Assignment 1 - A Difficult Past How the Americas Change

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Assignment 1 - A Difficult Past How the Americas Change

  1. 1. Tadd Mannino<br />History 141, Spring 2011<br />Palomar College<br />A Difficult PastHow the Americas Change<br />
  2. 2. The Americas in the 19th Century<br />Louisiana Purchase, 1803<br />23% of current U.S. area<br />828,800 square miles, $15 million – 3¢ per acre<br />Doubles size of U.S.<br />Secures New Orleans as U.S. port for American imports/exports<br />Jefferson concerned with:<br />President’s right to buy territory<br />Not spelled out in Constitution<br />Would increase executive branch power<br />Decrease states power<br />France blocking U.S. access to New Orleans<br />Domestic opposition<br />Expedition of Lewis and Clark<br />Jefferson sets expeditionary goals<br />Lay claim of discovery to Pacific Northwest<br />Compete with British/Russian/Spanish for land/fur trade<br />Map and collection of scientific data<br />Make U.S. contact with native tribes<br />Assess resources gained through Louisiana Purchase <br />
  3. 3. The Americas in the 19th Century<br />Prince Maximillian Zu Weid<br />A product of the Enlightenment<br />Became early Anthropologist<br />1832 – leads expedition up Missouri River<br />Studies/documents<br />Indigenous peoples<br />Customs<br />Dress<br />Flora/Fauna<br />Geography<br />1849 - Publishes “Travels in the Interior of North America”<br />Karl Bodmer<br />Swiss painter<br />Accompanies Prince Max<br />His paintings document Native Americans<br />
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age<br />13th to 19th century, worldwide temperatures dropped<br />Causes unknown, possibly:<br />Solar activity<br />Volcanic activity<br />Ocean currents changing<br />Decreased human population, reforestation<br />Black Plague, Native American death from disease<br />Normal climate variation<br />Affected:<br />Crops<br />Cultures/Nations<br />Outcomes of wars<br />Migrations of people<br />Rise/Fall of Empires<br />
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas<br />United States 1800 – 1900<br />Quadruples in size by 1803<br />Britain cedes lands west to Mississippi River<br />France sells Louisiana Purchase<br />Ideas of Manifest Destiny begin<br />Westward movement led to conflict with<br />Native Americans<br />Mexico<br />1845, Mexican American war<br />Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California added as US territory<br />1860 – 1864 Civil War<br />South succeeds from Union over:<br />Nature of the Union<br />united STATES vs. UNITED states<br />States right’s VS. Federal power (re. slavery)<br />Immigration/growth as nation expands<br />1790 pop. 3.9 million<br />1900 pop. 76 million<br />
  6. 6. Frontiers of the Americas<br />Canada – Journey to Dominion<br />Though French and British, unified by fear of US during War of 1812<br />Rapid growth, discontent led Britain to allow greater self-rule<br />1867 Britain recognizes the Dominion of Canada<br />Latin America – the plagues of division and civil war<br />Simon Bolivar leads Bolivia, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, <br />Panama and Venezuela to independence from Spain<br />Creole elites dominate politics<br />< 5% of male population active in politics<br />Millions of indigenous peoples totally excluded<br /><ul><li>Rebellion only options
  7. 7. Caudillos – political/military strongmen enforce order
  8. 8. Nothing changes for the people
  9. 9. Mexican “La Reforma” (1850s) unsuccessfully tried to:</li></ul>Limit the military<br />Limit the Catholic Church (major landholder)<br />Re-distribute land to peasants<br /><ul><li>Mexican Revolution, 1911</li></ul>A succession of new caudillos, with no meaningful change<br />“Independence is the only blessing we have gained at the expense of all the rest.”<br />Simon Bolivar<br />
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)<br />Sept. 17, 1862<br />1st battle on Northern territory<br />Single bloodiest day on American soil<br />23,000 casualties<br />North – 9540 wounded, 2108 dead<br />South – 7752 wounded, 1546 dead <br />A tactical draw<br />McClellan fails to destroy Lee’s retreating forces<br />Lee’s abandons the invasion of the North <br />
  11. 11. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Prior to Antietam<br /><ul><li>McClellan – latest of ineffective Union generals
  12. 12. Fails to capture Richmond, July 1862
  13. 13. Lee, Jackson – brilliant strategists
  14. 14. Union losses
  15. 15. 1st & 2nd Bull Run, Peninsula campaign
  16. 16. War-weary North a coalition of:
  17. 17. Northern Democrats
  18. 18. Border slave states
  19. 19. Pro/anti emancipationists
  20. 20. Lincoln faces mid-term elections
  21. 21. England, France poised to back South
  22. 22. Diplomatically
  23. 23. Possibly militarily
  24. 24. Dependent on southern cotton for textiles industries</li></li></ul><li>Crossroads of Freedom<br />The Battle<br />Lee entrenched at Sharpsburg, Maryland<br />McClellan approached from East<br />A timid, over-cautious commander<br />Poorly planned and executed tactics<br />US troops assault CSA left flank in a.m.<br />Well defended CSA center repels many direct assaults<br />Is finally flanked and routed<br />McClellan fails to follow through <br />CSA right flank assaulted in p.m.<br />The line holds<br />A shaken Lee retreats<br />McClellan fails to pursue<br />CSA invasion of Maryland is finished<br />
  25. 25. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Implications<br />Europe did not intervene<br />North’s materiel advantage/victory assured<br />Emancipation Proclamation<br />Issued five days after the battle<br />Antietam “victory” validated Lincoln’s new policy<br />Freed slaves only in Southern states<br />As a military strategy<br />Led to 13th Amendment<br />Abolishing slavery in US<br />Solidified Northern support for:<br />Preservation of the Union by<br />Military defeat of South<br />Created the modern United States<br />A Federal nation<br />Not a union of States<br />

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