By:Hadaitullah Baqri Chapter OneWhat is international relations, it is the relationship of many factors, variables whichcome together to give us meaning to event and situation in international politics.International relations involves, human rights, diplomatic relations among states,humanitarian assistance, bilateral relations, war, conflict resolution, peace talk,peacekeeping, sport competition among countries and many more that shows howcountries interact.International relations basically tell about geopolitics and geo-economics. Geopolitics ishow geography influences politics and politics affects geography. It sometimes involvesdispute over territory which might result into conflict or war. It also involve territorialexpansion, human rights, arms races, drug smuggling, refugees and ideological conflictlike the problem between the Hindu and Muslims that resulted to the partition of the Indiainto the states of India and Pakistan.Geo-economics is how geography influences economics and economics affectsgeography. It sometimes involves dispute over trade, intellectual property right,economic development, Multinational Corporation, industrial policy. It also involveseconomic relations that are not always resolve with violence or war. Realism equals to power politicsRealism is the theory that wants to maintain the status quo. It believes in the state system,and sees the state as unitary actor in international politics. The realist believes every stateis always looking for its survival; therefore every state would want power for its survival.The urge for survival leads to struggle, competition, fear, insecurity and combat amongstates, hence a state of anarchy arises. According to the realist, an anarchical situation iswhen there is no central government to forcefully maintain order among states in theinternational system. Hegemonic power is believe to be the only solution to the state ofanarchy. Therefore hegemony is the capability of a state to influence other states tofollow certain rules. This could be diplomatic, political, economic or cultural power.Realist see in every state national interest as their primary interest, that is the protectionof their sovereignty, that is the protection of the state from insecurity, being influencedand dictated to by another state. The process of protecting and avoiding insecurity threatleads state to maximization of power.
Idealism equals to Alternative to power politicsIdealism can simply be understood from three points of view (three schools of thought)actually, idealism is based on morality as a theory of international politics.The first school of thought believes that states are like individual. This idea is based onthe view of David Hume and John Locke that human being is not always bad as therealist believes. They believe that goodness lies in man, while custom shapes humanbehaviour and orientation. Hence, it can be said that human being is the prisoner of hissociety, because he lives by the norms, rules and regulations (social construct) of hissocietyThe second school of thought believes that states are not as bad, struggling to get poweror troublesome as hold by the realist, rather failed state are the ones that portray badbehaviours. Autocratic states are always bad and wanting to go to war. This is why theysay democratic states will do not always go to war, although that statement is debateableThe third school of thought believes that states could share certain value amongthemselves; there could be cooperation, goal and aspiration, interaction among statewhich could result into international institution. This is one of the reasons why idealismis called an institutional theory. It is as a result of this 3rd school of thought that suchinstitutions like (League of Nations, United Nation Organization and other regionalorganization such as SARC, EU, AU, and ASEAN) came to being. Marxist Critical theoryThis theory speaks about how the Marxists view international politics. They believe thatthe present world order is a world of the capitalist, which has created the have and have-not, and a structure based on market-value affairs (commodity)It is the belief of the Marxists that capitalism wanted to control the market and maximiseon the potential of the masses for their own benefits. That is capitalists are alwayslooking for opportunity to exploit the masses. They also see international politics as thecreation of the capitalist, such that the state system has been formed in order to exploitpeoples’ raw material at low cost and sell at high price, which is can be termed asimperialism. So what they are saying is that the concept of nation-state is the product ofcapitalism. This capitalism system according to the Marxist further brought about thestructure of dependency. Dependency theory is blamed on capitalist imperialism, whichdivided the world into three world system. These structures is known as Core or theadvance industrial countries of Western Europe and America exploiting the semi-periphery known as the developing countries (partially industrialised countries) and theperiphery countries which are known as the underdeveloped countries with little or noindustrialization.
Welfare state concept is a bridge between the capitalist and the workers. Socialist as wellas Marxist believes that such a state (welfare state) will break down the class systemwhich was created by capitalism. In the welfare state everyone will be almost equal, asresources of the state will be evenly distributed and there will be little difference betweenthe rich and the poor.Feminism is the theory that tries to express the subjugation of women’s role ininternational politics. It basically wants to show that women have also played significantrole in the making of international politics. It is wrong to put in the background role ofwomen, since there are female prime ministers, president, queen and decision makers. Itbelieves that the whole interpretation of international relation or world politics ismasculine, meaning that it is male-centred. It is the definition of men only without anyreference to women active participation.Postmodernism is another school of thought in international politics that question thewhole of international relations as the definition of the world by certain scholarsaccording to their own view. It is believe that all views are equally invalid or incorrect.Meaning that the international relation has multiply reality, no one should try to define itonly in certain way. There could be many meaning to a particular thing, the whole ismulti-dimensional. This theory goes along with the Traditionalist theory which believesthat international relations can not simple be understood from graphs, history and simplefacts that we table, rather the understanding of international politics can come throughinterdisciplinary approach, that is bringing in ideas from different disciplines, field ofstudies.Constructivism believes in the objectivity reality but without any law other than changeis constant.
Chapter TwoEveryone loves to claim that he is civilised and modern in his behaviour, but the questionis what is really modern and civilised. Behaviour or attitude that appears modern orcivilised to particular people might not be modern to many others. The word modernity isa relative term that can be defined according to one’s view.However, modernity or modernization is a changing phenomenon in politics, economics,socio-cultural and technology. The culture of a particular people becomes acceptable ascivilization when such culture attains development and advance in politics, economicsand technology. This gives the reason why certain civilizations have been adoptedbecause they were modernised.Many nations and civilization have passed away but fell and disappear because theycould not develop as expected. The Chinese civilization, India, Ottoman Empire,Kingdoms in Africa all could not dominate the world as the modern Europeans were ableto dominate the world simply because they lacked necessary, effective and efficienttechnology to subjugate the rest of the world.Europe became a modernised world due to its technological advancement, although thisadvancement was something gained after many years of wars, conflict and disunity. Inthis way one can say that development or modernity is something that comes gradually(evolutionary). Europe became modernised during the age of humanity, an age thathuman reason was seen as the most important thing. Before the time, Europe was underthe influence of religion, so they believed religion made them underdeveloped, thereforeit is better to abandon religion for rationality.The Chinese empire was a very wide empire which lasted for many years under variousleaderships. However this empire was faced with series of problems which made it lackthe ability to conquer the whole or large part of the world. It was faced with domesticproblem of the Mongol invaders; as a result the Chinese emperor stopped all ship fromnavigating further for new expedition. The emperor became concerned with the territorialintegrity of China, therefore his power became restricted to China and its surrounding.In the same way, the Ottoman Empire was strong militarily, it expanded into the heart ofEurope, but along the line the leadership lacked efficient rulers who can bring Ottomanleadership to the rest of the world. It military power was inefficient to subjugate thewhole of the world. As a result, but empire could not rule the whole world as theEuropeans later did.The rise of the Europeans as strong people can be linked to the series of war foughtwithin Europe. Europe became the strongest continent due to war; simply war can notmake someone strong, but during these wars scientific technology of warfare weredeveloped. Thus, weapons, ships, artillery, gunpowder was modernised among the
Europeans giving them edge over others, and the capability to conquer the rest of theworld. One cannot forget that Europe had a very wide and strong empire known as theRoman Empire. Roman Empire ruled a large part of the world due to its modernised wayof leadership. It has great military power, good political structure and sound diplomaticsystem. However, Roman Empire fell due to what is known as hegemonic overstretch,meaning that Roman Empire became too wide even for the Roman emperor to control.Along with that there was domestic disunity among the ruling elites in Rome so tat alsocontributed to the fall of the empire.Feudalism, a system that organises people into rigid political, social, and economicclasses in which land ownership and power is always with small elite within the society.It was this system that operates in Europe, where large majority of people have to workon the farmland of the landlord, elite and powerful ones of the society with little benefit.Under this system, the society is structured into four caste or class systems, wherebythere are the nobles, merchants, priests and serfs (masses). There is no movement fromone class to the other, especially from the serf to other classes, although nobles,merchants could turn to a priest. The priesthood class is headed by the Pope.Under feudalism, the king though exist but a weak king, whose power is nothing to talkabout, the feudal, landlords are stronger and powerful than the kings till the 15th century.The pope and the feudal lords control the affairs of Europe, leaving behind the kings. Thelords and merchants were in-charge of trade.Western ImperialismAs it was mentioned above that war contributed to the development of Europe, and itscapability to rule almost the whole of the world, this development or period in Europewas known as the age of renaissance, it was a rebirth of learning, whereby new ideascame to life, new scientific discoveries, development in arts and technology was seenaround Europe. This age was known as age of humanism, where human reason shouldbe the centre of everything, human being should be able to fulfil his creative andeconomic potential with his own reason and ability without any interference of God. Itwas a shift form God-centred Europe to Human-centred Europe.As a result of the new technology and knowledge of navigation European started tosearch for raw materials and resources across the world, therefore both trade expeditionand imperialism started. Imperialism is simply the conquest of one people by anotherpeople through force.At the stage the Kings were very much involve in the expedition because it wasprofitable. Most of the kings want huge wealth, therefore they supported imperialism andmore importantly the kings were also involved in the wars because war brings wealth andoccupation of more land. In this way, there was a good relation between the kings and themerchants. It was during that period privatization of colonialism started with the stamp
and consent of the king. Europeans believe the rest of the world that is not ruled byEuropeans belongs to them. In this way they always say that the rest of world is “Noman’s Land”. Most importantly, if the land is not Christian, therefore it belongs toEuropean to Christianised. The existence of gunpowder, naval ships, and canonsobviously aided western imperialism. Emergence of European Sovereign Nation-StateIt has been mentioned earlier that modernisation always take step by step process,meaning that it is evolutionary. In the same way, European modernization process tookstage by stage process. During the modernization process, Europe got to a period knownas Reformation, an attempt to reform Catholic Church in Europe, which brought aboutreligious and political confusion. It was a period that saw the thirty years war betweenCatholics and Protestants (1618-1648). The question should be asked why the war. For along time in Europe, the pope was very strong under the Catholic Church dictating theaffairs in Europe. The Catholic Church was in-charge of interpretation of the Bible andmany other religious duties. Most people believe the Catholic Church was oppressive,cheating the masses and exploiting. Hence group of people came up to contest thelegality of the Catholic Church, this contestation then resulted to 30years war. Thecontest was sponsored by Martin Luther, who wanted new interpretation of the Bible andbelittle the power of the Catholic Church, in way to give religion freedom to the exploitedmasses.After the war ended in 1648, Europeans met at Westphalia to sign an agreement knownas the treaty of Westphalia. The treaty has its idea on the view of a French philosopherJean Bodin. It is important that we know the major agreements of the treaty and thelegacy of the treaty for Europe and the rest of the world. The treaty has four majorachievements. (a) The recognition of sovereignty of each state, that is no state mustinterfere in the affairs of another state. (b) Every king has the right to rule over histerritory without any interference and can determine his own religion. (c) Every stateshould be considered independent from other state and must be seen as equal to all otherstates. (d) The end of pope’s power and the recognition of the king and the fall offeudalism.Hence, the end of the war brought in a new change in Europe, feudalism was shifted forabsolute monarchy, that is the absolute power of the king ruling with all powers anyoneto challenge the king. Hence one can see it is just a shift from one powerful to anotherpowerful (from feudalism to absolute monarchy). At this stage the kings had alliance withthe financiers for greater trade expedition, more so there was development in technologywhich helped in warfare and imperialism. This period also brought about Urbanization, asmany people started moving into the urban area since there are no more feudal, landlordsto work for. People were search for work in the urban areas to get job for wage.
Political RevolutionIt is no doubt that soonest after the 30years war, Europe came under absolute monarchyrule which only lasted for (1648-1789). It was clear that the kings were as powerful andoppressive as the former feudal landlords. Therefore any stage came up when politicalphilosophers in Europe made attempt to contest the absolute power of the king, so thatthere would be political freedom and equal representation of the people. This period wasknown as Enlightenment, a period for development of political philosophy in Europe,which emphasised on popular political participation of the people. It was a period thatgave birth to democracy and openness in governance in Europe.The enlightenment broke the power of the king and brought about democracy which wassupported by the slogan of liberty, equality and fraternity. The political philosophers ofthen spoke against the absolute power of the kings, they wanted the masses to be givenappropriate share and recognition. During this period, there was huge literacy rate inEurope so therefore many people came to know what the political philosophers weresaying. There was lot of printing press house across Europe. This period also contributedto the development of nationalism in Europe. Obvious nationalism is the by-product ofurbanization as many people were associated themselves with their urban areas anddemanded for their rights. On the whole, there was political revolution from monarchicalabsolute rule to popular sovereignty, whereby power was shifted from monarch to thepeople, which can be termed as democracy.Economic RevolutionEurope’s economy changed as a result of many factors, among which was the existenceof economic thoughts that changed the direction of economic interaction and theindustrial revolution. What is industrial revolution; it is the change of mode ofproduction from subsistence to industrial production, that is the production of largerquantities of goods whereby there is surplus and more profit is earned. It is the start ofindustries in Europe, whereby Europeans constructed industries for labour, and peoplehad to work in the new industries. Adam Smith was a prominent economic philosopherwho gave the idea for large production, although there were other economists. Thiseconomic revolution can simply be said to have come in the shape of the industrialrevolution. It resulted in the demand for raw materials by the European and that alsocontributed to colonialism and later years imperialism carried out by the Europeans inAfrica and Asia. The industrial revolution started in Britain, but the question is that whyit commenced in Britain and not other part of Europe. The reasons for that are not farfetched. (1) Britain has a systemic agricultural practice, whereby landlords were able toengage in large-scale production, in this way, the production was in surplus able to feedthe population as well as supply the factories. (2) Britain before the industrial revolution
has had a trade revolution, such that the British had good trade network both nationallyand internationally. Before the industrial revolution, British merchants and ships havesucceeded in creating trade network around the world, and the influence of Britishmerchant cannot be denied. In this way, Britain was able to sell its industrial productaround the world. (3) The British had taking the lead in bring together scientificknowledge and trade together, hence during the industrial revolution the governmenthelped it scientists to develop and facilitate the industries so that Britain could maintainleadership among the Europeans.The economic/industrial revolution brought about new life in Europe, it resulted topopulation explosion as many people were moved from the rural areas into the urbantowns and cities, therefore there was overcrowded in the towns and cities. Secondly, theeconomic revolution put away people from their homes, before the revolution manyworked as farmers beside their homes but the industries demand people to leave theirhomes for the factories and industries. Thirdly, it brought about the situation wherebypeople have to leave closer to their factories, thus new accommodations came up andnetwork of trains were made to convey people from long distance to their factories.It was this economic revolution that further resulted to more scientific discoveries withinEurope and made Europe for head and giving the power to maintain that economicinfluence over the rest of the world till today.Western Imperialism’s Second WaveThe second wave of western imperialism was no different from the first only that it wascarried out by same and different powers. It was an aggressive scramble and partition forland outside Europe. This period was different to the first period because Europeans hadbecame powerful and more industrialised so many European countries found themselvesin Africa and Asia fighting over land and resources. One thing should be clear they thiswave of imperialism was seen as the rule of the superior over the inferior known as socialDarwinism. Europeans believed they have to Christianized the people of Africa and Asiaand also make them civilised, however they major intention was the exploitation of thesecontinents.The World WarsThe power and technological advancement of the Europeans coupled with their colonialexpedition triggered two wars in Europe and across their colonies. The 1 st war happenedbecause of geopolitical reason and the assassination of duke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. After the war which had caused lost of lives and properties the Europeans wentto a treaty in Versailles known as the Versailles treaty where fourteen points of WindrowWilson was tabled and the creation of the league of nations came to life. The Americanswere not part of the 1st war and did not join the League of Nations because the US senaterefused. The League of Nations was created to maintain peace but that could not be
realised, hence the 2nd World War came to being. It was the display of Germany, Japanand Italy on one side and other powers like Britain, France, USA, Russia and China onone part. The war ended with the defeat of the Germany, Japan and Italy and the treaty ofPotsdam which brought about the new international organisation commonly known asUnited Nations. The war ended with the fall of European powers like France and Britainand the new power of USA and Russia, and the a new destructive weapon known asnuclear weapon which was firstly used on the Japanese by the USA during the 2nd WW.Totalitarianism and Fascism, these are authoritarian system of government that is state-centred that is the state is in charge of the state affair. It monitors both private and publiclives of the people. It is also leadership-centred as the people have to see the leader like ademi-god. Such a state if repressive as the people do not have freedom of religion,speech, association and the media is always government censored. It is also anationalistic system of government where the people are made to love their country somuch that they must not dislike the country or hate the leaders. The state is fully powerfuland can do whatever it like with the citizens. Germany under Adolf Hitler and Italy underBenito Mussolini were prominent countries that practice these systems known as Nazismfor Germany and Fascism for Italy. Another face of such system is communismestablished in Russia by V.I Lenin and later modified by Joseph Stalin.
Chapter ThreeWe are always faced with three different words but always used to mean the same thing,which in reality have different meanings. Culture, tradition, and civilization seem tomean the same thing, but in practical terms one should not see them as the same.Tradition is a sort of knowledge which is gained from one generation to other. Traditioncan simply mean norms, values which are agreed upon by certain people within certainperiod and later transferred to coming generation. In this way one can say that traditionwhich the inherited values we often get from our predecessors.Culture is a broad term which carries with it, human history, tradition, language, social,political and economic behaviour of certain people. Culture is the big picture thatdescribes people and makes them different and distinctive from others. There could bePantan, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh culture, and at the same time there could be culturewhich carries the way of life of the whole sub-continent. However, you can see that thereare differences between Pantan, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh cultural life, this meant thatthey share different tradition because they have lived differently for several years.The development of culture into a well defined system is what could be calledcivilization. Civilization is the modernization which is reflected in a certain culture, thatis when certain people develops their political, socio-cultural, economic, andtechnological behaviour such that it catches the admiration of others and moreimportantly having ability to influence others people way of life. Then such a culturaldevelopment is what is known as civilization. The Arabian culture became a civilizationsimply became they were able to modernise it and it had influence on other, so does thewestern culture which later developed into a world civilization known as the westerncivilization. But we have to know that before a culture could turn into a civilization itpasses through various stages, it is evolutionary from one stage to the other.Ideology could be creed, doctrine and belief which have be planted in our mind in orderto maintain certain structure or system. In Islam, the belief in one God and other aspectsof five pillars is an ideology that is geared to sustain our belief and being a Muslim.Ideology is an instrument often used to maintain the continuity of certain system, withoutan ideology system cannot survive. Every system you might have thought of such ascapitalism, socialism, communism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism,and many other have the ideology driving them. This simply means set of belief thatadherent of the system must hold and live with.Nation is a political term which is used for classification of people within certainboundary. Simply a nation has be defined as a unique term used for people sharingcommon tradition, heritage, culture, history, language, living in certain territory forseveral years and believes they are part of a certain ideology. For instance one can see alot of nations within the geographical boundary called Pakistan. There are Pantans,
Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh all believe they are nations. Before the coming of colonialruling in various parts of Africa and Asia, people were fragmented as nations or ethnicgroups, but these colonial rulers merged many of these nations together in what are todaycountries. However, this merge have serious caused problem because these fragmentednations coming together believed they are not the same, hence that resulted in conflictseen all over the world.State is a political entity having a territorial boundary in a certain geographical location,with considerable people (population), governmental structure, being economically viableto cater for the welfare of the people and having the status of sovereignty which keeps thestate from external influence, that is the state is independent to determine its ownadministration and no external government can dictate for it. The concept of state is amodern term which had its origin from the Westphalia treaty after the 30years war inEurope between the Catholic Church and Protestants. If you could remember that thetreaty brought about sovereignty of state in the shape of the king and its territory. Itshould be noted that many a time state and government are interchangeably used as thesame. The state cannot function without a government and there would be no governmentwithout a state.Nation-state is the outshoot of the Westphalia treaty which gave sovereignty to state. Itis a modern term which was transported from Europe to other parts of the world duringand after colonial period. One can say that nation-state is the result of the merge wediscussed above. This is a situation whereby many nations within a geographical locationwere brought together as one, so that they can share one state feature. The mean that anation-state could be one or many nations coming together as a single state, leavingbehind their differences for a common goal. The formation of Pakistan as a country is alucid example of how different nations of Pantan, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh and Bengalcame together to form a country known as Pakistan. On the whole a nation state is asovereign state whose sovereignty is recognised by other nation-states.Socialization is the process of making a person part of the society. It is a processwhereby newcomers be it foreigners or adolescents are taught the norms, values, traditionand regulation of the society thereby making them fit for the society. It is a way ofmaking a citizen politically conscious of his society, economically and culturally awareof the demand of the society. Socialization does not happen by itself but follows certainprocesses and manner, in this way there agents of socialization.The family or home is the 1st agent of socialization at home children learn politicallesson such as being respectful to elders, leadership and follower-ship, parent show theirchildren leaders and political figures on the TV a way of intimating them with politics.The home socialises the children on what the society demand of them, hence makingthem fit for the society.Peer group is another agency where socialization takes place. Age-mates meet, discuss,exchange views and share ideas among themselves. During this interaction socializationtakes place as different people come with knowledge learnt from their various homes. In
this way, one can learn from his age-mate or peers, however it could either be positive ornegative.The school is another agent of socialization that tries to shape the orientation of peopletowards the demand of the society, that is being socialized. The school is an avenuewhere lots of things are taught and learnt. It touches all aspect of human lives; it could beseen as a continuity of what is taught at home or among the peers. The school is aformalise agent of socialization, most especially theoretical socialization is taught in theschool, hence the recipient put in to practice at home, among peers and during interactionwith the larger society.The religious institutions are also part of the socialization agents that obviously put intopractice lessons of socialization. Religious leaders and home gives practical knowledgeespecially political aspect of socialization.Governmental institutions and the mass media are other agents of socialization whereboth visual and audio aspect of socialization comes to us. The importance of these agentscannot be underestimated. Government institution gives direct political, economic andsocio-cultural lessons which are like compulsory for all government workers to complywith. Likewise, the mass media plays significant role in socialization from variousangles, socialising the general public at every moments of the day throughout the year.Subculture is a representation of smaller cultures within the bigger society, that is theexistence of certain cultures which are part of the society. For instance the United Statesof America might be a nation of English, yet there are various other subcultures such asthe Latinos, Hispanic, African-Americans, Koreans, Chinese, and Asians. Actually thebigger culture in the USA is the English culture, but the composition of certain groups ofdifferent races or ethnic groups coming into America with their own culture makesAmerica a multicultural society. Yet looking from the bigger English culture, theexistence of those foreigners and their culture is termed as subcultures within the USA.Supranational culture this is the opposite of the subculture as it is the bigger culturewhich brings together certain people. For instance, Western culture, Asian culture andAfrican culture are supranational cultures in which many nationalities can claim linkage.Even though, Koreans, Chinese and Japanese might be different yet them share sameAsian culture, so does people from Africa residing in USA or UK might come fromdifferent part of Africa yet they share certain common African value.Nation building the process by which a government attempts to build and develop theeconomy, political system, and common identity of a nation-state. I think it should beclear at this moment that the coming together of many nations to form a nation-state oftencause problem and disturb as mentioned above. Hence, most government after gainingindependence tried to build the country into one entity where people of different ethnicgroup will see themselves as one. Such that Pantans, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh wouldcall themselves Pakistani then saying they are Pantan, Punjabi, Balochi and Sindhi.Nation building demand government to make the people see themselves as brothers and
make them understand that their unity is necessary for the oneness of the country. In thesame government would try to evenly distribute the national wealth among the peoplewith discrimination.Multinationalism, is the existence of two or more distinct nations, each with a largepopulation, existing within one nation-state. Before 1971, the west and eats Pakistan wereleaving together as Pakistan. Actually both regions are of different nations (Bengali,Pantans, Punjabi, Baloch and Sindh) all having considerable population within theirlocations. Hence their existence before 1971 makes it a multinational country. However,the distinction of language and other factors resulted to the breakaway of East Pakistaninto the formation of Bangladesh. Yet the existence of Pantans, Punjabi, Baloch andSindh as Pakistan makes it multinational country.Nationalism and InternationalismThe concept of nationalism is a feeling which we have, or claim to belong to certainnation. It is the identity which we claim so that we can be seen different from others. It isthe love of one’s country, whereby we would want the progress of our country over othercountries and our national interest becomes our greatest desire. In the world system,states obviously relates among themselves which of course brings about interdependence.Interdependence is the situation whereby states relies other each other for progress.State (A) gets something from state (B) and (C) gets from (A and B) since a state cannothave all the resources or materials needed for it growth hence it need the help and supportof others. This sort of system or relationship could be termed as internationalism, thecooperation of countries in the international system. However due to national interestcountries seem to sometimes prefer nationalism to internationalism. Internationalism isseen by smaller state as advantage for bigger state, because they benefit more from thesystem.
Chapter FourPower and the wealth of NationsThe question we must ask ourselves, is there any relationship between power and wealth,such answer could be answered as our studies goes forth.Power, if we are asked what power is, it is very simple that we always give the answer asstrength, military forces, economic strength and many more. Although all these areelements of power of in international relations Power is refer to as the ability to influenceothers to do what they would not like to do and it is the capability to enforce one’s willon other. In this way influence could be made through military, political, economicstrength and any other ways of influencing others against their will.Politics is s relative term that could mean different thing to many people. However on asimple term, it is the process of distribution power among interest group. It is also theability to manage, organise both human and natural resources in a particular politicalcommunity. There is a great deal of relation between power and politics. Since we havesaid that to influence others against their will is power, then the process of influencingothers is politics. In today’s world, states play politics among themselves in order tosatisfy their national interest. National interest is the primary aim and objective of everycountry that would like to achieve and would not allow anything to stop the achievementof these objectives. The more power a country can use always show its influential status,and the more power a country has will tell how its politics will be played.Power AssertionThere are certain ways in which countries uses power and show their influence amongother countries. In international politics, countries show their power through diplomacy.Diplomacy is the ability to bargain well with another state such that one’s state interest isnot fully affected. Diplomacy is a give and take process; it is a process of compromise.There could be political, economic, socio-cultural diplomacy.State also shows it power through threat. The more powerful a state is, the more its abilityto give threat. Threat is the situation of insecurity, it is the ability of a state to makeanother state feel fear and to refuse other state from doing its will, desire and intention.Threat can come in three different ways. (a) Threat could be by compelling another stateto do certain things. (b) Threat can also be through deterrence, that is telling a state thatif you continue to carry on with your desire then you should expect certain consequence.(c) If the state after been compelled and deterred, yet the state still wants to carry onwith its desire then defence comes up. Meaning that the powerful state defends itselfagainst the other state.Another way state shows it power is through logic and bribe which is party of diplomacy.Such that a country might be promised by a powerful country that if it dances to a
particular tune then certain amount of money will be given to it or the powerful state willhelp the other state to achieve certain international status.We have to know that before a threat can be considered as threat it must have three basicelements that is communication, credibility and capability (3c) It is internationaltradition that state must communicate to other state directly or indirectly about it securityconcern. Communication can come in the form of showing military weapons, tellingother states that you have certain weapon such as North Korea tested nuclear weapon andIran making military exercise. Credibility is to make other state see the threat ascredible. Before a country’s threat could be considered as threat it is when other statesconsidered it credible that is believable, trustworthy and undisputed. However thecommunication and credibility of the threat will mean nothing is the country does nothave capability of making threat. Therefore no state will considered a threat except whenthey know that the state is capable to making threat and causing harm.Military Alliance, because state feel insecurity and feels threatened, such situationmakes state to seek for protection. One of the ways state considers is military alliance.Small states go in alliance with big power, such as the alliance of Pakistan with the USA,India with Russia. At the beginning of the cold war, Western Europe went into alliancewith the USA under the treaty of North Alliance Treaty Organization (NATO) to curtailthe spread of communism. Russia also formed military alliance with Eastern Europeknown as Warsaw Pact. Military alliances have certain advantages such as it ensuressecurity, it relieves military burdens, it makes state get military technologies and it givesprestige. In the same way, it gives certain disadvantages such as losing part of state’ssovereignty, military burden and hatred from other states. One thing should be clear thatstate considers their national interest before going into alliance.On a final note, threat can be avoided through many ways such as through militaryalliance, being isolated from world affairs and through self-help that is helping oneself,because not all time other states will give help.Nature of PowerPower could come in various forms as mentioned above, it be come through politics,economic, socio-cultural and technological strength. Through all these forms countriespower are measured. But we have to understand that power is a relative term asmentioned above. The scope of power differs from country to country. What a certaincountry considers as power might not be power to another country. For example, if Chinaconsiders having 30 bombs as power it might not be power to the United States having100 bombs. So power differs from region to region, country to country, continent tocontinent. It is also good to know that power is not easily measure unless it is used. Youcannot call yourself a soldier until you go to war, or call yourself good teacher withoutteaching.
Prerequisites of PowerUnder the studies of international relations, power is seen as tangible and intangible.Tangible powers are those elements of power that we can see which are visible.Examples of tangible powers are military power, natural resources, Gross NationalProduct (GNP) Geographical size, population, and technology. While intangible powersare those elements that can also influence but could not been seen, meaning that they areabstract in existence. Examples on intangible powers are national cohesion that is if acountry is united such that the people are not divided simply because they are of differentethnics, they can influence other with such national cohesion. Political will, culture,institutions, prestige of a country, mass media (propaganda), education, secret agencies,religious institution are all elements of intangible power which a state can use forinfluencing others.The rich part of the world did not become rich just like that, but it was as a result of theirpower they were able to gain such wealth. If we can go back to history, it will be clearthat it was the power of the Europeans that made it easy for them to conquer Africa andAsia and take away their resources. These resources contributed to the wealth of thesecolonial powers. Similarly, the concentration of power in Europe due to many eventssuch as reformation, renaissance, industrial revolution all gave the Europe and NorthAmerica economic and political power. Without power there could be no global wealthconcentration in certain place.Ranking of PowersIt is obvious that power is relative; therefore power is ranked in accordance to certainparameter in international politics. Since we have known that certain prerequisites mustbe present that we call power, it is in the same way, with these prerequisites power isranked. The ranking of power goes forth the great power, regional or middle power(Germany & Japan) and small power. The great powers have nuclear and conventionalpower, the five superpowers; their power can be extended all over the world. Regional ormiddle power also conventional military power that is limited to their region. All thecountries are small powers in their right because they often influence certain event.Consequently, one can say that the power is measured by the national military budget,political will for exerting power, and GDP. We always think that the most power countryis the country that has the largest military force and power and such country can alwayswin a war. But events have shown that military power and force does not alwaysdetermine who the win will be. Example of Russia in Afghanistan showed that themighty does not always win, equally the problem faced by the United States in Vietnam,Britain war with Argentina also shows that winning a war is not determined sometimesby military strength. This situation is so because weapons have now become a globalisedthing, there is big market for weapon all over the world, so third world countries alsohave weapon and that could make them give threat.Since power does not necessarily means military force or weapons, there are someelements of power known as Soft power that could also be used by countries to win a war
or influence other states. Soft power simply means the power that necessarily does goeswith military forces or weapons such as mass media, culture, education, and diplomacy.Smaller powers which are represented by the third world countries have managed to facethe power of strong countries through various measures. Smaller powers have used theweapon of nationalism, international organisation (UNO) mass media, and modernweapon to stop any aggression of big states.Balance of Power is the distribution of power or acquisition of power by state inresponse to aggressive states. It is the configuration of power in a certain manner.Balance of power could mean the process of having certain power in order to stop otherstates from threatening or causing fear, in that the state becomes save and equal in power.Hence power of balance of power is a situation whereby there is equality of power amongstates. For instance balance of power can come in the form of alliance, buying weaponsor gaining diplomatic strength. India was the most powerful in the subcontinent after ittested it nuclear weapon, thereafter Pakistan also tested it own weapon. Such a situationis called balance of power. In international politics, there is polarity of power, a situationof power distribution to create equality among states. After the 2nd World War, the worldoperates bipolarity (power was balanced and shared between USA and Russia, Capitalismand Communism) Multi-polar is the situation where there is more than one power anduni-polar is where there is just one single power.The Nuclear PowerThe nuclear weapon came to existence during the 2nd WW when the USA used theweapon on Japan in order to stop the war, show the rest of the world that it is the mostpower and a beginning of a new warfare. The nuclear weapon was monopolised by theUSA but later other countries got the technology and the world became a nuclear world.The existence of the nuclear power means that state would assure themselves of mutualdestruction (Mutual Assured Destruction. MAD). The nuclear weapon obviously has itadvantages and disadvantage. Since its existence the world has not gone to a large warlike the world wars because it destruction is much. It has also leads to arm race amongstates. Arms race is the process whereby states compete to get considerable power forthemselves so as to be saved from external aggression. An example of this was thesituation between Pakistan and India.Geo-economics powerAnother source of power is the geo-economics power. The economic power of a statetells the amount of influence such state can exert. Geo-economic power was created froma long time process. Europe and North America became geo-economic power as a resultof certain development in their region. Geo-economic power gives leverage over other. Italso permits rich countries to gain advantage of comparative advantage than the poorstate.
Chapter FiveWhat is foreign policy and why we need itForeign policy is the systematic plan, intention, aspiration, and ideals of nay country onhow to deal with its neighbours and the world entirely. Foreign policy tells use the natureof a country, it political position, its economic intention and how a country view others.Foreign policy is the strategy of a country which will be used as tools to deal and interactwith foreign country. Foreign policy often carries the cultural, socio-political andideological beliefs of a country.Foreign policy is needed because every organization needs a systematic plan if it mustsurvive and achieve its aim. In the same way a country needs foreign policy so as toorganise itself for the future and the present. Foreign policy usually include short-termsand long-terms plans of a country. Secondly we need foreign policy so as to understandhow to deal with other country. Thirdly we need foreign policy in order to identify ourimmediate aspiration, aims and objective. Fourthly, foreign policy is needed so that acountry can know ways to achieve a better position in the international affairs. Lastly acountry needs foreign policy so that other countries will understand it, and know how todeal with the country without and confrontation.What is the role of national interest in foreign policy making?Since foreign policy is a vital aspect of a country, which of tells us the kind ofgovernmental system, political culture and economic position a country has. Manycountries around the world always place the making of their foreign policy on nationalinterest. Hence the role of national interest in the making of foreign policy is very muchimportant. Firstly, every country makes policy that will suit it and make it achieve itsinterest most. That is every country foreign policy is set towards achieving and protectingthe sovereignty of the country. Since we have no that all countries in the world puts theirsovereignty first before any other thing. So therefore protection of sovereignty is part of
national interest. Secondly, no state wants to discontinue itself, therefore it is part ofnational interest that a state must continue its existence. In this way if a country wants tomake foreign policy it must be for the survival and continuity of the country. For instancewhen USA requested the help of Pakistan on Afghanistan, it was in Pakistan nationalinterest to support itself and see to the continuity of Pakistan than helping its brothers inAfghanistan. Thirdly, national interest tells in foreign policy in that all countries wantsurvival and struggling among themselves, therefore it is only wise to do things that willfavour one’s interest than making others get over one. Fourthly, national interest inforeign policy explains the fact that a government have the interest of its citizen at heart,because most citizens want their government to make policy that will favour theircountry. Lastly, the influence of national interest can be seen in foreign policy as everycountry wants to be prestigious among other states and want mutual respect, thereforewhen making foreign policy country will consider what is good for its national interestand its prestige and honour among other countries.What does a state want to achieve through its foreign policy?Firstly, a state would want to achieve international prestige and honour with its foreignpolicy, because a state is like an individual who likes that everyone respects him and givehim honour. Secondly, foreign policy brings about achievement of national interest to acountry. Thirdly, a state makes and maintains certain foreign policy in order to seek forthe good relation with other countries; it might be for economic or political interaction.Fourthly, a state will be able to place itself among like minds with its foreign policy andthat could lead to cooperation among states. For instance if a country has policy whichshows good democratic principle then country with similar policy will make friend withsuch a state and that will further enhance mutual interaction and friendly atmosphere.Fifthly, a state can either make alliance or enemy through its foreign policy, for instanceduring the cold war period, Pakistan foreign policy was directed to the west and thatmade the USA to make Pakistan a member of the SENTO and CENTO group. Sixthlythrough foreign policy a country can aggressively, systematically carry out its long andshort term plans. Lastly, a country’s foreign policy makes the country understand how
others feel about it, because very country’s foreign policy at particular point time getsreaction from the neighbouring states or the entire world.Do we need research in foreign policy?Every aspect of international relations has shown a great deal of research potential, andforeign policy is not an exemption. So therefore research is needed on foreign policy.One, research becomes essential because it makes us further understand the nature ofstate behaviour within the international system. Two, it gives us the opportunity tocomprehend why state changes their intention, behaviour at every stage and brings us tothe junction of understanding state’s past, present and future. Three, with a research inforeign policy student of international relations can further grasp the up and down,reasons and importance of foreign policy. Four, a research in foreign policy can brings usto the junction of identifying the similarities and difference among states pattern offoreign policies. Five, a research in foreign policy will help policy makers sharpen theirunderstanding of the world, arguably predict the future and allow them interpret the pastto comprehend the present. Six, a research in foreign policy help decision makers to makethe best of option when making foreign policy and that will reduce the numbers ofmaking mistakes. More importantly, it helps to broaden the understanding of governmentinstitutions and see how non-state actors often influence the making of foreign policy.Lastly, foreign policy research opens a wide range of opportunity to a country tounderstand other countries, to be able to see lot of alternatives when making policies andbehave in accordance to international value.How foreign policy is developedForeign policy is not just the making of policy makers or group of people sitting in thegovernment office rather it is a combination of many factors. Making foreign policyinclude public opinion that is knowing the standpoint and view of the general publicabout certain things so that the citizen would not be offended if the policy latter back fire.It has also be clear that a country develop its foreign policy based on the prevalentpolitical culture of the country. This political culture is further enhanced through political
socialization, which includes the family, peer groups, school, religious institutions,government institutions and the media. All of these play important role in thedevelopment and making of a country’s foreign policy. Secondly, foreign policy isdeveloped on the basis on the government in a country; the system of government in acountry influences the development of foreign policy. For instance, the Central Asiaregion had passed through 70 years of Communism and that has greatly influence lives inthat region, hence after independence they were still under the influence of their past.Thirdly, the style of government also matters, be it democratic or autocratic. Fourthly, acountry develops its foreign policy through prevalent ideology, the ideology (Islam) withwhich Pakistan was created has great influence on its foreign policy. So does theideology of Zionism also affect the foreign policy of Israel with its neighbouring Arabcountries. Fifthly, the history and tradition of a country also contributes to thedevelopment of foreign policy. For instance the idea of freedom and democracy whichthe founding fathers of America built the country has always one of the most importantelements of American foreign policy.
Chapter 8 Why nation goes to war or stay in peaceWar is a phenomenon that can be understood from many dimensions, simply becausehuman characters and behaviours cannot be understood from just one factor. A personcan act in a certain way due to many reasons and factors. In the same way, people or stategoes to war for many reasons. People or state can go to war due to demographic reasonthat is because of having large population, due to certain foreign policy adopted by acountry, due to history law, religious reasons or because of environmental or politicalreason, even it might be due to economic and socio-cultural and ideological reason.It is important to know that no country will go to war if the country does not have theintention or feelings that it will win the war. Most of the times we tend to fight somebodyor our friend because we know we can defeat the person. War has always been foughtbetween neighbours and always based on interest. Many countries see war as way toresolve issue, that is with the use of violence. This is why some thinkers continue to askthe question if war will ever end and if man continues to make weapon then war cannotend, because weapon is meant to be use for violence.According to Karl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) war is a continuity of diplomacy whichinvolves the use of force and such force does not have limit, since most time we fight todestroy the opposite person. Historians have seen that war has been a phenomenon thathas been with man since the creation of earth; hence war should be understood fromcertain viewpoints. Political Scientists have come to explain war and why nations go towar based on three levels.Levels of Understanding WarHuman Nature and Nurture: It is believed that human being by nature is mad, fearful,competitive and always struggling to get the best. Doing this would mean to struggle withothers, hence struggling or competition might result to conflict and ultimately fighting(war). Therefore, we are made to believe that human being is naturally a war animal.Hence it means that someone might love to fight due to his inborn character. Secondly,human being becomes warring and loving to fight according to the environment he lives.A person that lives in a community where fighting, trouble and problem is always theway of life would definitely have the instinct of fighting. This means that he would adoptthe system of life which he is used to. In the same way, someone might be peaceful if helives in a peaceful home, society and grows up among peaceful friends. What this istelling us is that the environment with which we are used to often influence our style ofdoing things. So therefore, someone would like war and fighting if he is used to fightingin his home, or as a result of his inborn character of loving the best only for himself andwanting to struggle with others. On this basis of this understanding, social scientistsbelieve Social Darwinism operates in human society, meaning that one group wants to
dominate the other group. A particular group wants to survive at the cost of other groupeither by fighting or eliminating them.It is equally believed that due to misperception among human beings, states, andcommunities the end result has always been war and often an escalating. The whole ideabehind this is that if we fail to understand each other or try to accommodate other opinionwe might find others in problem and conflict. Hence listing to others view and trying tobridge communication gap can help to reduce war. Therefore misperception of othersview, opinion and idea should be avoided because that has always been part of the reasonwhy we fight and war among ourselves.State levelSecondly, on the state level which explains why state goes to war? State as well asordinary human being goes to war and fight based on the below discussed views.Ideology: Many states have fought due to ideological reason; Christians and Muslimsfought themselves due to ideological reason. The west under the leadership of the UnitedState of America went to cold war with the Soviet Union (Russia) due to ideology.Pakistan and India have continued to show hatred to each other due to ideology. TheSerbs in the Balkan region have tried to establish themselves over other group due toideology. So it is simple to know that countries have went to war (Israel and Palestine)due to ideology and that explains why human being will continue to fight themselves ifideology still remain a something important to them.Nationalism, Separatism and irredentism: Many independent states got theirindependence through war with the colonial masters. Nationalist struggle has alwayscome with force, for instance in most of the French colonies independence was obtainedthrough violence. Equally the division of East and West Pakistan was not easy with the1971 war. Furthermore, we have seen that war happens within a country or countries dueto the feeling for separation (Pakistan and Bangladesh) are a good example. It wasbelieved that India assisted East Pakistan to gain its independence from West Pakistan,hence that we tell us that the hatred between (Pakistan and India) would remain, and thatalso speak of the issue of Kashmir which has been one of the major issue betweenPakistan and India. Hence, to gain land (like Kashmir) or to separate from a country ispart of reasons why state goes to war with its neighbours or even within itself.Civil war is another example that tells us the infighting in a certain country. Many atimes, people go for civil war for national unity, that is to bring a particular part of thecountry trying to separate back. Equally civil war is fought for national disunity; this kindof civil war can be divided into two. First, civil wars whereby rebels try to capture thegovernment is known as (state control war) that is the rebel wants to control the state.Second, civil wars whereby certain part of the country wants their freedom or seekindependence to form their own separate country is known as (state formation war)thiskind of civil war occurs in failed state that is country that is not politically stable.
Another reason why state goes to war is due to Economic interest groups in a certaincountry. In many of the developed country where they have powerful military complexesand industries that produce weapons for export such industries would like to sell theirproducts (weapons) and by that they could influence the government to go to war so thattheir products could be used because they will gain huge money from it. The militaryindustry in the United States is a very good example that has influence on the governmentand that explains the war in Iraq because it favours the industry. Secondly, there aremany people (economic interest group) that gain from war, for this reason they wouldalways like war because with that they can make lot of profit.International LevelInternational SystemFurthermore, it is believed that the structure of the international system can alsoinfluence war. Since the international structure is known to be anarchical where there isno central government, whereby states can act on their own wish. Such a system manfeels could make state goes to war when they feel it is in their advantage. However it ishas been noted that no state will go to war if it has no feeling of winning the war.Balance of Power and Arms RaceStates can also go to war due to insecurity. If there is tension between two countrieswhereby one if fearful that the other is building store of weapons, then the fearful willalso try to get weapon so as to balance the situation. This sort of insecurity leads to whatis known as arms race. Hence arms race and insecurity goes together and explains whystate might go to war. So war can occur if one state intends to balance the power of theother state.Hegemony StabilityState can always go to war for hegemonic stability. This means that if a particular state isthe most powerful that does not want other states to balance or overpower it. Therefore itwould like that all states comply to its wishes. So in order to stabilise it hegemony itmight sometimes go to war as necessary measure. This hegemony stability is often in thestrengthening of one’s economic and technological power.Alliance, Interdependence, Security communities and WarState can also go to war if they belong to certain security community or in alliance with apowerful state. Since one is a friend to powerful people, that might influence one tomisbehave, and that also relates to states if they are in alliance with powerful state orbelong to a security community. Alliance and security community often have the rule thatif a state among them is attacked, it means all other states of the alliance will stand
against and fight the attacker. This is an example of collective security which manysecurity community and alliance holds.International morality and WarOn this aspect, we are made to understand that the international system does notappreciate morality, instead it is interest that matter most to every state (State nationalinterest) On this basis war has always been one of the international features due to lackof morality, that is respecting others or thinking about the damage war can cause. Thisleads us to the situation people see war as part of justice (just war). Some states believethat war is just and right if it is used to wash away world problem. For instance the war inIraq and Afghanistan are seen as just war because it is used for fighting terrorism andsending away tyrant rulers.Democracy and DevelopmentLastly, since we have known why state goes to war from the three levels ofunderstanding that is human, state and international levels. Yet some people argue thatwar can be reduced if certain things are practiced. For instance, if all the countries in theworld are democratic, hence there would be no war, because democracy does not go forwar. They believe that democratic country respect people lives and would rather go fordialogue, compromise and diplomacy than going to war. Secondly, it is also believedthat development reduces the spirit for war. A rich country will not want war because thatwill destroy its development and progress. Hence if all countries are developed war willbecome a thing of the past and more importantly the more interdependence the world isthe more war will be reduced as nations have strong cooperation among themselves,friendly and do not want war.
Chapter 9Cold WarConsequence of the Cold War…… (As explained in the class)
Chapter 10Nuclear WeaponA remarkable landmark was set in the art of warfare at the tail end of the Second WorldWar 1945, when United States for the very first time set an indisputable message to bothallies and foes that it is at the topmost of military power. This landmark event wasportrayed in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki scenarios; it was a new episode andphenomenon in the theatre of warfare. It is very much apparent that the dawn of nuclearweapon in the history of human warfare meant a total destruction as was the case inJapan. Secondly, the presence of nuclear power and weapon did pave the way for amassive consequence in warfare, as its use is both consequential and devastating.It also follows that the dawn of the weapon was geared towards achieving an ultimategoal, that was to stop the Second World War from the Japanese end as the flame andstrength of the war was going beyond expectation. Thus, it worth submitting at thisjuncture that the utility of the nuclear bomb was rational. Firstly, using the bombeliminated the emotion, will, morale of the diehard Japanese known for their courageousand uncompromising will on battle-front. Hence, the bomb silenced their will and showedthe strength and effectiveness of the bomb. Secondly, winning a war meant demoralizingthe opponent and total victory; on that note, the bomb used by the US was an exhibitionof military strength and new style in the art of warfare. Thirdly, it was also meant to bringabout the earliest possible surrender of the Japanese, and an end to the long and costlywar. Fourthly, Japan became the testing ground for the US to portray the level of heradvanced technology and more importantly to sending a signal to its Soviet rival. The US bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gave the Soviets still more reason to distrust and suspect the intentions of the United States. Each point of disagreement was magnified, each misunderstanding became a weapon, and each hostile act was positive proof of the other side’s evil intention.1
The end of the Second World War opened a new chapter as the nuclear age began withthe use of the new weapon of unprecedented destructive power, a weapon that signified amagnificent product of pure physics.2The rationale behind the nuclear age and it utility was that the bomb was meant toenhance a shock value. Evidently, the nuclear age brought in more problems for man asgreater health related problems were incurred, lot of destruction humanly and materially.The long time consequence of the war cannot be underestimated, as the use of theweapon was questioned and tons of blame was shouldered upon the US for bringing alivesuch weapon.As the world drew the curtail of the Second World War and the dawn of the nuclear age,conflicting interests crept up between the two Super Powers. Without any iota of doubt,the United States maintains an edge over the Soviet on the premise of the new technologyof nuclear weapon. By that, both the Soviet and other European nations became resentfulwith the feeling of threat, and ultimately joined the wagon of nuclear powers. A nuclearrace began which of course turned the pages of history into a nuclear deterrence world.Perhaps it is mentionable that the dawn of nuclear deterrence (race) sealed the door to amore devastating and destructive war, as was witnessed in the 2nd Word War.However, prior to the attainment of new technology by the Soviet, Europeans and otherlatecomers, the United States did maintain and control a monopoly of this new atomictechnology through secrecy and monopoly of nuclear raw materials. That period could bedepicted as an era of domination by the U.S. Washington was and not at any particulartime ready to share it’s military and nuclear technology with anyone even its closestallies. That of course is a propensity of making itself superior above others. In order toaffirm its hegemony of nuclear technology, the United States sought the establishment ofan international organisation that would control the acquisition of new technology byother nations.
Since the use of the nuclear weapon buttered the hatred and mistrust between the SuperPowers, it is no doubt that the Soviet would not accept any hegemonic posture of the USin that respect. Hence, the Soviet Union demanded that the United States unilaterallydestroy its existing stockpile prior to the creation of any international authority.3 Impact of the Nuclear weapon on international Politics1, Deterrence, the nuclear weapon create an atmosphere of deterrence that is to makeother state fear consequences of attacking. States measure the cost and benefits of goingto war since nuclear war was so powerful and could cause serious damage. So the nuclearweapon deter states from fighting or going to war as in the case of Pakistan and Indiaafter both countries got nuclear weapons. No state ready to lose.2. The nuclear weapon facilitates interdependence among states, since no state wants tolose and wants war, hence they would rather have a good relations by fostering economic,socio-cultural and political interaction. We have mentioned that industrialised countrieswhere development is taking place do not fight to war among themselves.3. The nuclear weapon helps to save the world from eliminating civilization, because ofthe destructive nature of the weapon which can cause serious and unthinkable damage.Hence by having the weapon the international system was saved of eventual eliminationof world civilization.4. The nuclear weapon as a result of its nature helps to reduce the tendency of widerworld like the 1st and 2nd World War where many lives and properties were lost. Wecannot say that seen the nuclear weapon there has been no war, but the scale of thesewars were not as wide as the 1st and 2nd World War.5. The new weapon also brought about a new style of warfare into the internationalsystem that is strategic and tactical warfare. It is a mutual assured destruction (MAD)meaning that if war comes up with nuclear weapon in use there will be massivedestruction which is quite different from the kind of war before the nuclear weapon wasinvented.6. The nuclear weapon brought about institutionalization of weapons. Due to its naturethe nuclear states and other non-nuclear states came to the agreement that a regime
should be institutionalise that will monitor the nuclear technology such as the Non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and International Atomic energy agency (IAEA)7. The new weapon also strengthened the concept of balance of power in the internationalsystem.8. It also contributed to the arms race, whereby states want to get weapon to protectthemselves because they feel unsecured. Pakistan became insecure when India got hernuclear weapon so therefore Pakistan also raced to get the nuclear weapon and thatcreated a balance of power but also increased arms race.9. The nuclear weapon brought about discrimination in the international system, simplybecause some countries have the technology and some do not have, hence a nucleartechnology monopoly. So it is this monopoly that pushes other have-not countries to wantto acquire the weapon as Iran and North Korea are accused of wanting nuclear weapon.
Chapter 11The changing Nature of WarIt has been established why human being goes to war as explained by the three differentlevels of understanding war. One has no doubt in his or her mind that warfare in thepresent age has changed remarkably. The style and tactics of today’s war is very muchdifferent from the kind of war fought in the olden days with crude weapons. In today’swar there is more destruction which could have never been thought of in the past. Asobserved above that the dawn of the nuclear age which brought in the nuclear technologyand nuclear weapon made today’s war very much sophisticated and destructive.Hence what is war and how could be describe war. Before going into definition we haveto understand that war can be as a result of civil strife, struggle resulting to what isusually called civil war. It could also be a struggle against colonial rule, leading to warof independence. In the same fashion, war could be as a result of conflict of ideology asseen in India-Pak partition in 1947. It is very much easy to witness war if there isnationalist struggle. More familiar to us is the war between states often called interstatewar. According to a research called out by Michigan University, an estimate of 1000persons or causalities was identified as the number which would determine that a conflicthas turned into war. However such an estimation is non-binding it could be differ toothers understanding of war. Yet we can still accept it as a parameter to determine a war.Hence what is war: War is an aggression involving the use of violence, weapon, andcombatants often between or among states. The development attained in warfare isprimarily as a result of technology, coupled with the availability of resources and capitalinvestment. Hence there would be no war, without violence, weapon, combatant,technology, resources and finance.However we have to quickly register a fact that today’s warfare has moved beyondborder, it could be intercontinental or global. It is no more war among Europeans, Asiansor Africans. Today’s war technology can move war beyond border. Secondly, advancecommunication, transportation have equally enhanced today’s war.
Before 1945 most of the wars had been on the European soil as well as in the continent ofAsia and Africa. But by the end of the 2 nd World War, European ended their war due tothe destruction incurred. There was a big shift after 1945 such that most of wars happento take place in the third world countries but that was so because after the 2nd World Warmost the colonies started demanding for their independence which often times result towar. Even after attaining independence these independent countries find themselves incivil wars as result of the bad colonial arrangement which divided the people and makethem hate themselves.Sometimes it is argued that democracy doesn’t go to war, that of course might be rightyet we have seen that many democracies had gone to war. Perhaps America which claimsthe leader of the civilised war and democracy had gone to several wars: Lebanon(1982-84) Grenada (1983) panama (1990) Persian Gulf (1990) Somalia (1992) Haiti(1994) Bosnia (1990s) Kosovo (1999) All of these wars were to protect Americaninterest, that explains that regardless of the type of governmental system, there couldalways be war if national interest is in question.Modern war in strategic studies is characterised as 3CI (communication, control,command and intelligence) all of these are essential in modern warfare. In view of this,today’s war has become mechanised with weapon which are hi-tech operated andmechanical. It also involve the use of the computer as we have seen in video game,perhaps in order to disrupt the communication system of an enemy computer virus isused.