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Assess ESL Teacher Attitudes To Integrating Technology in Teaching
 

Assess ESL Teacher Attitudes To Integrating Technology in Teaching

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    Assess ESL Teacher Attitudes To Integrating Technology in Teaching Assess ESL Teacher Attitudes To Integrating Technology in Teaching Presentation Transcript

    • Assessing ESL Teacher Attitudes To Integrating Technology in Teaching Troy Cox TESOL 2010, Boston Handout: troycox.byu.edu, click on Conference Presentations
    • Context ! English Language Center (ELC) at Brigham Young University (BYU) ! Teacher Training/Lab School for graduate students in Linguistics and English Language Department ! Intensive English Program for NNS wanting academic English preparation
    • Faculty ! Average teacher at the ELC has between 2 and 3 semesters teaching experience. ! Faculty Facts & Assumptions are in ELC Philosophy Document at http://www.elc.byu.edu/teacher/philosophy/ELC%20Philosophy.pdf
    • Technology Resources ! 5 Computer Classrooms (77 machines) ! Labs used as classrooms for 5 hours of the day and open use for 5 hours a day ! 8 LCD projectors (5 portable, 3 in classrooms) ! AV (TVs, OHPs, CD Players, etc.)
    • Requirements Needed to Teach ! Prerequisites to teach at the ELC are: ! Methods class (1st semester) ! Student Teaching (2nd semester)
    • M.A. TESOL Revision Background ! Brigham Young University’s TESL MA was revised as a result of feedback received from… ! an academic review of the graduate programs in the Department of Linguistics and English Language conducted in 2006-2007 ! the university reaccreditation process and the resulting discussions on the important role of learning outcomes ! a survey of graduates from BYU’s TESOL program.
    • What should the role of CALL be in the new program? ! BYU has always had great resources for students who are interested in CALL. ! The problem was that nothing systematic had been organized to ensure that all the students had CALL exposure. !
    • Two Questions ! What should be taught? ! How should it be taught?
    • Needs Analysis ! Establish baseline of current technological knowledge ! Instrument ! Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) http://www.brownelearning.org/tics/#5 ! Based on National Education Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS-T)
    • National Education Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS-T) I. Technology Operations and Concepts II. Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences III.Teaching, Learning, and the Curriculum IV. Assessment and Evaluation V. Productivity and Professional Practice VI. Social, Ethical, Legal, and Human Issues
    • I. Technology Operations and Concepts A. Teachers demonstrate introductory knowledge, skills, and understanding of concepts related to technology (as described in the ISTE National Educational Standards for Students.) B. Teachers demonstrate continual growth in technology knowledge and skills to stay abreast of current and emerging technologies.
    • II. Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences A. Teachers design developmentally appropriate learning opportunities that apply technology-enhanced instructional strategies to support the diverse needs of learners. B. Teachers apply current research on teaching and learning with technology when planning learning environments and experiences. C. Teachers identify and locate technology resources and evaluate them for accuracy and suitability. D. Teachers plan for the management of technology resources within the context of learning activities. E. Teachers plan strategies to manage student learning in a technology-enhanced environment.Teachers demonstrate introductory knowledge, skills, and understanding of concepts
    • III. Teaching, Learning, and the Curriculum A. Teachers facilitate technology-enhanced experiences that address content standards and student technology standards. B. Teachers use technology to support learner-centered strategies that address the diverse needs of students. C. Teachers apply technology to develop students’ higher order skills and creativity. D.Teachers manage student learning activities in a technology- enhanced environment.
    • IV. Assessment and Evaluation A. Teachers apply technology in assessing student learning of subject matter using a variety of assessment techniques. B. Teachers use technology resources to collect and analyze data, interpret results, and communicate findings to improve instructional practice and maximize student learning. C. Teachers apply multiple methods of evaluation to determine students appropriate use of technology resources for learning, communication, and productivity.
    • V. Productivity and Professional Practice A. Teachers use technology resources to engage in ongoing professional development and lifelong learning. B. Teachers continually evaluate and reflect on professional practice to make informed decisions regarding the use of technology in support of student learning. C. Teachers apply technology to increase productivity. D.Teachers use technology to communicate and collaborate with peers, parents, and the larger community in order to nurture student learning..
    • VI. Social, Ethical, Legal, and Human Issues A. Teachers model and teach legal and ethical practice related to technology use. B. Teachers apply technology resources to enable and empower learners with diverse backgrounds, characteristics, and abilities. C. Teachers identify and use technology resources that affirm diversity. D. Teachers promote safe and healthy use of technology resources. E. Teachers facilitate equitable access to technology resources for all students.
    • Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) ! Advantages ! The survey doesn’t take very much time ! Many people are quite comfortable admitting technological confidence
    • Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) ! Disadvantages ! Often a mismatch between confidence and actual ability ! Written with K-12 perspective, so some items not applicable to future goals of all the TESOL MA students
    • Revised TICS ! Added a section on demographics ! Expanded questions related to Standard I:Technology Operations and Concepts. ! Added section on what Technological Knowledge students should have prior to admittance to an MA program vs. what they should have when they leave ! Added some open-ended response questions
    • Instrument Objectives (NETS-T Standards & TESOL MA Needs Analysis) # of Items Demographic Data TICS I Technology Operations and Concepts 8 Added Section Ia Technology Operations and Concepts-Revised 14 TICS II Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences 7 TICS III Teaching, Learning and Curriculum 5 TICS IV Assessment and Evaluation 4 TICS V Productivity and Professional Practice 5 TICS VI Social, Ethical, Legal, and Human Issues 4 Likert VII TESOL MA Technology Prerequisites 18 Likert VIII TESOL MA Technology Post Grad Skills 18 Opinion IX Qualitative Responses 2 Total Items 85
    • Methods ! Survey emailed to… ! TESOL Faculty ! TESOL MA & Certificate Graduates ! Teachers in currently TESOL Graduate Programs ! Pre-Service Teachers in TESOL Graduate Programs
    • Findings ! Total Responses:% % 67 ! Surveys completed:% 59 ! Trimmed Mean:% % 33 minutes ! Duration Median:% 21 minutes ! Duration Mode:% % 10 - 14 minutes
    • Demographics Gender N % Male 16 26% Female 46 74% Total 62 100%
    • Demographics Respons N % Age e Under 20 0 0% 20-24 7 11% 25-29 25 40% 30-34 11 18% 35-39 3 5% 40-44 3 5% 45-49 3 5% 50-54 6 10% 55-59 1 2% Over 60 3 5% Total 62 100%
    • Demographics Experience Response N % Professor (TESOL Faculty) 8 10% ESL Teacher (with Master's Degree or higher) 18 23% ESL Teacher (with TESOL Certificate) 11 14% ESL Teacher (current graduate student) 8 10% Student Teacher 7 9% Graduate Student in TESOL Program 18 23% Undergraduate Student in TESOL Program 2 3% Former ESL Teacher 3 4% Other 2 3% Total 77 100%
    • Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) Results Reliability Demographic Interactions
    • Instrument Reliability Objectives (NETS-T Standards & TESOL MA Needs Analysis) # of Items Cronbach’s Alpha I Technology Operations and Concepts 8 0.90 Ia Technology Operations and Concepts -Revised 14 0.93 Planning and Designing Learning Environments and II Experiences 7 0.93 III Teaching, Learning and Curriculum 5 0.90 IV Assessment and Evaluation 4 0.85 V Productivity and Professional Practice 5 0.87 VI Social, Ethical, Legal, and Human Issues 4 0.81 VII TESOL MA Technology Prerequisites 18 0.89 VIII TESOL MA Technology Post Grad Skills 18 0.90 Overall 83 0.94
    • Is confidence level affected by any moderating variables? ! An ANOVA was run with Confidence Level as the Dependent Variable and Gender, Age, and Experience as Independent Variables.
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Experience
    • Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model 26.031a 29.00 0.90 1.87 0.04 Intercept 598.96 1.00 598.96 1249.01 0.00 Gender 0.31 1.00 0.31 0.65 0.43 Age 8.83 8.00 1.10 2.30 0.05 Experience 5.74 3.00 1.91 3.99 0.02 Gender * Age 3.12 4.00 0.78 1.63 0.19 Gender * Experience 0.03 1.00 0.03 0.07 0.80 Age * Experience 8.16 8.00 1.02 2.13 0.06 Gender * Age * Experience 0.01 1.00 0.01 0.03 0.87 Error 15.35 32.00 0.48 Total 1485.85 62.00 Corrected Total 41.38 61.00 a. R Squared = .723 (Adjusted R Squared = .350)
    • Discussion ! REMEMBER: Confidence does not mean competence. ! It’s good that Teacher Trainers feel more confident than the Students. ! Younger people seem to be more confident than the older ones, thus older learners may need more support. ! Even if confidence level isn’t significant, it would be good to keep in mind WHO you are teaching.
    • Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) Results Subsection and Item Analysis
    • TICS Subsections Least to Most Confident (Sections I-VI) N Mea SD n VI. Social Ethical Legal and Human Issues 59 4.49 0.94 III. Teaching Learning and Curriculum 61 4.50 1.07 Ia. Technology Operations and Concepts -Revised 62 4.60 1.06 II. Planning and Designing Learning... 61 4.64 1.04 IV. Assessment and Evaluation 60 4.93 0.94 V. Productivity and Professional Practice 60 5.31 0.71 I. Technology Operations and Concepts 63 5.39 0.78 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Fairly Quite Completely confident confident confident
    • TICs Subsections Items VI-31 4.1 Social, Ethical, Legal, and Human Issues VI-32 4.3 VI (N=59, Mean=4.49, SD=0.94) VI-33 4.5 VI-30 5.0 III-16 4.1 Teaching, Learning and Curriculum III-19 4.2 III (N=61, Mean=4.50, SD=1.07) III-17 III-18 4.4 4.9 III-20 5.0 Ia-6a06 3.8 Ia-6a11 3.9 Ia-6a04 4.0 Ia-6a08 4.2 Technology Operations and Concepts - Ia-6a10 4.2 Ia-6a07 4.6 Revised Ia-6a05 4.7 Ia (N=62, Mean=4.60, SD=1.06) Ia-6a12 4.7 Ia-6a14 4.8 Ia-6a01 4.9 Ia-6a02 4.9 Ia-6a03 5.1 Ia-6a13 5.4 Ia-6a09 5.5 II-14 4.4 Planning and Designing Learning II-15 4.4 II-13 4.4 II Environments and Experience II-10 II-09 4.5 4.7 (N=61, Mean=4.64, SD=1.04) II-11 5.0 II-12 5.1 IV-23 4.7 Assessment and Evaluation IV-24 4.8 IV IV-21 5.0 (N=60, Mean=4.93, SD=0.94) IV-22 5.2 V-26 5.1 Productivity and Professional Practice V-28 5.3 V (N=60, Mean=5.31, SD=0.71) V-27 V-29 5.3 5.4 V-25 5.5 I-8 4.7 I-7 4.9 Technology Operations and Concepts I-2 5.4 I-4 5.5 I (N=63, Mean=5.39, SD=0.78) I-6 5.6 I-3 5.6 I-1 5.7 I-5 5.7 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Somewhat Fairly Quite Completely confident confident confident confident
    • TICs Subsections VI-31 4.1 Social, Ethical, Legal, VI-32 4.3 and Human Issues VI N=59 Mean=4.49 SD=0.94) VI-33 4.5 VI-30 5.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Somewhat Fairly Quite Completely confident confident confident confident
    • VI. Social Ethical Legal and Human Issues (N=59, Mean=4.49, SD=0.94) Question N Mean SD VI-31. When some of your students do not have access to technology outside the classroom, how confident are you that you can appropriately, 59 4.10 1.20 legally, and ethically lessen the effects of such unequal access?   VI-32. Because students are using the Internet and other technologies in school, they must be instructed how to stay safe while getting the most 59 4.32 1.32 from these resources. How confident are you that you can model and teach safe usage of technology, including Internet safety?  VI-33. Technology can help students accomplish tasks, good or ill. For example, students can find images of rare historical artifacts, but they can also illegally obtain copyrighted materials online (such as music). Telecommunications technology can bring the world into your classroom, 59 4.54 1.22 and allows students to text one another exam answers via cell phones. How confident are you that you can model and teach ethical and legal use of technology? 
    • Discussion ! Make sure the curriculum includes strategies for… ! technology access for students. ! Internet safety. ! ethical and legal use of technology ESP. when in different country cultural contexts.
    • TICs Subsections III-16 4.1 III-19 4.2 Teaching, Learning and Curriculum III N=61 III-17 4.4 Mean=4.50 SD=1.07 III-18 4.9 III-20 5.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Somewhat Fairly Quite Completely confident confident confident confident
    • III. Teaching Learning and Curriculum Analysis (N=61, Mean=4.50, SD=1.07) Question N Mean SD III-16. Your principal promises full support for any technology that can be linked to the state’s core curriculum standards. How confident are you that 61 4.11 1.36 you can find technologies that will help you meet these standards in your subject? III-19. Due to a personal emergency, a fellow teacher asks you to teach his computer lab period during your preparation time this afternoon. How 61 4.21 1.33 confident are you that you can make good use of the class time without the opportunity to plan?  III-17. Current educational practice stresses ‘higher order’ thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. How confident are you that you 61 4.38 1.44 can use technology to improve these skills in your students? 
    • Discussion ! Make sure the curriculum includes strategies for… ! matching technology to educational standards/objectives. ! adapting technology to any lesson plan. ! using technology for higher order thinking skills.
    • TICs Subsections Ia-6a06 3.8 Ia-6a11 3.9 Ia-6a04 4.0 Ia-6a08 4.2 Technology Ia-6a10 4.2 Operations and Ia-6a07 4.6 Concepts -Revised Ia-6a05 4.7 Ia N=62 Ia-6a12 4.7 Mean=4.60 Ia-6a14 4.8 SD=1.06 Ia-6a01 4.9 Ia-6a02 4.9 Ia-6a03 5.1 Ia-6a13 5.4 Ia-6a09 5.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Somewhat Fairly Quite Completely confident confident confident confident
    • Ia. Technology Operations and Concepts -Revised (N=62, Mean=4.60, SD=1.06) Question N Mean SD Ia-6-6. You just got an mp3 player (e.g. iPod, Zune, etc). You want to subscribe to a podcast and have it load automatically to your mp3 player. How confident 62 3.76 1.75 are you that you can accomplish this? Ia-6-11. Your internet connection quit working. How confident are that you 61 3.85 1.53 can identify and resolve problem so you can get on-line again? Ia-6-4. You have a digital video camera and want to load some video on your computer, do some minor editing and burn it on a DVD. How confident are 62 3.95 1.66 you that you can accomplish this? I-6a8. A friend has just bought a new TV and is having difficulty attaching the peripherals (e.g. DVD player, stereo, video game system, etc.) How confident 62 4.15 1.50 are you in your ability to help get it to work? I-6a10. You just sent a document to the printer, and it didn't print. How 61 4.18 1.32 confident are that you can identify and resolve the printer problem?
    • Discussion ! Make sure the curriculum includes strategies for… ! using peripherals (printers, digital cameras, mp3s, etc.) with computers ! incorporating multi-media devices ! networking
    • TICs Subsections II-14 4.4 II-15 4.4 Planning and II-13 4.4 Designing Learning Environments and II-10 4.5 II Experience N=61 Mean=4.64 II-09 4.7 SD=1.04 II-11 5.0 II-12 5.1 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Somewhat Fairly Quite Completely confident confident confident confident
    • II. Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experience (N=61, Mean=4.64, SD=1.04) Question N Mean SD II-15. Your district has allocated money to purchase educational technology products for your subject/grade. The board has asked for input to help them decide between two competing products. How confident are you that you can 61 4.36 1.239 advise them on this purchase by evaluating the products for their suitability to your teaching situation?  II-14. A vice principal is upset that the new equipment that was donated to the school is not being used. She asks if you can demonstrate how to use it at the next 61 4.36 1.46 inservice meeting. How confident are you that you can accomplish this task?  II-13. An educational software vendor gives a sales pitch to your department. How confident are you that you can evaluate their products for their suitability to 61 4.44 1.285 your teaching environment? II-10. A member of the PTA feels there is too much technology in the school and states that not all technologies are equally applicable to your classroom, and not all student learning goals are well suited for technology. How confident are you 61 4.52 1.273 that you can effectively judge when and how to use technology to support your students’ learning?
    • Discussion ! Make sure the curriculum includes strategies for… ! reviewing software from vendors. ! making purchasing decisions. ! performing inservice training for other teachers. ! justifying technology needs.
    • TESOL Program Pre-Requisite and Post-graduation Requirements Analysis
    • How important is it for TESOL graduate students to be able to CONFIDENTLY USE the following software packages/tools BEFORE THEY ARE ADMITTED? (N=59) Mean SD Email 5.83 0.7 5.8 Word Processing 5.8 0.71 5.8 Presentation Applications 5.17 0.77 5.2 Spreadsheets 4.59 0.97 4.6 Online Collaboration Tools 4.41 1.341 4.4 Concordancing/Textual Analysis Software 4.36 2.05 4.4 Course Management Software 4.29 1.16 4.3 Graphics Applications 4.1 1.55 4.1 Wikis 4.05 1.591 4.1 Database Applications 3.92 1.86 3.9 Podcasts 3.88 1.66 3.9 Audio Recoding/Editing Applications 3.76 1.236 3.8 Web Development Applications 3.68 1.736 3.7 Video Sharing Sites 3.64 1.61 3.6 Instant Messaging 3.44 1.57 3.4 Blogs 3.39 1.326 3.4 Social Networking Sites 3.37 1.48 3.4 Video Editing Applications 3.36 1.54 3.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not at all Very Somewhat Somewhat Very Extremely important Unimportant Unimportant Important Important Important
    • Discussion ! Create prerequisites (perhaps a test) that includes ! Email ! Word Processing ! Presentation Applications ! Spreadsheets ! Online Collaboration (perhaps) ! Technology Skills Assessment—Example
    • How important is it for TESOL graduate students to be able to CONFIDENTLY USE AND INTEGRATE IN THEIR TEACHING the following software packages/tools AFTER THEY GRADUATE? (N=59) Mean SD Word Processing 5.78 0.721 5.8 Email 5.73 0.762 5.7 Presentation Applications 5.47 0.858 5.5 Concordancing/Textual Analysis Software 5.31 1.489 5.3 Spreadsheets 5.24 1.072 5.2 Course Management Software 5.1 1.094 5.1 Podcasts 4.97 1.508 5.0 Online Collaboration Tools 4.93 1.015 4.9 Graphics Applications 4.9 1.423 4.9 Wikis 4.85 1.483 4.9 Database Applications 4.81 1.581 4.8 Audio Recoding/Editing Applications 4.75 1.359 4.8 Video Sharing Sites 4.64 1.471 4.6 Video Editing Applications 4.56 1.546 4.6 Web Development Applications 4.42 1.404 4.4 Blogs 4.32 1.292 4.3 Social Networking Sites 4.2 1.54 4.2 Instant Messaging 3.85 1.595 3.9 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not at all Very Somewhat Somewhat Very Extremely important Unimportant Unimportant Important Important Important
    • Skills to Teach (Post-Pre) Mean SD Video Editing Applications 1.20 1.75 1.2 Podcasts 1.08 1.56 1.1 Video Sharing Sites 1.00 1.56 1.0 Audio Recoding/Editing Applications 0.98 1.48 1.0 Concordancing/Textual Analysis Software 0.95 1.73 1.0 Blogs 0.93 1.20 0.9 Database Applications 0.90 2.01 0.9 Social Networking Sites 0.83 1.48 0.8 Course Management Software 0.81 1.36 0.8 Graphics Applications 0.80 1.95 0.8 Wikis 0.80 1.56 0.8 Web Development Applications 0.75 1.49 0.8 Spreadsheets 0.64 1.20 0.6 Online Collaboration Tools 0.53 1.42 0.5 Instant Messaging 0.41 1.31 0.4 Presentation Applications 0.31 0.77 0.3 Word Processing -0.0 -0.02 0.35 Email -0.1 -0.10 0.36 .10 16 2 8 4 0 4 6 9 1.2 0. 0. 0. 0. -0
    • Discussion ! Create objectives for either specific classes or program-wide (e.g. portfolio) that include demonstration of using… ! Video Applications (Editing & Collaboration) ! Audio Applications (Editing & Podcasts) ! Concordancing/Textual Analysis ! Web use (Blogs, social networking, etc) ! Database applications
    • What to teach? Would adding a class be sufficient? ! Probably not. ! Most of the research shows that a single class isn’t very effect in training teachers in CALL.
    • Implementing the Needs Analysis into a TESOL/Teacher Training Program
    • Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge Content Pedagogy Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Technology Koehler, M. J. & Mishra, P. (2008) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) for Educators
    • How to Teach ! There is insufficient time/credit hours to teach M.A. students the fundamentals of the Technological Knowledge & Concepts. ! Require students to demonstrate pre-requisite skills within the first semester of being admitted to the program. ! Opportunities will be provided for students to learn technology on their own throughout the program through problem-based learning projects.
    • How to Teach ! Technology should be integrated in every course ! Graduates needs to know how to use technology as a WILD card to accomplish whatever pedagogical content knowledge objective they are trying to meet. ! If a student only knows how to use one technology (e.g. chalkboard, OHP, LCD projector, computer lab, etc.), then they are woefully underprepared for future teaching environments
    • Qualitative Findings ! Realize there will be different levels of competence in Technology Knowledge ! I realize that most students under 35 will know these technologies well already. It is the rest of us who need to know them -- and may have a harder time doing so. Don't hold the rest back but offer a technology course for those of us who are "technologically challenged" but don't want to be.
    • Qualitative Findings ! Don’t teach technology—teach technological application ! Teaching directly any technology has limited benefits because technology has such a short shelf-life. For example, there are plenty of teachers that may have spent hours of learning Hypercard as a graduate student but should or could that teacher still be using Hypercard today? Rather I think instruction should focus on problem solving skills, methods to stay current on how technology is currently being used, gauging the effectiveness of technology and its impact on learning and retention, and plenty of exposure to technology being used innovatively in the classroom through direct observation.