old is New Again As Archives adapt to new digital formats they cannot forget the analogue formats.
  • 33. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Where do I go to share?  Many, many, photo sharing websites to choose from:  A quick google will find a variety of overlapping top ten lists;  What to look for? What is your goal?  Is your intention to share photos among friends and family?  Do you wish to share your photos with fellow enthusiasts?  Is the goal simply to reach as many people as possible?  Are you looking to expand your business by having a web presence? (Sell photos, mugs, t-shirts, books, etc)?  How flexible is the interface? Are you stuck with the same look and feel as everyone else? Ads?  Cost?
  • 34. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Where do I go to share?  A good all round source for digital photography is DPReview (Digital Photography Review) www.dpreview.com/:  In my search, three common denominators in the discussion groups were: - SmugMug, PBase and Zenfolio; - They are certainly not the only suggestions but they have a number of supporters;  Flickr by far is the most popular;  Please see hand out for a more detailed list.
  • 35. City of Ottawa Archives Photography is Social Where do I go to share?  Do archivist need to consider the context in which digital images are shared - the software, the apps, the web platforms? The social environment?
  • 36. City of Ottawa Archives Future Tech
  • 37. City of Ottawa Archives Digitization Future Tech The Future of Photography – a little future storytelling  “Though Photos will still be composed by people with cameras, it will gradually become more accurate to say pictures were computed rather than „taken‟ or „captured.‟” - Neal Mathews Wireless V iewfinder Interchangeable Lens Consumer Electronics Show 2011
  • 38. City of Ottawa Archives Photo O rganization
  • 39. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Organization 101 Services, such as, Gmail and Yahoo have led us to become accustomed to our data piling up endlessly; Software like Picassa will find an image file anywhere on a hard drive, there is no need to know where it is; But Picassa only cares that it is an image file, all are equal; There is no discernment of importance or priority; Software may be corrupted, in what folder were those photographs stored?
  • 40. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Organization 101 It is important to:  Know where your photos are stored;  Identify your photos;  Back up, back up, back up;  Regularly migrate data - Keep up with changing technologies.  “In the digital age, when we have opportunity to store hundreds of thousands of images on one laptop or hard drive, things can get pretty complicated to go back and try to find “that one picture of Aunt Helen at Johnny‟s 6th birthday party.” Especially if you don‟t have an established workflow and file handling system.” - Christina N. Dickson
  • 41. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Organization 101 Programs, such as, Picasa by google, Aperture by Apple and Lightroom by Adobe may provide great help in photo organization but they are not solutions.
  • 42. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Organization 101 Guiding Principles:  Upload your images using a unique file name system - Each image is distinct from any other; - Don‟t rely on the numerical file name generated by your camera; - Create a file name system that has meaning to you - Example, Date, initials, image #: [20111031_JDL_0001.jpg];  Upload your images into dated folders [20111031] - If you have more than one event or subject taken on the same day sub-folders may be created under the name of each event or subject. - One option may be to identify sub-folders in accordance to event and location;
  • 43. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Organization 101 Guiding Principles cont‟d:  Convert photos to a non-proprietary format: - i.e., RAW to Tiff or jpeg (keep at least one copy in original format);  Once images uploaded, go through and rate each image: - Programs, such as, Lightroom have rating options; - A “0 to 5” scale can be used: 0-1 get trashed, 2 get stored for major editing later, 3-5 minor editing required & are ready to show;  Keyword (Tag) your images: - By name, event, action, emotion, etc;
  • 44. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Organization 101 Guiding Principles cont‟d:  Back up, back up, back up: - Keys to good back up: - Automatic – whether you do it manually or have an automated system back ups need to be second nature; - Local – first backup is easy and fast to restore, such as, an external hard drive; - Remote – in case of disaster, may store at work, at a relatives or in the cloud (should be secure – encrypted);  Media Migration – will be necessary at least every 5-10 years: - Technology changes; - Technology fails.
  • 45. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Organization 101 Metadata is data about data. There are two kinds of metadata:  Descriptive (Technical) metadata describes technical features, such as, the shutter speed at which a photograph was shot; Additive metadata is metadata that can be added to an image file, such as, keywords (tags) and copyright information.
  • 46. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Descriptive Metadata  EXIF – Exchangeable Image File Format, http://www.exif.org/  IPTC – International Press Telecommunication Council, IPTC Photo Metadata Standards  IPTC: http://www.iptc.org/cms/site/index.html Additive Metadata  Adobe Bridge (bridge btwn creative suite software);  Adobe Lightroom or Apple Aperture (workflow).
  • 47. City of Ottawa Archives Photo Organization Example of metadata on Flickr: www.flickr.com
  • 48. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage
  • 49. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage What is the cloud? Simply put it is offsite storage in the hands of experts; How often do you see one cloud? Usually there are many; Why store photos in a cloud? How do you decide what vendor (cloud) to use?
  • 50. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage What is the cloud? 1. You get what you pay for: There are a variety of services that provide free or cheap (under $10/month) back-up services; They include a variety of features including automated back-up; Examples are, Mozy, CrashPlan, BackBlaze and Carbonite; However, if you are a business using a cheap home service this is likely a breach of Terms of Use and your account can be closed at any time.
  • 51. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage 1. cont‟d Services, such as, Mozy provide cheap service on the speculation that their servers will be able to support the demand as the low end users will balance out with the high end users; It is a gamble, in Mozy‟s case it didn‟t pan out and they removed their $5 unlimited service.
  • 52. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage Terms of Service Translations by Jeremy Nicholl  We are magicians and have developed a spell that enables us to store all the world‟s data in our invisibility cloak. Also – just like Mozy – we calculate that everything will just sort of average out. Anyway, we‟ve also conjured up some Terms of Service, so when it all goes wrong we‟re covered, even if you‟re not.  Call yourself a professional photographer. Then those images you uploaded are part of your business. We‟ve therefore terminated your account and deleted your archive; you are of course welcome to open a business account and pay for use rather than piggybacking on our consumer offering, you cheap bastard.
  • 53. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage 2. What do you want to store? Most online storage vendors were established to support storing textual records, spreadsheets, etc that have significantly smaller file sizes than photographs; These vendors have offered their services to photographers as they have recognized a demand; However, they may only be suitable to low resolution images, jpegs, point and shoot photography or backing up the best of the best of your photographs.
  • 54. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage 3. They are not a storage solution they are a back-up solution: Remember the back-up mantra, you want both local back-up and remote back-up; Do not rely on remote back-up alone.
  • 55. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage 4. There are multiple types of cloud storage: Public/community web-based cloud storage: - Upload files via browser and files become instantly available through a web-based interface. Examples are Flickr and Smugmug; - Downside, cannot upload RAW files and cannot easily download all photos back to your computer.
  • 56. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage 4. Cloud storage types cont‟d: Local/hybrid folder synchronization: - A client is installed that monitors a specific folder on your computer for changes. A new file is automatically uploaded to the cloud through your internet connection; - Advantage – auto updates folder structure and old versions of files maintained; - Easily share files between computers, family/friends; - Examples, Dropbox, Livedrive and Live Mesh.
  • 57. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage 4. Cloud storage types cont‟d: Dedicated/private cloud storage: - Buy as much space as you need and use however you need; - May manually upload files or install client software that auto synchronizes specific folders on computer; - Up to you if you wish to keep a local back-up or not; - Space is yours, not shared with others like in Flickr; - Many different companies, such as, Amazon; - May require some technical skills to use efficiently; - Depending on amount of storage required, may become very expensive; - Example of photographer friendly site, Mosaic Archive.
  • 58. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage 5. Bandwidth: If you plan to back-up large image files, such as, RAW and TIFF or a large back catalogue, you will require good upload bandwidth; You will also want good download bandwidth, as well, for restoring files in case of an emergency; Check with your internet provider.
  • 59. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage Mosaic, designed for photographers, key features: Avoids the incredibly long upload time required to export 100s of gigabytes of image files to the cloud by shipping an external hard drive that you ship back with your image files: - Yes, it is faster to snail mail your photos; Validation – will automatically compare the files they were sent and make sure they are byte for byte the same files that are on your hard drive; Provides a plug-in for Adobe Lightroom for integration into your workflow, back-up, retrieval seamless.
  • 60. City of Ottawa Archives Cloud Storage Key features of Mosaic: It comes at a cost: - One time data upload fee of $0.40 per GB (includes two way shipment of the external hard drive used to send your images; - Rate fee decreases as more photo are stored; - Mosaic pricing example: If a photographer sends 1 TB (1,000 GB) of photos to Mosaic, the charge would be a data upload fee of $400. After the one time fee, a storage fee of $25 per month applies.
  • 61. City of Ottawa Archives Digitization Archivist goes, “Hmmm?” Who shall care for the cloud over the long term? What are the implications of international jurisdictions? Have you considered your digital will? Spark Episode 35
  • 62. City of Ottawa Archives Questions? Corinne Vionnet, http://www.corinnevionnet.com/site/1-photo-opportunities.html