Oleh-oleh dari Hong Kong   KEGIATAN THE 2 nd  EAST ASIAN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE  ON TEACHER EDUCATION RESEARCH “ Teacher...
INSIDE INDONESIA’S MATH CLASSROOMS A VIDEO STUDY  OF TEACHING PRACTICES  A joint Ministry of National Education (MONE) and...
 
TEACHER EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE IN INDONESIA <ul><li>System:  there are two departments (MONE, MORA) </li></ul><ul><li>Sc...
INDONESIAN CONTEXT <ul><li>INCENTIVES: doubling of salary for certified teachers, remote area allowance, functional allowa...
Indonesian teachers have ways to go before being qualified  (as defined by the new Law) Bachelors or more Less than Bachel...
LOW LEVELS OF INDONESIAN STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS  (TIMSS 2007) 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ko...
Improving the Teaching System – Joint GoI and WB efforts <ul><li>BERMUTU = Quality  </li></ul><ul><li>Better Education thr...
Key questions for the reform that require a video study: <ul><li>What is currently happening in the classroom? </li></ul><...
Previous video studies <ul><li>TIMSS Video Study 1995 (3 countries)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Japan and the United S...
Benefits and limitations of a cross-country comparison <ul><li>Comparing teaching across cultures can introduce fresh pers...
Alternatives to Video Study considered <ul><ul><li>Interviews:  Teachers may have forgotten what actually happened in clas...
Video Study: OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Characterize  classroom teaching-learning  behavior  with reference both to curriculum int...
Additional Uses of the Video Study <ul><li>BERMUTU – videos integrated into teacher working group modules </li></ul><ul><l...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Teachers’ Classroom Instructional Practices (base-line) Improved Instructional Practices Teacher Law ...
2  PHASED DESIGN <ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Linked  to Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) exami...
Key Implementing Units Involved <ul><li>The video study is a collaborative effort between  MoNE and the World Bank. </li><...
Some significant findings Frederick K.S. Leung The university of Hong Kong <ul><li>Lesson Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cont...
<ul><ul><li>Range  = 39 – 100 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median  = 66 minutes </li></ul></ul>Length of Lesson (in ...
% of time used for learning mathematics LESSON STRUCTURE 89 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 8 4 2 3 2 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0% 20% 40...
Practice New Content Review USE OF CLASS TIME 10 39 58 24 24 39 35 53 48 33 22 39 60 34 40 23 41 28 20 37 16 27 25 25 0 10...
INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESS Percentage of time for public (full class) and private (group or individual) interaction 44 52 55 57...
% of Problems by Level of Complexity Source: Indonesia results combined with Hiebert, J. et. al., (2003), page 71 LESSON C...
61 77 84 41 57 69 41 24 7 4 5 18 13 35 15 16 13 54 24 17 24 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Make Connection State Concept...
LESSON CONTENT Average number of independent problems solved in the lesson and average length of time per problem in minut...
Percent of lessons with at least one problem where more than one solution is presented 10 16 23 24 25 30 37 42 90 84 77 76...
LESSON CONTENT Average percentage of problems per lesson that were applications Source: Indonesia results combined with Hi...
% of time by instructional approach Investigation 3% Practical  work 10% Disussion 15% Problem  solving 20% Exposition 52%...
OPPORTUNITIES TO TALK Average Teacher and Student Words (Calibrated to a lesson of 50 minutes) 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5...
Ratio of Teacher to Student Words INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES: OPPORTUNITIES TO TALK 8 9 9 10 13 16 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Unit...
State concept Use procedure Make connection SET-UP OF PROBLEMS Procedural complexity PROBLEMS % of problems with applicati...
<ul><li>SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS  </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Structure </li></ul><ul><li>In Indonesia, more time spent on no...
<ul><li>SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS  </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers tend to have a  tra...
Inside Indonesia’s Mathematics Classrooms Paper 3:  Implementation Challenges and Solutions Ratna Kesuma
Distribution of Research Sample <ul><li>51 Districts :  Red    Aceh and Papua :  Yellow  </li></ul>
Partnership:  MoNE and World Bank <ul><li>MoNE perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning insights linked to TIM...
Video-Taping Process Dynamic Mixing Static Product
Challenge <ul><li>Schools: Honoured to be selected </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s show our best: the dignity of the school is a...
Challenges:  classroom video-taping <ul><li>Video can interfere with the classroom environment :  </li></ul><ul><li>Stage ...
Challenges:  MoNE Study Team Video Study role  in addition  to normal workload Lessons for Phase II  (Video Study of TIMSS...
Breaking down the data:  Main coding tree Structure Math Organization Math Work Non-Math Work Review New Content Practice ...
A Branch of the Coding Tree Individual private interaction - new content problem non problem exposition is sinp2 discussio...
PHASE 2: DEEPER ANALYSIS System and  Policy Influences Cultural  Influences Pupil’s responses Teacher’s practices Teacher’...
Challenges  &  Solutions <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>A “value added” measure and  better understanding of the links...
Challenges  &  Solutions <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide insights into: </li></ul><ul><li>the role of teach...
Challenges  &  Solutions <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis to provide deeper insights, ‘stories’ an...
Challenges  &  Solutions <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide more insights on effectiveness and quality of classro...
Phase 2  ( Video Study of TIMSS 2011 ) Repeat:  BASE STUDY (2007)
Phase 2   (Video Study of TIMSS 2011)  Deeper Analysis
<ul><li>Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of MONE’s policy of  Active Learning,...
<ul><li>Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate video techniques into teacher group...
<ul><li>Educational System Support (MONE/MORA) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring by head teacher of classroom teachers based on...
<ul><li>Thank you very much for your attention! </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Oleh oleh hong kong mulyati

1,157 views

Published on

Hasil penelitian tentang guru dan pembelajaran matematika di Indonesia oleh Bank Dunia...semoga bisa menjadi bahan refleksi

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,157
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This cartoon shows the disconnect between teachers and students. The video study is part of an effort to improve teaching practice to eventually improve student achievement.
  • CONTEXT SLIDE: This slide is intended to stress that this study is situated in the context of a major teacher reform in Indonesia. KEY MESSAGE: These are questions which lead to the need for analysis of actual classroom activities and teacher practices. The teacher reform effort isn’t just about improving teacher qualifications. It must lead to changes in the classroom in order to impact student learning.
  • This slide presents the qualifications of current teachers. Some observations: A fifth of the teachers teaching at primary level only hold a high-school diploma. A quarter of the teachers teaching at the junior secondary level do not have a bachelors degree.
  • Indonesia is one of the few non-OECD countries that participates in all major international standardized tests (TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS) – results are comparatively lower than OECD countries. This slide follows the teacher qualification slides to drive home the point that if the quality of teachers is low, student achievement will be low too.
  • BERMUTU is a project in support of the Indonesian Government’s initiatives in raising the quality of teachers in the country, and as such the video study was to be done mainly by personnel in the Indonesian Government. The World Bank merely played an advisory and supportive role. This not only enhanced ownership of the project by Indonesian officials and educators, it was hoped that it would also help them acquire the competence in the use of videos as a research tool.
  • The conceptual framework focuses on being able to capture changes in instructional practices during this important period of teacher reform. The first phase in 2007 was done soon after the teacher law was passed in December 2005. Implementation activities for the reform began in to gain momentum in 2007, so the first phase is a good baseline for the beginning of teacher reform. The second phase will begin in 2011, which will be four years after the baseline video study. Will we see any changes in instructional practices from the reform effort? Will we see any changes in student achievement? This framework allows us to determine whether any changes have taken place.
  • The study produced many results, but for time constraints in presenting, only a few will be given here. The three major categories of analysis are Lesson Structure , Content and Instructional Practices . Examples will be given for each category. Lesson Structure Duration Math, non-math, math organization Review, new content, practice, assessment Problem vs. non-problem segments Public vs. Private Interaction Content Level of complexity of problems Problems with proofs, applications Instructional Practices Teaching strategies Opportunities to talk Tools and resources used
  • Indonesian students have significantly longer lesson times.
  • KEY MESSAGE: Indonesian classrooms spend a significantly large proportion of activities not focused on mathematics. 11% of class time is spent on non-mathematics and mathematics organization, whereas other countries were between 2-5%. Non-mathematics: Indonesian teachers spend time on activities such as prayer at the beginning and end of class, taking attendance Mathematics Organization: a very high 8% of time included segments of at least 30 continuous seconds devoted to preparing materials or discussing information related to mathematics but not qualifying as mathematical work.
  • Students’ communication skills are not well developed. Students mostly work in isolation and with individual exercises, with problem solving in front of the class. VIDEO 1 (Public Interaction): Teacher uses a visual aid and is very interactive with her students, asking them questions, letting them use the visual aid. (18 seconds) VIDEO2 (Private Interaction): Students are working in groups doing an assignment. Teacher is observing and answering questions. (45 seconds)
  • KEY MESSAGE : Indonesian classrooms have very few high complexity problems, with only 3% having been categorized as high complexity. Still, a large proportion (40%) of problems were medium complexity and only 57% were categorized as low complexity. Low complexity: Solving the problem, using conventional procedures, required four or fewer decisions by the students (decisions could be considered small steps). The problem contained no sub-problems, or tasks embedded in larger problems that could themselves be coded as problems. Example: Solve the equation: 2x + 7 = 2.   Moderate complexity Solving the problem, using conventional procedures, required more than four decisions by the students and could contain one sub-problem. Example: Solve the set of equations for x and y: 2y = 3x - 4; 2x + y = 5. High complexity Solving the problem, using conventional procedures, required more than four decisions by the students and contained two or more sub-problems. Example: Graph the following linear inequalities and find the area of intersection: y ≤ x + 4; x ≤ 2; y ≥ -1.
  • Students’ communication skills are not well developed. Students mostly work in isolation and with individual exercises, with problem solving in front of the class. VIDEO 1 (Public Interaction): Teacher uses a visual aid and is very interactive with her students, asking them questions, letting them use the visual aid. (18 seconds) VIDEO2 (Private Interaction): Students are working in groups doing an assignment. Teacher is observing and answering questions. (45 seconds)
  • Students’ communication skills are not well developed. Students mostly work in isolation and with individual exercises, with problem solving in front of the class. VIDEO 1 (Public Interaction): Teacher uses a visual aid and is very interactive with her students, asking them questions, letting them use the visual aid. (18 seconds) VIDEO2 (Private Interaction): Students are working in groups doing an assignment. Teacher is observing and answering questions. (45 seconds)
  • KEY MESSAGE: Most of instructional time uses the exposition approach. Exposition is the most common approach. This is related to the fact that Indonesian teachers tend to hold a transmissionist belief system, where the teacher holds the knowledge and must pass it to the student. It also relates to the fact that Indonesian teachers tend to treat problems as having only one solution method. A discovery orientation which involves approaches like investigation is very rare. Exposition The teacher lectures while students listen and answer closed questions (with no discussion).  Discussion The teacher and student or students discuss their own ideas about mathematics. Problem solving The teacher provides a problem / situation as a basis to discuss ideas in mathematics.  Practical Equipment or situations in the real world are used to understand ideas in mathematics.  Investigation Students explore the issues (problems) in various mathematical situations. 
  • Little student-teacher verbal interaction. When students do talk, it tends to be when solving problems in front of class.
  • KEY MESSAGE: Students have much lower verbal participation than in other countries. Not only do they tend to have few words during public (full class) interaction, they also speak much less than the teacher. Indonesia’s current policy is intended to encourage more student participation. This result indicates that in mathematics. Analysis of student utterances indicates that when students do speak, it tends to be in only 1-2 word sentences. It is rare for students to give long explanations when answering questions. An unique feature of Indonesia’s classrooms is that full class “chanting” of answers is often used. This may be related to the method for teaching the Koran. It may be due to a pluralistic culture where students may feel less comfortable speaking individually.
  • THE SLIDE IS ANIMATED. THE STORYLINE FOR EACH ANIMATION IS AS FOLLOWS: BEGIN: We wanted to go beyond simply knowing what teaching practices are being used, but whether these practices have any relationship with student outcomes, as measured by mathematics test score. To do this, we ran regressions that determine whether there were statistically significant relationships (at the 90%, 95% and 99% levels). ANIMATION TRANSITION #1: We controlled for key student, home, school, classroom and community variables that we had already found to have statistically significant relationships with student mathematics score. ANIMATION TRANSITION#2: After controlling for these variables, we then identified the teaching practice variables that had positive or negative relationships with student mathematics score. ANIMATION TRANSITION #3: The following variables had a positive relationship…. ANIMATION TRANSITION #4: …and these variables had a negative relationship. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS We won’t go through all of these results, but certain important themes emerged when doing this analysis. FIRST: Time use variables did matter and it appears that teachers who manage their time and focus more on math (vs. non-math, math organization) and working on problems (vs. discussing concepts) had a positive relationship. SECOND: student participation such as students presenting and activities involving both student and teacher had a positive relationship, teacher-only activities such as lectures had a negative relationship. THIRD: Learning method and teaching approach also makes a difference. For example, teachers who make connections of problems (connections to real-world examples and connections to other mathematics topics) had a positive relationship with test score. FOURTH: Resource use also showed a positive relationship. Classes where teachers used textbooks tended to score lower? Why? One theory is that less experienced, confident or competent teachers use textbooks as a crutch rather than developing other activities/problems. FIFTH: The most surprising result is that classes where math language and symbols score higher than one where real world concepts were used. Why? One reason may be that the TIMSS test focuses more on math language than real world concepts and applications to real world situations. PISA, on the other hand, focuses more on real world applications. In phase 2, we will explore this issue more. IMPORTANT POINTS: FIRST: The regressions show relationships and NOT cause and effect. We can hypothesize on cause and effect, but these regressions cannot tell us if a teaching practice is causing higher student test scores. It often could be the case that because students are more advanced the teacher can use more advanced teaching practices. SECOND: The relationship is limited in that it only shows the student score at the end of 8 th grade. We therefore cannot determine how much the student learned in the 8 th grade class. In phase 2 we will have tests at the beginning and end of the year so that we have a better idea of student progress/gains in their 8 th grade year.
  • Oleh oleh hong kong mulyati

    1. 1. Oleh-oleh dari Hong Kong   KEGIATAN THE 2 nd EAST ASIAN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TEACHER EDUCATION RESEARCH “ Teacher Education for the Future: International Perspectives” at The Hong Kong Institute of Education HONG KONG, 15 – 17 DESEMBER 2010  
    2. 2. INSIDE INDONESIA’S MATH CLASSROOMS A VIDEO STUDY OF TEACHING PRACTICES A joint Ministry of National Education (MONE) and World Bank Study - funded under the Dutch Basic Education Support Program Mae Chu Chang The World Bank
    3. 4. TEACHER EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE IN INDONESIA <ul><li>System: there are two departments (MONE, MORA) </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 3 million teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>67% of teacher workforce require upgrading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% required certification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Massive policy reform focused on teacher quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 year degree: minimum qualification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification by 2015 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-service professional development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher incentives </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. INDONESIAN CONTEXT <ul><li>INCENTIVES: doubling of salary for certified teachers, remote area allowance, functional allowance contingent on certification. </li></ul><ul><li>PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES: university changes, teacher working group (KKG-MGMP), more distance learning programs. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Indonesian teachers have ways to go before being qualified (as defined by the new Law) Bachelors or more Less than Bachelors Source: &quot;Towards Teacher Reform that Produces Professional, Dignified, and Prosperous Teachers&quot;, DIKTI PMPTK, MONE, 2010, pg 35 More than 75% of primary school teachers do not have a Bachelors degree.
    6. 7. LOW LEVELS OF INDONESIAN STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS (TIMSS 2007) 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Korea Singapore Japan Chinese Taipei Australia Malaysia International Median Thailand Indonesia Syria Morocco Colombia Ghana Advanced (>625) High (550-624) Intermediate (475-549) Low (400-474) Under Low (<400) Source: 2007 TIMSS Results
    7. 8. Improving the Teaching System – Joint GoI and WB efforts <ul><li>BERMUTU = Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Better Education through Reformed Management and Universal Teacher Upgrading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project to develop a system to upgrade teachers through working groups, improve quality assurance and career path development for teachers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in 2008, US$ 200 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel studies and pilot in 2007 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Key questions for the reform that require a video study: <ul><li>What is currently happening in the classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>What needs to change to increase teacher effectiveness ? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the impact of teacher reform on pedagogical practices in Indonesia’s classrooms? What changes will occur? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we obtain rich qualitative and quantitative information? </li></ul><ul><li>How can this inform pre and in-service professional development? </li></ul>How does teacher performance influence student achievement? And what specific classroom behavior impacts students?
    9. 10. Previous video studies <ul><li>TIMSS Video Study 1995 (3 countries) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Japan and the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TIMSS Video Study 1999 (7 countries) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia, the Czech Republic, Hong Kong SAR,Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the premise that the more educators and researchers can learn about teaching as it is actually practiced, the more effectively educators can identify factors that might enhance student learning opportunities and, by extension, student achievement. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Benefits and limitations of a cross-country comparison <ul><li>Comparing teaching across cultures can introduce fresh perspective by widening the known possibilities and revealing alternative teaching practices. </li></ul><ul><li>A cross-country comparison does not necessarily give an answer of the best way of teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning is culturally unique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT it can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveal Indonesia’s own practices more clearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show new alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate discussion about choices within each country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepen educators’ understanding of teaching </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Alternatives to Video Study considered <ul><ul><li>Interviews: Teachers may have forgotten what actually happened in classroom, teachers may not be honest, teachers may be mistaken about their performance, time consuming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires : Limitations of memory, honesty and perception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live Observations : Intrusive, time-consuming, no re-observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Study: different observers can analyze same video, different aspects of classroom can be captured, permanent record, can rewind/pause/fast forward etc. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Video Study: OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Characterize classroom teaching-learning behavior with reference both to curriculum intention and to classroom characteristics in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Provide baseline data for comparison with data to be collected in 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Relate classroom teaching-learning behavior with student achievement in TIMSS 2007 and to determine effective teaching methods so as to inform ongoing teaching improvement programs </li></ul><ul><li>Produce an archive of classroom videos for use in research and teacher development in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the capacity of relevant personnel in Indonesia. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Additional Uses of the Video Study <ul><li>BERMUTU – videos integrated into teacher working group modules </li></ul><ul><li>Sample clips for ‘Center for Development and Empowerment of Teachers and Education Personnel’ to demonstrate examples of teaching practices </li></ul><ul><li>Use of videos as supplementary material </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating videos as illustrations for online tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Research department: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intends to replicate video study for PIRLS Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans to do a science video study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervisors and Principals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For use in evaluating teachers and providing feedback </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Teachers’ Classroom Instructional Practices (base-line) Improved Instructional Practices Teacher Law : sets minimum requirements More qualified, higher quality teachers Student Achievement (base-line: TIMSS 2007) Improved Student Achievement (TIMSS 2011) Video Study (Phase 1) Video Study (Phase 2) Upgrading and certification 2005/6 2007 2011
    15. 16. 2 PHASED DESIGN <ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) examination </li></ul><ul><li>Design based on established video study methodology and analysis dimensions ( Hiebert et al, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted participants: 100 8th grade mathematics classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis : regression ; cross-country comparison, discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat of Phase 1 for comparison, trending </li></ul><ul><li>Intense observation, questionnaires , interviews and assessments focused on teacher beliefs and mathematical knowledge in teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenological Case Studies: reflective individual discussion </li></ul>The video study is a means to monitor the classroom competence of teachers over a number of years.
    16. 17. Key Implementing Units Involved <ul><li>The video study is a collaborative effort between MoNE and the World Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Departments involved within MoNE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directorate General for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel (PMPTK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Professional Development P rogram ( PPPG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute for Educational Quality Assurance (LPMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Assessment (Puspendik) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directorate of the Management for Junior Secondary Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT Centre for Education (Pustekkom) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Some significant findings Frederick K.S. Leung The university of Hong Kong <ul><li>Lesson Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between instructional practices and student mathematics scores </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><ul><li>Range = 39 – 100 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median = 66 minutes </li></ul></ul>Length of Lesson (in minutes) 41 45 45 46 47 50 51 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LESSON STRUCTURE
    19. 20. % of time used for learning mathematics LESSON STRUCTURE 89 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 8 4 2 3 2 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Indonesia Australia Netherlands United States Hong Kong Switzerland Czech Republic Japan Mathematics Mathematics Organization Non - mathematics Source: Indonesia results combined with Hiebert, J. et. al., (2003),
    20. 21. Practice New Content Review USE OF CLASS TIME 10 39 58 24 24 39 35 53 48 33 22 39 60 34 40 23 41 28 20 37 16 27 25 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Japan Switzerland Czech Republic Australia Hong Kong SAR United States Netherlands Indonesia Percent of math class time by category
    21. 22. INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESS Percentage of time for public (full class) and private (group or individual) interaction 44 52 55 57 66 68 79 80 55 48 45 43 34 32 22 20 0 % 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % 100 % Netherlands Australia Switzerland Indonesia Japan United States Czech Republic Hong Kong SAR Public Interaction Private Interaction
    22. 23. % of Problems by Level of Complexity Source: Indonesia results combined with Hiebert, J. et. al., (2003), page 71 LESSON CONTENT 17 69 64 77 63 69 67 57 45 22 25 16 29 22 27 40 39 12 11 8 8 6 6 3 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High Complexity Medium Complexity Low Complexity
    23. 24. 61 77 84 41 57 69 41 24 7 4 5 18 13 35 15 16 13 54 24 17 24 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Make Connection State Concept Use Procedure percentage of problems per math lesson of each problem statement type Lesson Content
    24. 25. LESSON CONTENT Average number of independent problems solved in the lesson and average length of time per problem in minutes 3 3 5 7 7 8 10 13 7 15 4 3 4 2 5 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Average Number of Independent Problems Average Problem Length (minutes)
    25. 26. Percent of lessons with at least one problem where more than one solution is presented 10 16 23 24 25 30 37 42 90 84 77 76 75 70 63 58 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Class has no problems with more than one solution Class has at least one problem with more than one solution LESSON CONTENT
    26. 27. LESSON CONTENT Average percentage of problems per lesson that were applications Source: Indonesia results combined with Hiebert, J. et. al., (2003), page 91 16 34 35 40 45 51 55 74 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
    27. 28. % of time by instructional approach Investigation 3% Practical work 10% Disussion 15% Problem solving 20% Exposition 52% INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
    28. 29. OPPORTUNITIES TO TALK Average Teacher and Student Words (Calibrated to a lesson of 50 minutes) 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 Ind OCs Ind OCs Average number of teacher words Average number of students words 2,633 5,902 5,148 1,018 640 197 Number of words
    29. 30. Ratio of Teacher to Student Words INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES: OPPORTUNITIES TO TALK 8 9 9 10 13 16 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 United States Australia Czech Republic Switzerland Netherlands Hong Kong Indonesia Number of teacher words per one student word
    30. 31. State concept Use procedure Make connection SET-UP OF PROBLEMS Procedural complexity PROBLEMS % of problems with application % of problems with proof ▲ ▲ ▲ New content Assessment Review LESSON STRUCTURE ▲ Non-math Math organization Math USE OF TIME ▼ ▲ Practice ▼ Student presenting Student and teacher Lecture (teacher only) FULL CLASS INTERACTION ▲ ▲ ▼ REGRESSION ANALYSIS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHING PRACTICES AND STUDENT MATHEMATICS SCORES Student Math Score TEACHER BACKGROUND Control for variables ▲ % of class spent on problems PROBLEM TIME ▲ Small group or individual work Full class interaction TYPE OF INTERACTION Individual seatwork Small groups PRIVATE INTERACTION Communication Problem solving Reasoning LEARNING METHOD ▲ ▼ Use textbook Use math material Use calculator Use real world situations Use projector OBSERVED USE ▼ ▲ ▲ ▼ = statistically significant positive relationship = statistically significant negative relationship Real world concepts Math language and symbols CONCEPTS USED ▼ ▲ HOME STUDENT CLASS SCHOOL
    31. 32. <ul><li>SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Structure </li></ul><ul><li>In Indonesia, more time spent on non-math activities, practice, non-problem work – less on review, assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Classes with good lesson plans and effective use of classroom time scored higher </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively few higher-order thinking problems </li></ul><ul><li>Classes that used proofs scored higher </li></ul><ul><li>Application problems used less often than other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Goal and summary statements were used by teachers frequently </li></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers tend to have a transmissionist orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher approach to maths: one correct approach to the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Students speak much less than teacher, use short responses when answering questions </li></ul><ul><li>Classes with higher student involvement tended to score higher </li></ul><ul><li>Student problem solving often involves simple repetition of teacher examples </li></ul><ul><li>Calculators were rarely used </li></ul>
    33. 34. Inside Indonesia’s Mathematics Classrooms Paper 3: Implementation Challenges and Solutions Ratna Kesuma
    34. 35. Distribution of Research Sample <ul><li>51 Districts : Red Aceh and Papua : Yellow </li></ul>
    35. 36. Partnership: MoNE and World Bank <ul><li>MoNE perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning insights linked to TIMSS scores (2007 and 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development resource for quality improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank, Jakarta perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>MoNE capacity building in Video Study research methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development tool: Teacher Working Groups and training institutions. </li></ul>
    36. 37. Video-Taping Process Dynamic Mixing Static Product
    37. 38. Challenge <ul><li>Schools: Honoured to be selected </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s show our best: the dignity of the school is at stake” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s use our most skilled teachers and clever students – and, rehearse” </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s repair the classroom so it looks good on the video” </li></ul>
    38. 39. Challenges: classroom video-taping <ul><li>Video can interfere with the classroom environment : </li></ul><ul><li>Stage managed </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone on best behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers: fear of the camera and being observed </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom layout adjusted for cameras – not the norm </li></ul>
    39. 40. Challenges: MoNE Study Team Video Study role in addition to normal workload Lessons for Phase II (Video Study of TIMSS 2011) Core Team : Lacked expertise in analysis and reporting. Experts in Maths only. University experts sourced for analysis and reporting. <ul><li>Employ 4 full time personnel as Study Team. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure schools are : </li></ul><ul><li>well-briefed </li></ul><ul><li>understand study focus: Realities in the Mathematics Classroom. </li></ul>Support Team : Involved in data collection only. Unable to code data, analyse, report due to other work demands. Examination Team : Provided and collected data. Limited due to other work demands. Video Team: Insufficient resources for 100 schools. Employed external contractors. Contract out the video team work.
    40. 41. Breaking down the data: Main coding tree Structure Math Organization Math Work Non-Math Work Review New Content Practice Assessment Public Private Without teacher With teacher Student Teacher Teach&Stud Without teacher With teacher Group Individual Public Private Group Individual Without teacher With teacher Student Teacher Teach&Stud Without teacher With teacher Public Private Group Individual Without teacher With teacher Student Teacher Teach&Stud Without teacher With teacher Public Private Group Individual Without teacher With teacher Student Teacher Teach&Stud Without teacher With teacher
    41. 42. A Branch of the Coding Tree Individual private interaction - new content problem non problem exposition is sinp2 discussion is sinp2 practical work iss2 investigation iss2 problem-solving iss2 mis-concept Q & A is2 mis-concept open is2 close is2 true or false is2 rhetoric is2 item type is pm2 item solution is pm2 try and error is pm2 use graph is pm2 work backward is pm2 from the simplest is pm2 use path is pm2 solution type is pm2 non routine is pm2 routine is pm2 quality is pm2 open is pm2 close is pm2 context is pm2 real life is pm2 math language is pm2 nature is pm2 concept is pm2 connection is pm2 proof is pm2 procedure is pm2 item type is inv2 item solution is inv2 try and error is inv2 use graph is inv2 work backward is inv2 from the simplest is inv2 use path is inv2 solution type is inv2 non routine is inv2 routine is inv2 quality is inv2 open is inv2 close is inv2 context is inv2 real life is inv2 math language is inv2 nature is inv2 concept is inv2 connection is inv2 proof is inv2 procedure is inv2 item type is pr2 item solution is pm2 try and error is pr2 use graph is pr2 work backward is pr2 from the simplest is pr2 use path is pr2 solution type is pr2 non routine is pr2 routine is pr2 quality is pr2 open is pr2 close is pr2 context is pr2 real life is pr2 math language is pr2 nature is pr2 concept is pr2 connection is pr2 proof is pr2 procedure is pr2
    42. 43. PHASE 2: DEEPER ANALYSIS System and Policy Influences Cultural Influences Pupil’s responses Teacher’s practices Teacher’s beliefs Teacher’s Mathematics Knowledge in Teaching What it is to be a mathematics - capable pupil How pupils learn to do mathematics How best to teach mathematics Mathematics subject knowledge Knowledge of teaching approaches Knowledge of pupils Student Learning Source: framework based on model of Askew et al (1997)
    43. 44. Challenges & Solutions <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>A “value added” measure and better understanding of the links between teacher background and teaching practices with student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Can compare between the TIMSS results and the nationally-oriented results. </li></ul>Limitation Addition: Before and After Tests <ul><li>TIMSS is a single test. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot determine teacher </li></ul><ul><li>“ value add” to student </li></ul><ul><li>progress over the course of the </li></ul><ul><li>year. </li></ul><ul><li>TIMSS differs in some areas from the national curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct: </li></ul><ul><li>Before test: A baseline mathematics test. </li></ul><ul><li>After test: A test at the end of the year . </li></ul><ul><li>Test: </li></ul><ul><li>Previous TIMSS exams (38%) + Nationally developed exams (62%). </li></ul>
    44. 45. Challenges & Solutions <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide insights into: </li></ul><ul><li>the role of teachers’ mathematical knowledge in teaching </li></ul><ul><li>on classroom instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>the importance of subject and pedagogic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>on teaching practices and on student outcomes. </li></ul>Limitation Addition: Teacher Assessment <ul><li>TIMSS data on teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>Does not provide a sense of the teacher’s subject or pedagogic knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a subject and </li></ul><ul><li>pedagogy test for mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>teachers at the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>of the 2010 school year. </li></ul>
    45. 46. Challenges & Solutions <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis to provide deeper insights, ‘stories’ and to enable more complete evidence-based policy making. </li></ul>Limitation Addition: Teacher Case Studies <ul><li>Video alone does not demonstrate why teachers choose to use various types of teaching techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: To understand factors that influence teaching practices (e.g. personal decisions, environment and support structure, various policies). </li></ul><ul><li>Target 10 teachers and conduct in-depth case studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews; classroom & teacher working group observations; stimulated recall with teacher for insights about the video; teacher journals & lesson plans. </li></ul>
    46. 47. Challenges & Solutions <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide more insights on effectiveness and quality of classroom activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the link of mathematical beliefs and mathematical knowledge in teaching with actual teaching practices </li></ul>Limitation Addition: Further coding layers along with qualitative analysis for video <ul><li>Initial coding was not intended to determine whether the teacher is conducting practices in an effective manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate new coding layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper qualitative analysis of videos focused on teaching quality, teacher enactment of mathematical knowledge, beliefs </li></ul>
    47. 48. Phase 2 ( Video Study of TIMSS 2011 ) Repeat: BASE STUDY (2007)
    48. 49. Phase 2 (Video Study of TIMSS 2011) Deeper Analysis
    49. 50. <ul><li>Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of MONE’s policy of Active Learning, which is supported by findings that more active student participation is associated with higher test scores </li></ul><ul><li>Review training in pre-service, in-service, teacher groups in light of findings, which indicate need to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orient problem solving to encourage higher order thinking, use of applications and proofs, making connections, multiple solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure effective and efficient use of class time, proper planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase use of activities such as review and assessment, which currently receive little time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage student engagement, participation and active learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively use resources (projector, textbooks, math materials) in learning </li></ul></ul>POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
    50. 51. <ul><li>Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate video techniques into teacher group activities for reflective self and peer evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage videos for examples of good and innovative practices; develop a teaching practices archive </li></ul><ul><li>Educational System Support (MONE/MORA) </li></ul><ul><li>Review current policies of combining two periods of math, allow use of calculators in class </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision by mathematics supervisors through on-the-spot training using communicative supervision so that teachers and principals receive feedback useful for improving the quality of teaching. </li></ul>POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
    51. 52. <ul><li>Educational System Support (MONE/MORA) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring by head teacher of classroom teachers based on feedback applied by supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Extending the video study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting similar video studies in other subjects such as science, literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing the mathematics video study beyond 2011 to allow for long-term trending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporating teacher assessment and pre- and post- testing of students to measure gains </li></ul></ul>POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
    52. 53. <ul><li>Thank you very much for your attention! </li></ul>

    ×