CaliforniaKevin starr By: Heather Vaught History 141
Chap.8 Through the Great Depression 1930s- The Great Depression came about in Southern California, especially is the bay area of San Francisco. 1870s- Family farms were built and required severe labor. This helped create jobs for many citizens. 1880s- A refrigerated railroad car helped develop California into an agricultural state. 1893- Another Depression struck the Nation. 1870s and 1890s represented a setback for labor movement. Teamsters Union held a city wide strike called the General Strike of 1901.
IWW stands for industrial workers of the world.
They are also known as “the wobblies”.
The IWW looked to the United States workers to establish an ideal society. They wanted to create a socio political legal system.
By 1909, the wobblies were in San Francisco, L.A.. Redlands, and Holtville.
1912- they tried to take on San Diego but instead were pulled off trains by cops and taken into custody.
1913- 2,800 people fled to Ralph Durst Ranch in desperate search of work.
Ralph Durst paid very low and required his workers to buy their own food and water.
In result, this led to yet another strike.
In the 1930s, the “strong-armed ones” program brought Mexican workers to California to harvest. This lasted until 1964.
Cesar Chaves founded the National Farm Workers Union in 1964.
Cesar joined the Filipino grape pickers and with them he led the huelga (strike).
California had a tendency to except low pay rates . Cesar and the huelga thought very differently.
Cesar had become a kind of saint during this time in California because he believed in a better way that would create and manage California as a whole.
Chap.12 forging a would society California was a state that meant ethnic diversity. During the Mexican Era, diversity between American, French, English and Russian settlers intensified. During the Gold Rush, diversity led people to flee to California. American California was founded on racial distinctions. 1871- a “Chinese must go” crusade held in Los Angeles. This led to the “White California” movement. By the 1900s, San Francisco had the most foreign born residents in the United States. 1990s- racial domestic tragedies and murders were acting out all over California. In 1965, racial watts riots were in Los Angeles county. These riots where mostly black versus white.
In the 1990s, illegal immigration was an even bigger issue than the racial discrimination, sadly.
Immigration was said to be one of the more major issues.
Arguments came about regarding the corruption of illegal immigrants. Also, that immigrants were costing Americans a great deal of money.
July 20, 1995, Ward Connerly ended race and gender based preferences. However, this was not effective in Los Angeles and the bay area of San Francisco.
Another problem that had obscured was the bilingual education in California.
Richard Rodriguez is a writer who has argued about the Mexican American population in California.
He believed that Californians were becoming more like each other and a common culture was emerging,
By 2000, California was filled with all types of ethnicity and mostly populated by Hispanics,
18 and younger- 30%
California: A History (Modern Library Chronicles) by Kevin Starr (Paperback - Mar. 13, 2007)