Funding Conservation Works Innovative Strategies for Programs and Techniques
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Funding Conservation Works Innovative Strategies for Programs and Techniques

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Funding Conservation Works Innovative Strategies for Programs and Techniques Funding Conservation Works Innovative Strategies for Programs and Techniques Presentation Transcript

  • Funding Conservation WorksInnovative Strategies for Programs and TechniquesStefano Della TorreSeminario informativo sul settore del restauro in ItaliaLeipzig, 22 November 2012
  • Outline• Restoration as a supply chain• Reduction of public spending• New financial strategies• Competitive funding procedures• Programming restoration: use value, long-term vision, externalities of technologies• Taking profit of new technologies in the frame of “creativity” as an engine for regional development Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Restoration as a supply chain• In Italy conservation works go under strict regulations enforced by State offices (Soprintendenze)• In general they aim at material authenticity, therefore requiring specialized professionals and side activities (survey, diagnostics…)• They used to have an important turnover Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Restoration as a supply chain• During 2005/2007 in Italy the turnover of the sector was about € 2.000.000.000,00 per year, involving works for private owners, esteemed as 20-25% of the whole amount .• This amount is the basis for computing the product made by professionals (architects, engineers, surveyors…), which counts for about 15%, not included in previously given amounts.• Roughly speaking, these figures entail 22000 jobs in building sector, 3.000 jobs in technical professions.• Scientific diagnostics counts for a little and very variable rate, from 0,5 to 5 % of the amount of the works. This means a number of jobs for conservation scientists which can vary from 50 to 500. Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Restoration as a supply chain• This budget has to be appreciated also for its “quality”: it means return on investments, less waste, higher skills hired…• We can assume that the percentage of investment in scientific investigations is an indicator of quality in restoration process. The number of jobs for scientists (i.e. high intellectual capital) could increase by 10 times just by requiring more diagnostics and scientific support, that is easy when fixing criteria for financing projects.• These issues become more and more relevant in front of a reduction of public spending Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Reduction of public spending• Most historic rehabilitation initiatives in Italy have been funded by public resources (often matching grants from EU or from private grant-making foundations)• The reduction of the budgets of public bodies (Municipalities…) implies that it will be more and more difficult to finance public works in general, and also works on historic propertiesA twofold strategy is ongoing:• Reinforce the reasons why to spend (public) money for conservation;• Set up new strategies to make the process more efficient (preventive conservation, ICT…) Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Reduction of public spending • The sector can be shrunk, but if you get rid of maintenance and preventive conservation, you will soon or later pay much more (and Italy is a seismic country!)Mantua, S. Barbara’s belltower under quake Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Reduction of public spending• The sector can be shrunk, but if you get rid of maintenance and preventive conservation, you will soon or later pay much more (and Italy is a seismic country!) L’Aquila, Basilica di Collemaggio L’Aquila, Chiesa delle Anime Sante Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • New financial strategies• In Italian tradition culture and antiques are conceived inside the public sphere• Scarcity of resources forced to open to various forms of partnership with private players: sponsors, entrepreneurs, renters…Among the practices which are getting customary:• Technical sponsorship: the sponsors do not give money, but they provide the works done• Project financing: the property is given to a private user (for a time to be decided) in order to have conservation works done• In both cases, the enterprise which aims at doing the work has to match new requirements and to find its competitive advantage in new kinds of alliances and financial networking Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Sponsored works:Milan, Spanish Walls Technical sponsorship: TMC provided the development of the restoration project by a team of architects and the works carried out by Gasparoli srl, under the supervision of the Soprintendenza and Milan Municipality Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Project financingMonza, Villa Reale: Currently in Italy perhaps the biggest and most controversial restoration carried on through a project financing deal Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Competitive funding procedures• The scarcity of resources forces to set up competitive procedures in order to decide which interventions are the best• Then the problem turns into choosing criteria: the best for which purpose? Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Wide-area projects 13• Restorations are funded under the condition that they have been arranged in the frame of wide-area projects• The aim is to set up sustainable management plans, taking into account the economic performances of restored sites, seen as belonging to nets and territorial systems.• This trend works for integrated conservation paradigms, as well as for a long-term vision in conservation.• By this way managerial culture came into preservation practice• These comprehensive projects often implement a “triple helix” model, or refer to the idea of creative clusters Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Wide area projects: the criteriaAn example: “Distretti culturali” in Lombardy Region.The main features are:• there are grants and rules,• restorations (what people are supposed to want) funded as they are carefully planned taking into account quality (including qualification of the technicians and the contractors)• planned conservation after works,• management system,• exploitation of networking as a tool to enhance human and territorial capitalThe criteria selected the interventions able to create value because of:- Use value of the building in the future local system;- Long-term vision (management plan, planned conservation)- Externalities of implemented technologies Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • A turnover“Distretti Culturali” project is ongoing and currently it makes a number of people work in different positionsMost of them are improving their skills.The challenge for everybody is also to change mind about the link Economy-Culture.We are going beyond the vision that the problem is just to collect money to pay conservation costs.We are going beyond the vision that Heritage makes money directly (hard to endorse).We are exploring the thesis that Heritage preservation activities can empower a region as well as its economy, provided they are carried on aiming at opening mindsIt’s a turnover: from an economic empowerment of Culture to a cultural empowerment of Economy.In other words, Heritage may create the “learning environment” where innovation can be developed . Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • The case of the Florence Restoration districtFlorence is perhaps themost famous Art city inthe world; this means alocal economy boostedby tourism, but rich alsoin educational andrestoration activities Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Florentine Cultural Cluster was a favorablemilieu for R&D in Laser Industry Laser Medecine had the chance to develop everywhere, why just under the shadow of Brunelleschi’s dome? The answer is that Florentine preservation cluster has been crucial in giving opportunities to research on Laser techniques, aiding development in all the fields, not only restoration. Brunelleschi now is used a brand for the laser conference, but during the R&D period a lot of research grants earned as a support to Heritage field supported scientific research as a whole Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Historic Preservation as an infrastructure for development Historic preservation can be seen as an infrastructure for social and economic development according to the models of Knowledge EconomySource: Lazzeretti, Capone, Cinti 2010: Technological innovation in creative clusters. The case of laserin conservation of artworks in Florence, IERMB Working Paper in Economics, nº10.02, April 2010 Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Learning from traditional practices andcrafts• Traditional crafts are crucial to preventive conservation where they are still alive• Where tradition has broken down, there are risks and opportunities• Opportunities: learning “green” solutions from the world before industrialization• Risks: crafts which still look traditional changed their soul, so that now they may carry on “invented traditions” which are far from being sustainable. Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Learning from traditional practices andcrafts – Example 1 Historic natural ventilation system in the Hofburg and inspired project in Schönbrunn Castle (Käferhaus 2007) Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Learning from traditional practices andcrafts – Example 2Stone slabs roofs in Aosta Valley. Remaking traditional roofs with stone slabs is enforced by local regulations and supported by incentives, as stone roofs are typical of Alpine landscapeBut two different techniques are used Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • The ancient techniqueSmall local slabs, not regular in shape, coming from local quarries.Reuse of slabs is possible, the service life of a slab may be even two centuriesThe roof cannot be insulated.Annual maintenance is required. Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • The “drop-shape” techniqueHuge slabs coming from abroad (by railway).No salvage of old slabs.Slabs nailed on wooden planking (insulation).Seldom maintenance (remake). Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • RegulationsRegulation (R.L. 13/2007) give a plus for- Full substitution of the roof (less money if the owner changes only a part of the materials)- Stone quality, evaluated by means of laboratory tests The actual behaviour of stones is different, and it is worthy to remark that local stones behave better than they are assessed by Lab tests. Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Can materials for traditional building in Italycome from Nepal? “Drop-shape” dates back just to 1950s, as stones useful for this kind of work can not be mined locally. In the matter of fact they come from Spain, Greece, Norway and Nepal. Aosta railway station now has an area devoted to such a globalized movement of stone slabs. Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • Prevention, Tradition, Innovation:Learning and UnlearningSomebody should question about the carbon footprint of Aosta regulations, born by “culturally correct” concerns for landscape and workmanship, but now turned into a dissipation factor. They are misleading as they encourage the abandon of maintenance and the waste of materials.An advanced work of criticism is needed to unlearn what has been vitiated by industrial and commercial attitudes, to discover again the sense of authentic tradition, and to revive old know-how.By this way it will be possible to match “green” requirements concerning embodied energy. Prof. Stefano Della Torre
  • What is needed to work in restoration fieldin Italy in the years to come?• Qualification (expertise, ability, management…)• Openness to high technologies (restoration techniques, ICT…)• Openness to green technologies• Openness to “new” financial processes (technical sponsorships, project financing…)• Networking (with enterprises, research centres, universities…)• Attitude to communicate (open building sites, educational activities…)• Readiness to “new” activities (preventive conservation, data filing…) Prof. Stefano Della Torre