Civilians Protecting Civilans: The Role of Unarmed Civilians


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Civilians Protecting Civilians. Presented by Rolf Carriere and Mel Duncan at Caux Forum on Human Security, 12 July 2011.

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  • Civilians Protecting Civilians– The Role of Nonviolent Peaceforce
  • Provide some context and relevant features of violent conflict…We are dealing with a huge problem here, and massive transformative changes
  • Stiglitz and Bilmes Three Trillion Dollar War for USA in Iraq alone!
  • Compare this US$5 billion to the proposal to ‘bail out’ the USA Wall Street investment bankers at US$700 billion….
  • Although there are some positive indications that # of wars and # of casualties/war are reducing… beware: definitions may exclude
  • Unanimity!
  • Profound and rapid… Continue with Guehenno?
  • Emphasize this…
  • What, who, how, when, how
  • Add 50percent women
  • Civilians Protecting Civilans: The Role of Unarmed Civilians

    1. 1. Protecting Threatened Civilians  and Preventing Violence The Role of Unarmed Civilians A Briefing & Discussion @ Human Security Forum, IofC by Mel Duncan & Rolf Carriere Nonviolent Peaceforce Caux, 12 July 2011  
    2. 2. NP Focus + Niche <ul><li>Keeping people physically safe </li></ul><ul><li>By organized teams of civilians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multinational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gender-balanced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impartial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to protection only </li></ul><ul><li>Working by invitation of, and with, local civil society organizations (not to strengthen the state) </li></ul>
    3. 3. NP Focus + Niche <ul><li>Practicing ‘proactive presence’ 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>Without use of armed force </li></ul><ul><li>Complying to strict security protocols (but not the UN’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by a variety of donors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civilians protecting civilians! (on a large scale) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Every New Idea… <ul><li>Every new idea, like every truth, passes through three stages: </li></ul><ul><li>First, it is ridiculed </li></ul><ul><li>Second, it is violently opposed </li></ul><ul><li>Third, it is accepted as being self-evident </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arthur Schopenhauer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Context of Violent Conflict <ul><li>World Bank: 1.5 billions people currently live in countries with repeated violence (WDR 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Not one of these countries has achieved a single MDG (WDR 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>It is no longer acceptable to allow belligerents to fight till exhaustion-- if only for the sake of civilians… </li></ul>
    6. 6. Cost of Violent Conflict <ul><li>On average, the total national and regional cost of a single war is: </li></ul><ul><li>more than US$64 billion … </li></ul><ul><li>then add to this the global impacts of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>international terrorism, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs production and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spread of HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Paul Collier, World Bank/Oxford) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Cost of Violent Conflict <ul><li>Insecurity is such a drain on resources that under the current budget, the government of South Sudan spends about $700 million on security -related matters — </li></ul><ul><li>More than the budget for education, health care, electricity, roads and industry combined! </li></ul>
    8. 8. Context of Violent Conflict <ul><li>Where to focus? </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of high risk (40+%) of relapse into war within the decade after ceasefire/peace agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, only about 12 countries are in the post-conflict category at any one time </li></ul><ul><li>90% of civil wars in the 2000s occurred in countries that had already experienced civil war in previous 30 years (WDR2011) </li></ul><ul><li>A US$5 billion investment in international peacekeeping and well-targeted aid would deliver a return of US$397 billion in post-conflict countries </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, high predictability + very high returns ! </li></ul>Source: Paul Collier, World Bank/Oxford
    9. 9. Context of Violent Conflict <ul><li>Potential for more violence in future is high , due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing ethnic tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With more self-determination, 193->2000 nations? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive race for scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depleting energy sources, water, precious minerals ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade in/ubiquitous presence of small arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing population pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People voting with their feet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral, daily in your face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widening income disparities </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Increasingly, threatening and targeting of vulnerable Civilian Populations children women ethnic/religious minorities ‘ first peoples’ dispossessed suppressed and Individuals journalists humanitarian aid workers (100+ death/yr) human rights workers
    11. 11. Whatever the current level of action for protection of civilians, and whoever provides it, the world needs far more Protection of Civilians
    12. 12. The Question is: HOW ?
    13. 13. Since End of Cold War <ul><li>Some historic shifts in perceptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Security (basic rights + freedom from fear + freedom from want) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R2P (‘sovereignty as responsibility’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of Civilians (as ‘humanitarian imperative’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New focus on Prevention of Genocide (and other crimes of mass atrocities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resurgence of Nonviolence (Middle East, Yellow, Orange, Velvet etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peoples Right to Peace (UNHCHR drafting new Declaration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New UN recognition of Civilian Capacities </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. “ The journey from war to sustainable peace is not possible in the absence of stronger civilian capacity. Without this capacity, there may be breaks in the fighting, but resilient institutions will not take root and the risk of renewed violence will remain.” Jean-Marie Guéhenno, former UN Under-Secretary General for Peacekeeping Operations, transmitting the report Civilian Capacity in the Aftermath of Conflict to UN Secretary General, Ban-Ki Moon .
    15. 15. To Protect Threatened Civilians in complex security situations <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What is the proper balance between </li></ul><ul><li>(and among) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political/Diplomatic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian Relief </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engagements/interventions? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. To Protect Threatened Civilians in complex security situations <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What is the proper balance between </li></ul><ul><li>(and among) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political/Diplomatic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian Relief </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engagements/interventions? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Redressing the Balance <ul><li>From </li></ul><ul><li>National security </li></ul><ul><li>Hard power </li></ul><ul><li>State & military </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive & late </li></ul><ul><li>General humanitarian relief </li></ul><ul><li>Ad hoc protection (or as by-product of ‘international presence’) </li></ul><ul><li>Towards </li></ul><ul><li>Human security </li></ul><ul><li>Soft power </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian & unarmed, nonviolent </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive & early </li></ul><ul><li>Effective physical protection (as top need) </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional proactive presence (dedicated, professional on call) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Towards A New Security… (Can You See It That Way?) <ul><li>National > Human Security </li></ul><ul><li>Hard > Soft Power </li></ul><ul><li>Military > Civilian </li></ul><ul><li>Armed > Unarmed </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive > Preventive </li></ul><ul><li>Late > Early </li></ul><ul><li>General > Proactive Presence </li></ul>Some special interests may not see it that way…
    19. 19. To Protect Threatened Civilians 2: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>what is the proper balance between </li></ul><ul><li>(and among) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political/Diplomatic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engagements/interventions in complex security situations? </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Responding to Violent Conflict <ul><li>Global civilian capacities for PoC exist (or are potentially available) , but remain unused (Guehenno report) </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps often only on small scale, but scalable </li></ul><ul><li>Unarmed Civilian Protection (UPC) has its own comparative advantages & fills important niche </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>CSOs all over the world are convinced they, too, can contribute to Peacekeeping + PoC </li></ul><ul><li>Theirs is the power of nonviolent presence- - a role that cannot be played by the military or police </li></ul>Taking Risks For Peace Only Men and Women in Military Uniform ?
    22. 22. The Basics of Unarmed Civilian Protection What it is and Why it Works
    23. 23. The Purpose of Unarmed Civilian Protection
    24. 24. What is Unarmed Civilian Protection? <ul><li>Unarmed Civilian Protection is the organized , strategic use of various nonviolent tactics – </li></ul><ul><li>by unarmed civilians themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To deter violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To influence important actors in their community , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To create safe political space where people feel encouraged to transform their own conflicts constructively </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. UCP is… Not disorganised individuals showing up without a plan, thinking only their presence is enough. Organised teams strategically implementing proven tactics for protecting civilians and reducing violence. Not well-intentioned volunteers working against “oppressors” and naively sticking flowers in gun barrels. Well-trained professionals working proactively with key stakeholders on all levels to increase security of all people Not white people from the global North holding threatened peoples’ hands so they do not get shot. Security-conscious international/multi-cultural teams working and living within communities affected by violence and supporting them to increase their own security. Not an add-on to an already over-burdened work day or something done indirectly while passing out food. A specific, focused activity, based on lessons learned and compelling practices
    26. 26. Unarmed Civilian Protection PROACTIVE PRESENCE Encouragement Deterrence Influence Nonviolence Independence Primacy of Internal Conflict Actors Nonpartisanship Human Rights Confidence Building Conscious Visibility Protection Capacity Building Multi-Level Diplomacy
    27. 27. NP Staff Security & Safety <ul><li>UCP requires a higher threshold of </li></ul><ul><li>UCP requires a higher threshold of risk than typical field operations </li></ul><ul><li>UCP employs Active/Interactive Security based on Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>and employs Active/Interactive Security based on Relationships , not Preventative Measures </li></ul>
    28. 28. 1. Understand that UCP’s are partial: (e.g. towards human rights, security of all people, peaceful resolution of conflicts, etc.). Cannot be afraid of the values and mission underlying the work. 2. Separate violent actions committed from the people who commit those actions (problems vs. people). 3. Work transparently (key stakeholders know what we are doing) while maintaining the confidentiality of those we serve. 4. Strive for ACCEPTANCE and strategic connection from all key stakeholders. 5. Adhere to the 3rd Principle of UCP: Primacy of Internal Conflict Actors (i.e. It’s not about what we want, it’s our job to create the space for internal actors to achieve what they want.) Lesson Learned from Implementing Nonpartisanship in the Field
    29. 29. What is Proactive Presence? “ What is needed…is not passive presence for its own sake, but well informed and carefully analysed strategies and tactics that use the presence of each [UCP] to influence all the actors around them.” -Liam Mahoney
    30. 30. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? DETERRENCE Decision Makers (Worried about Int’l Image) Perpetrators of Violence (Worried about witnesses) Targeted Civilians Chain of Command International Pressure X
    31. 31. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? DETERRENCE Decision Makers (Worried about Int’l Image) Perpetrators of Violence (Worried about witnesses) Targeted Civilians Chain of Command International Pressure “ It’s not really me.”
    32. 32. MPT How Does Proactive Presence Work? DETERRENCE Decision Makers (Worried about Int’l Image) Perpetrators of Violence (Worried about witnesses) Targeted Civilians Chain of Command International Pressure X X
    33. 33. MPT Proactive Presence: Conditions of Effectiveness <ul><li>Effectiveness is based on conflict actors’ acceptance of UCP’s </li></ul><ul><li>Being present and being visible is the foundation of this technique, but does not provide protection in and of itself unless it is used strategically and, if acceptance fails, can be backed up by credible pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Credible pressures must be based on careful research which identifies who is causing the threat and what kinds of pressure they may be susceptible to </li></ul><ul><li>There must be real power and influence behind the pressure for it to be credible: i.e., political, economic, legal, religious, cultural or social pressure such as disrupting tourism, indictment by a court or tribunal, imposing economic sanctions, canceling contracts or investment or aid packages </li></ul><ul><li>There must be direct lines of communication open to the perpetrators somewhere along their chain of command in order for pressure to be effectively applied. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Key UCP Activities Conscious Visibility Multi-Level Diplomacy Protection Confidence Building Capacity Building Facilitation of Safe Access to Government Mechanisms Forums/Meetings for State Duty-Bearers and Vulnerable Communities Safe Travel Routes for Civilians Accompaniment/ Protective Presence for Vulnerable Individuals / HRDs / Community Workers Establishment and monitoring of protocols with government and military actors Coordination of security services for vulnerable civilians Community Conflict Early Warning Early Response Systems Collaborative security assessments, consultations, and trainings Support for Community Security Teams Community Conflict Resolution Facilitation Intentional presence during critical times Ceasefire Monitoring
    35. 35. Local Membership Organizations Easy Access Effective Training Methodology Tried & Tested Global professionals Peacekeepers High Quality Candidates For activation Network of Influencers At times of crisis Visionary & practical goal Human Security Complementing MDGs NP’s Assets Broad constituency Donors Growing Appeal, incl. UN Fully operational Specialist Organization Ready to scale up Even more relevant now Feasibilty Study Defines Niche for NP
    36. 40. Verification Mission on Landmine Use in Mindanao Unarmed, Civilian Peacekeepers enable humanitarian & development entities to be successful in their work ‘ As far as I am aware, this is the first time in the history of international relations that such a fact-finding mission has been carried out with the agreement of, and facilitation by, both parties to an armed conflict, in casu, a State and a non-State actor.’ Unarmed civilian Peacekeepers – emphasizing neutrality and impartiality – provide logistical support for Geneva Call as it conducts an historic Verification Mission on landmine use in Mindanao Eric David, Professor of Law at Brussels University, mission participant
    37. 41. Teams come from all over the world
    38. 42. Sri Lanka
    39. 43. <ul><li>Mindanao </li></ul>GRP and MILF invite NP to join Civilian Protection Component of the International Monitoring Team
    40. 44. Southern Sudan
    41. 45. Kyrgyzstan & South Caucasus
    42. 46. Not about NP, but the concept & practice
    43. 47. Theodore Roszak <ul><li>“ People try nonviolence for a week, </li></ul><ul><li> and when ‘it does not work’, </li></ul><ul><li>they go back to violence </li></ul><ul><li>which hasn’t worked for centuries.” </li></ul>
    44. 48. Nonviolent Peaceforce International Headquarters: Rue Belliard 205 1040 – Bruxelles, Belgium Phone: 32 -2-648-0076 [email_address] [email_address] Thank you