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NEUROMUSCULAR
BLOCKERS
Presented By : Patel Omkumar
 Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular
transmission at the neuromuscular junction.
 Causing paralysis of the ...
Classification of Drugs
 Non-depolarizing blocking agents
 Example- tubocurarine, pancuronium, vecuronium and
atracurium...
Non-depolarizing blocking
agents
 This drugs does not depolarize the motor end
plate.
 The quaternary ammonium muscle re...
 Quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants are quaternary
ammonium salts used as drugs for muscle relaxation, most
commonly in...
Mechanism of Action
 Each ACh-receptor has two receptive sites and
activation of the receptor requires binding to both of...
 Quaternary muscle relaxants bind to the nicotinic
acetylcholine receptor and inhibit or interfere with the
binding and e...
 A decrease in binding of acetylcholine leads
to a decrease in its effect and neuron
transmission to the muscle is less l...
 Non-depolarising blocking agents also block
facilitatory presynaptic autoreceptors, and thus inhibit
the release of ACh ...
Postsynaptic neuromuscular blockers
Competitive (non depolarizing blockers)
 Long Acting
 Pancuronium
 Intermediate act...
Drug Clinical
Use
Onset of
Time
Duration
of Action
Side Effect
Tubocurarine Rarely 300 Sec. 60-120
Min.
Hypotension(Gangli...
 There action can be overcome by increasing conc.
Ach in synaptic gap or by the cholinesterase inhibitor,
neostigmine, ph...
Depolarizing blocking agents
 A depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
is a form of neuromuscular blocker that
depolar...
Mechanism of Action
 Depolarizing blocking agents work by depolarizing the
plasma membrane of the muscle fiber, similar t...
 The constant depolarization and triggering of
the receptors keeps the endplate resistant to
activation by acetylcholine....
 There are two phases to the depolarizing block. During
Phase I (depolarizing phase), they cause muscular
fasciculation (...
Succinylcholine
 The dose of succinylcholine required for
tracheal intubation in adults is 1.0-1.5 mg kg
 This dose prod...
Adverse Effect
 Bradycardia
 Muscle pain day after surgery due to initial
fasciculation.
 Hyperkalaemia
Therapeutic Uses
 Facilitate endoscopy and intubation
 As adjuvant in general anesthesia to induce
muscle relaxation
 O...
THANK YOU
Neuromuscular blocker
Neuromuscular blocker
Neuromuscular blocker
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Neuromuscular blocker

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This presentation was given by me during my M.pharm.
It contains description, classification, mechanism of actions and therapeutic uses of Neuromuscular blockers.

Published in: Education
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Neuromuscular blocker

  1. 1. NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKERS Presented By : Patel Omkumar
  2. 2.  Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction.  Causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.  This is accomplished either by acting presynaptically via the inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis or release, or by acting postsynaptically at the acetylcholine receptors of the motor nerve end-plate.  While some drugs act presynaptically (such as botulinum toxin and tetanus toxin), those of current clinical importance work postsynaptically.
  3. 3. Classification of Drugs  Non-depolarizing blocking agents  Example- tubocurarine, pancuronium, vecuronium and atracurium, Gallamine  Depolarizing blocking agents  Example- succinylcholine (suxamethonium), decamethonium rarely used clinically.
  4. 4. Non-depolarizing blocking agents  This drugs does not depolarize the motor end plate.  The quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants belong to this class.
  5. 5.  Quaternary ammonium muscle relaxants are quaternary ammonium salts used as drugs for muscle relaxation, most commonly in anesthesia. It is necessary to prevent spontaneous movement of muscle during surgical operations.  Which are poorly absorbed and rapidly excreted and can’t cross placenta.  They inhibit neuron transmission to muscle by competitively blocking the binding of ACh to its nicotinic receptors, and block the ionotropic activity of the ACh receptors.
  6. 6. Mechanism of Action  Each ACh-receptor has two receptive sites and activation of the receptor requires binding to both of them. Each receptor site is located at one of the two α- subunits of the receptor.
  7. 7.  Quaternary muscle relaxants bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and inhibit or interfere with the binding and effect of ACh to the receptor.  They are Competitive antagonists combine with the nicotinic ACh receptor at the end plate and thereby competitively block the binding of ACh. One or both Blocker Blocker
  8. 8.  A decrease in binding of acetylcholine leads to a decrease in its effect and neuron transmission to the muscle is less likely to occur.  It is generally accepted that non-depolarizing agents block by acting as reversible competitive inhibitors.
  9. 9.  Non-depolarising blocking agents also block facilitatory presynaptic autoreceptors, and thus inhibit the release of ACh during repetitive stimulation of the motor nerve resulting in the phenomenon of tetanic fade.  Tetanic fade(a term used to describe the failure of muscle tension to be maintained during a brief period of nerve stimulation at a frequency high enough to produce a fused tetanus)
  10. 10. Postsynaptic neuromuscular blockers Competitive (non depolarizing blockers)  Long Acting  Pancuronium  Intermediate acting  Atracurium  Vecuronium  Rocuronium  Cisatracurium  Short acting  Mivacurium
  11. 11. Drug Clinical Use Onset of Time Duration of Action Side Effect Tubocurarine Rarely 300 Sec. 60-120 Min. Hypotension(Ganglionic block), Bronchoconstriction Mivacurium 90 Sec. 12-18 Min. Transient hypotension Atracurium Widely 90 Sec. 30 Min or less Transient hypotension, renal failure Vecuronium Widely 60 Sec. 30-40 Min. Few, prolong paralysis Pancuronium Widely 90 Sec. 90 Min tachycardia
  12. 12.  There action can be overcome by increasing conc. Ach in synaptic gap or by the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine, physostigmine.  Sugammadex, a macromolecule that selectively binds steroidal neuromuscular blocking drugs such as pancuronium as an inactive complex in the plasma. The complex is excreted unchanged in the urine. Sugammadex is claimed to produce more rapid reversal of block than neostigmine.
  13. 13. Depolarizing blocking agents  A depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent is a form of neuromuscular blocker that depolarizes the motor end plate.  An example is succinylcholine.
  14. 14. Mechanism of Action  Depolarizing blocking agents work by depolarizing the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber, similar to acetylcholine.  These agents are more resistant to degradation by acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for degrading acetylcholine, and can thus more persistently depolarize the muscle fibers. This differs from acetylcholine, which is rapidly degraded and only transiently depolarizes the muscle.
  15. 15.  The constant depolarization and triggering of the receptors keeps the endplate resistant to activation by acetylcholine.  A normal neuron transmission to muscle cannot cause contraction of the muscle because the endplate is depolarized and thereby the muscle paralysed.
  16. 16.  There are two phases to the depolarizing block. During Phase I (depolarizing phase), they cause muscular fasciculation (muscle twitches) while they are depolarizing the muscle fibers. Eventually, after sufficient depolarization has occurred, Phase II (desensitizing phase) sets in and the muscle is no longer responsive to acetylcholine released by the motor neurons. And full neuromuscular block has been achieved.
  17. 17. Succinylcholine  The dose of succinylcholine required for tracheal intubation in adults is 1.0-1.5 mg kg  This dose produces profound block within 60 sec. which is faster than any other NMBDs. But very short duration of action about 5-10 minutes because of plasma cholinesterase, which has an enormous capacity to hydrolyse succinylcholine.
  18. 18. Adverse Effect  Bradycardia  Muscle pain day after surgery due to initial fasciculation.  Hyperkalaemia
  19. 19. Therapeutic Uses  Facilitate endoscopy and intubation  As adjuvant in general anesthesia to induce muscle relaxation  Orthopedic surgery.
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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