CRO/PSO Doctrine
– as an Overarching Issue for Sucess
dr eng. Jerzy DEREN

Anybody who has been seriously engaged in scien...
Peacekeeping isn’t
a soldier job, but only a
soldier can do it.
Military Sociologist,

Charles Moskos

Charles Moskos (lef...
CONTRIBUTING TO CRO – PSO AND GAINING INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE
AGENDA




INTRODUCTION
TERMINOLOGY
AJD HIERARCHY




SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES






DEPLOYABLE FORCES

FORCE PROVIDE...
Introduction
Does Europe remain alone?

NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department
Terminology
AAP 6 (2012) does not contain CRO definition
AJD
Hierarchy
[..] In a globalized world, nations [..] are more likely to
participate as part of an alliance or coalition formed to
achi...
www.db.niss.gov.ua/docs/nato/nato/sco71.html
Scope
And
Objectives
NATO Military Crisis Response Operations (CRO)

Operational Considerations of NA5CRO.

The characteristics of each
NA5CRO ...
NA 5 Crisis Response Operations Overview.
CRO are the Alliance’s contribution to effective
crisis management.

NA5CRO are ...
NA 5 Crisis Response Operations Overview.
CRO are the Alliance’s contribution to effective crisis
management.

PSO are des...
NA 5 Crisis Response Operations Overview.
Cont’d
Peace Support Forces (PSF) actions are based
upon judgments of the degree...
Other NA5CRO (Chapter 4 of AJP 3.4):
Support of Humanitarian Operations (HO):
A Humanitarian Operation is defined as a mis...
Other NA 5 CRO (Chapter 4 of AJP 3.4) cont’d:

 Support of Disaster Relief,
closely linked with HO,
 Search and Rescue O...
Other NA 5 CRO (Chapter 4 of AJP 3.4) cont’d:
 Extraction Operations,
NATO covers or assist in the withdrawal of a UN or ...
Force Provider
Requirements vs. Capabilities
INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM
NATO COMMAND STRUCTURE MC 324
INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM
NATO FORCE STRUCTURE MC 317
INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM
INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM
Deployable Forces:
CRO/PSO enablers
NATO RESPONSE FORCES

Land, Air, Maritime and SOF forces

Capable of deploying rapidly to a crisis area

32

NATO UNCLASSI...
NRF is a High Readiness Force (HRF)
which includes HQ/C2 elements and
forces to provide an immediate military
purpose and ...
The NRF at FOC
Deployable Joint Task
Force HQ

Total Force – approx
25,000

Land

Special Operations

Air

Brigade Combat
...
CJTF CONCEPT
HQ NATO

JFC HQ
CCL

SC
CJTF

CCA

AOO

CCM

CCSOF
COMBINED JOINT TASK FORCE
“A CJTF is a multinational, (Combined) and
multi-service (Joint) Task Force, task
organised
and ...
NORFOLK
1. ACTIVATE
NUCLEUS
STAFF
2. COMMENCE
PLANNING

6. SAIL

8. INTEGRATE
MAIN AUGM.

7. CONTINUE
PARALLEL
PLANNING

9...
Operational
Considerations
38

NATO UNCLASSIFIED
39

NATO UNCLASSIFIED
CROs vs. PSOs
Something short of war?

Crisis Response Operation

HA

PSO

What goes here?
NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Mana...
Security Environment (Threat?)
Changing ALLIANCES:
IMPACT OF THE EURO
ECO-ASIA

TERRORISM

Virtual States
Sub-National Gro...
International Organizations
• ART 1, UN Charter
– “to maintain international peace and
security”.

• Can issue Mandate
– C...
Cooperation in Command and Control

UN

NAC
MC

SCR
MANDATE

SACEUR/SACT

SRSG

NGO

NGO

NGO

NGO

JFC (HQ) - CJTF

UN
AG...
Key Planning
Assumptions
44

NATO UNCLASSIFIED
• Alliance Strategic
Concept
• MC 400/2 Mil
Implementation of
Alliance Strategy

References

Bi-MNC DIRECTIVE
FOR
NATO DOC...
EVOLUTION OF APPROACHES FOR OPP
Information
Political Military
Infrastructure
Vulnerabilities
Links Social

Strengths
Key ...
ROE are for the use of Force
deployed in AOR under the
authority of NAC decision ,
authorizing the assistance of
NATO forc...
ROE are a tool
to enable political control
over the military’s use of force
Implementation of ANSS
Spectrum of
Operations

59

NATO UNCLASSIFIED
60

NATO UNCLASSIFIED
The PSO Spectrum

Humanitarian OPS

NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department
Principles of PSO
In some ways similar to Principles of War

• Impartiality
• Cooperation and
Consent
• Restraint
• End St...
Keys to Success
Keys to Success:
• Early Involvement (Warning)
• Thorough Staff Planning (OPP – ROEs))
• Coordination with...
NATO Article 4/5 Operations
2001

2002

EAGLE ASSIST

USA
EAST MED + STROG

ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR + STROG

2003
2004
2005
2005
...
IAW SIPRI: CROs/PSO Current

UNMOT
1993 -
Summary
– PSOs are not war
– PSOs are multifunctional, impartial, under
mandate, support long-term settlement
– Conflict P...
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02
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Deren_CRO_PSO NATO doctrine v02

  1. 1. CRO/PSO Doctrine – as an Overarching Issue for Sucess dr eng. Jerzy DEREN Anybody who has been seriously engaged in scientific work of any kind realizes that over the entrance to the gates of the temple of science are written the words: 'Ye must have faith.' Max Planck derenj@wp.pl WROCŁAW – 26-28 Apriel 2013 jerzy.deren@dsw.edu.pl
  2. 2. Peacekeeping isn’t a soldier job, but only a soldier can do it. Military Sociologist, Charles Moskos Charles Moskos (left) with Army Staff Sgt. Donald Pratt (center) and an unidentified soldier during a 1967 trip to Vietnam
  3. 3. CONTRIBUTING TO CRO – PSO AND GAINING INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE
  4. 4. AGENDA    INTRODUCTION TERMINOLOGY AJD HIERARCHY   SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES     DEPLOYABLE FORCES FORCE PROVIDER OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS KEY PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS SPECTRUM OF OPERATIONS
  5. 5. Introduction
  6. 6. Does Europe remain alone? NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department
  7. 7. Terminology
  8. 8. AAP 6 (2012) does not contain CRO definition
  9. 9. AJD Hierarchy
  10. 10. [..] In a globalized world, nations [..] are more likely to participate as part of an alliance or coalition formed to achieve internationally agreed objectives. Developing, accepting, and following sound doctrinal principles are the important first step when operations are to be conducted by multinational forces. Successful planning, execution, and support of multinational military operations require clearly understood and thoroughly implemented allied joint doctrine. [..] ndupress.ndu.edu; issue 67, 4th quarter 2012 / JFQ 111
  11. 11. www.db.niss.gov.ua/docs/nato/nato/sco71.html
  12. 12. Scope And Objectives
  13. 13. NATO Military Crisis Response Operations (CRO) Operational Considerations of NA5CRO. The characteristics of each NA5CRO will determine the force size, structure and components, and its essential capabilities and sustainment requirements.
  14. 14. NA 5 Crisis Response Operations Overview. CRO are the Alliance’s contribution to effective crisis management. NA5CRO are intended to respond to such CRISIS, to include the containment of hostilities, in a timely and coordinated manner where the CRISIS could either affect the security of NATO nations, or threaten stability and lead to conflict on the periphery of the Alliance. NA5CRO are normally known as Peace Support Operations (PSO).
  15. 15. NA 5 Crisis Response Operations Overview. CRO are the Alliance’s contribution to effective crisis management. PSO are designed to create a secure environment in which civilian agencies can rebuild the infrastructure and conditions necessary to create a selfsustaining peace. PSO are neither in support of, nor against a particular party, but rather are conducted in an impartial and even-handed manner.
  16. 16. NA 5 Crisis Response Operations Overview. Cont’d Peace Support Forces (PSF) actions are based upon judgments of the degree of compliance and/or noncompliance of the parties with the agreement between the parties and not against any bias or pre-determined designation. PSO categories (chapter 3 of AJP 3.4):  Peacekeeping  - Peace Enforcement  - Conflict Prevention  - Peacemaking  - Peace Building  - Humanitarian Relief Operations
  17. 17. Other NA5CRO (Chapter 4 of AJP 3.4): Support of Humanitarian Operations (HO): A Humanitarian Operation is defined as a mission conducted to alleviate human suffering, especially in circumstances where responsible authorities in the area are unable, or possibly unwilling, to provide adequate support to the population. As humanitarian activities are basically a civilian task, military engagement would principally cover functions, that cannot be assured in the required amount by specialized civilian organizations. Two categories of HO: > Assistance for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) and for Displaced Persons and Refugees (DPRE), > Humanitarian Assistance in natural or man-made disasters.
  18. 18. Other NA 5 CRO (Chapter 4 of AJP 3.4) cont’d:  Support of Disaster Relief, closely linked with HO,  Search and Rescue Operations (Chicago Conventions of 1947)  Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations (Support to) ; NEO are diplomatic initiatives, conducted to relocate non-combatants threatened in a foreign country.
  19. 19. Other NA 5 CRO (Chapter 4 of AJP 3.4) cont’d:  Extraction Operations, NATO covers or assist in the withdrawal of a UN or other mission from a crisis region.  Military Aid / Support to Civil Authorities embraces all those military activities that provide temporary support to civil authorities.  Enforcement of Sanctions and Embargos designed to force a nation to obey to international law or to conform to a resolution or mandate.  Combat Operations, those involve the use of military force or the threat of force, including military action ranging the full spectrum of military combat operation.
  20. 20. Force Provider Requirements vs. Capabilities
  21. 21. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM NATO COMMAND STRUCTURE MC 324
  22. 22. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM NATO FORCE STRUCTURE MC 317
  23. 23. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM
  24. 24. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM
  25. 25. Deployable Forces: CRO/PSO enablers
  26. 26. NATO RESPONSE FORCES Land, Air, Maritime and SOF forces Capable of deploying rapidly to a crisis area 32 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  27. 27. NRF is a High Readiness Force (HRF) which includes HQ/C2 elements and forces to provide an immediate military purpose and reaction capability. This includes an Initial Entry Capability (IEC). In order to assure the deployability of HQ/Forces, RSOM capacities are required. 33 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  28. 28. The NRF at FOC Deployable Joint Task Force HQ Total Force – approx 25,000 Land Special Operations Air Brigade Combat Team Special Forces Task Groups 200 Combat Sorties/Day Maritime Wednesday, 26 June 2013 34 With Strategic Enablers •Lift •Intelligence •Force Protection •Combat Support NATO RESTRICTED •Combat Service Support NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  29. 29. CJTF CONCEPT HQ NATO JFC HQ CCL SC CJTF CCA AOO CCM CCSOF
  30. 30. COMBINED JOINT TASK FORCE “A CJTF is a multinational, (Combined) and multi-service (Joint) Task Force, task organised and formed for the full range of Alliance military missions that require multi-national and multi-service command and control (C2) by a CJTF Headquarters.” Source: MC 389/1 - Jun 2000 36 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  31. 31. NORFOLK 1. ACTIVATE NUCLEUS STAFF 2. COMMENCE PLANNING 6. SAIL 8. INTEGRATE MAIN AUGM. 7. CONTINUE PARALLEL PLANNING 9. OPEN UP THEATRE 5. UPLIFT CIS 4. INTEGRATE CRITICAL AUGM. 10. CO-ORDINATE ENABLING OPS 3. STAND UP CJTF HQ 11. ASSUME C2 OF FORCES 12. INTEGRATE FORCES 13. CONDUCT ENHANCEMENT TRAINING JOA 14. COMMENCE OPERATION USS MOUNT WHITNEY for Alliance 21st Century Combined Joint Operations HIGH READINESS CJTF HQ 37 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  32. 32. Operational Considerations 38 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  33. 33. 39 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  34. 34. CROs vs. PSOs Something short of war? Crisis Response Operation HA PSO What goes here? NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department ? War
  35. 35. Security Environment (Threat?) Changing ALLIANCES: IMPACT OF THE EURO ECO-ASIA TERRORISM Virtual States Sub-National Groups: Russian Mafia, FARC, Al Q’aida INFORMATION WARFARE ETHNOReligious PAN-NATIONALISM FAILED STATES POPULATION GROWTH + RESOURCE SCARCITY = Wars over Food, Water, Fish UNCERTAIN UNCERTAIN FUTURE FUTURE Proliferation of WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS? More GNP = More Defense Spending IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY GLOBAL ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE GLOBALIZATION DISEASE (AIDS PANDEMIC MALARIA, EBOLA)) Global Warming +/ Ecological disaster + Creeping Deserts = ASYMMETRIC THREAT/WARFARE DRUGS TRAFFICINKG AND TRANSBORDER CRIME ILLEGAL MASS MIGRATION
  36. 36. International Organizations • ART 1, UN Charter – “to maintain international peace and security”. • Can issue Mandate – CH 6: Peaceful Settlement – CH 7: Enforcement Actions – CH 8: Regional Arrangements • Task: Restore Civil Society • LoA: Mil Observer to multidimensional unit capability NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department
  37. 37. Cooperation in Command and Control UN NAC MC SCR MANDATE SACEUR/SACT SRSG NGO NGO NGO NGO JFC (HQ) - CJTF UN AGENCIES CCs NGO A A A ORG A A I I I I I CIMIC CENTRE A I NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department ORG UNIT UNIT UNIT
  38. 38. Key Planning Assumptions 44 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  39. 39. • Alliance Strategic Concept • MC 400/2 Mil Implementation of Alliance Strategy References Bi-MNC DIRECTIVE FOR NATO DOCTRINE FOR PEACE PEACE SUPPORT SUPPORT OPERATIONS OPERATIONS AJP-3.4.1 16 October 1998 NATO UNCLASSIFIED Move • MC 327/2 NATO Mil Concept for NATO PSO • AJP 3.4.1 “Peace Support Operations” • MC 327/1 NATO Mil Concept for NATO PSO • Bi-MNC Directive for NATO PSO 16 OCT 98 • Functional Plannin Guide • GOP “Guidelines for for PSO Operational Planning” • COPD “Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive Move
  40. 40. EVOLUTION OF APPROACHES FOR OPP Information Political Military Infrastructure Vulnerabilities Links Social Strengths Key Nodes Weaknesses Economic Relationships SPACE CYBER-SPACE PRECISION STRIKE UNMANNED SENSORS & STRIKE PRECISION STRIKE INTEGRATED HUMINT AIR-GROUND ASYMMETRIC INTEGRATED SOF-CONVENTIONAL IO/PSYOP SOF SOF Light SOF Systems Analysis Allies Nicht Zum Kernkrieg, As They Say By Armed Liberal at Jan 4, 2007: 06:46 WMD Threat SOF Heavy UNMANNED SYSTEMS Information Homeland SYMMETRIC
  41. 41. ROE are for the use of Force deployed in AOR under the authority of NAC decision , authorizing the assistance of NATO forces in implementing UNSCR, and apply to both NATO and non-NATO attached OPCOM, OPCON and TACON forces Duty to Use proportional / Minimum Force
  42. 42. ROE are a tool to enable political control over the military’s use of force
  43. 43. Implementation of ANSS
  44. 44. Spectrum of Operations 59 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  45. 45. 60 NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  46. 46. The PSO Spectrum Humanitarian OPS NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department
  47. 47. Principles of PSO In some ways similar to Principles of War • Impartiality • Cooperation and Consent • Restraint • End State • Perseverance • Unity of Effort • Flexibility • • • • • • Legitimacy Security Credibility Mutual Respect Transparency Freedom of Movement • CIMIC
  48. 48. Keys to Success Keys to Success: • Early Involvement (Warning) • Thorough Staff Planning (OPP – ROEs)) • Coordination with Partners during Force Generation process (national caveats) • Rely on our Alliance Strengths: – – – – Common Doctrine Multinational C2 Structure Infrastructure and Communications Systems Available Forces NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department
  49. 49. NATO Article 4/5 Operations 2001 2002 EAGLE ASSIST USA EAST MED + STROG ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR + STROG 2003 2004 2005 2005 NRF SE TURKEY (2003, 2013) MD PATRIOT DD 2004 NATO Training Mission - I UN 2001 -2003 NATO 2003 -2007 ISAF 2009 2010 -------- 2013 2009 NATO Training Mission - A DD – Display Deterrence STROG – Straits of Gibraltar 66 2011 Operation Unified Protector Libya NATO UNCLASSIFIED
  50. 50. IAW SIPRI: CROs/PSO Current UNMOT 1993 -
  51. 51. Summary – PSOs are not war – PSOs are multifunctional, impartial, under mandate, support long-term settlement – Conflict Prevention - prevent escalation – Peace Keeping - monitor and facilitate – Peace Enforcement - establish and maintain NATO School (SHAPE) Crisis Management Department
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