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Kingdoms of Southeast Asia and Korea C.S., C.K., J.M., M.B.
An Introduction to Kingdoms of Southeast Asia and Korea
Some of the countries that make up Southeast Asia are Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines, and Brunei.
The Korean peninsula lies many miles from the region of Southeast Asia.
Southeast Asia lies to the south of China and the Korean peninsula lies northeast to China.
iExplore, Come Back Different, http://community.iexplore.com/maps/images/mapAsia.gif C.S.
Basic Geography of Southeast Asia
Between the Indian ocean and the Pacific ocean lies southeast Asia.
Southeast Asia has Monsoon winds and an annual rainy season.
Southeast Asia is made up of two parts:
1. the main peninsula (west of India and north of china)
Seas separate the islands politically and culturally.
East Asia, http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.oxfam.org.au/world/asia/asiamap.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.oxfam.org.au/world/asia/&h=351&w=350&sz=8&hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=rbdGQOU06c_mDM:&tbnh=120&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSoutheast%2BAsia%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN C.S.
Rivers, Mountains, and Trade Routes
There are many hills and mountains surrounding valleys. This makes communication and travel difficult.
Five rivers flow on the mainland and empty into the sea
Trade routes and harbors were very important to Southeast Asia and whoever controlled them had great power.
Southeast Asia lies on a very direct route between the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.
The Strait of Malacca and the Sunda Strait are two waterways which connect the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea
Because they’re important and a direct route lord could charge the merchants a high price to use the ports and pass through waterways.
The Mood of Southeast Asia, http://www.escapeartist.com/efam24/asia.html C.S.
During the first century A.D. There were many Indian merchant boats sailing the monsoon winds to begin arriving in Southeast Asia.
The Hindu and Buddhist missionaries spread their religions to the people in the period that followed this.
Kingdoms were rising across the region that followed these religions and they also modeled them on Indian political ideas. We can see that Indian influence shaped many aspects of the region’s culture.
People of Southeast Asia began to adapt many Hindu practices and rituals.
They also adapted India’s ancient language of Sanskrit. Influences from India in Southeast culture are obvious in today’s religion’s, languages and art forms. Chinese culture was influential through migration and trade. The Chinese also sparked political ideas over the mainland Southeast Asia.
Influence of India and China South East Asia; During the Kushan period late 1 st century. “ Ghandara” Achieved great military success in Pakistan. www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1995.419.jpg M.B
Island Trading Kingdoms
A dynasty called Sailendra ruled an agricultural kingdom on the island of Java, while the Khmer empire expanded on the mainland. The Sailendra kings left behind another of the world’s greatest architectural monuments, the Buddhist temple at Borobudur. The building of the temple took place in about 800. It reflected strong Indian influence, such as the Angkor Wat. Like a stepped pyramid, it has nine terraced levels.
The Sailendra Dynasty eventually fell under the domination of the powerful island empire of Srivijaya. At its height from the 7 th to 13 th centuries, Srivijaya ruled the Strait of Malacca and other waters around the island of Sumatra, Borneo, and Java.
It grew wealthy by taxing the trade that passed through its waters.
Palembang became a great center of Buddhist learning, where Chinese monks could study instead of traveling to India.
The Khmer Empire (which is now Cambodia) was the main power of the Southeast Asian mainland for centuries. There was an early Khmer kingdom called Funan and it dominated much of the sea trade between China and India.
Up to 800 A.D. the Khmer had expanded their state into an empire because of neighboring kingdoms. They reached a climax of power in 1200.
Rice cultivation improved and helped the Khmer empire become prosperous. They built many elaborate irrigation systems and waterways. Advances made it possible to grow three to four crops of rice in an area that had previously only been able to produce one.
In the capital named Angkor, extensive city and temple complexes were built. One was called Angkor Wat. It is one of the world’s greatest architectural achievements. It was built as a symbolic mountain dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu. The Khmer also used it as an observatory.
The Khmer Empire The Angkor Wat in Cambodia M.B www.junglerunner.com/.../j34angkorthom.gif
The people of Southeast Asia least influenced by India were the Vietnamese.
Located in the coastal region, just south of China, Vietnam feel under the
China’s rule during the Han dynasty, and remained there for more than 1,000 years.
When China’s Tang dynasty grew weaker in the early 900’s, Vietnam broke away, and became independent in 939.
The Vietnamese absorbed many Chinese cultural influences, including Buddhism. However, they also preserved a strong spirit of their own cultural identity.
Rulers of the Li dynasty established their capital on the Red River Delta. They slowly expanded Vietnam by conquering neighboring countries to the south.
www.ritkd.com/images/ korean-flag.jpg C.K
KOREAN DYANSTIES www.ritkd.com/images/ korean-flag.jpg
First Korean State
According to legend, the first Korean State was founded by a hero,
Tan’gun, whose father was a father was a god, and mother was a bear.
Another legend says that it was founded by a royal descendant of the
Chinese Shang Dynasty.
Koreans were a distinct people who developed their own native
Their culture was also created by Chinese influences on early dynastic times.
The Koreans borrowed culture to fit their own needs and maintained a distinct way of life.
Korea is located on a peninsula that juts out of the Asian mainland towards Japan.
Korea has mountainous land, and only a limited portion of the peninsula can be farmed.
As a result of the mountains and seas, Korea developed somewhat in isolation from its neighbors.
Bright orange is Korea C.K academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/. ../images/hanmap.jpg
In Early Korea, different clans/tribes controlled different parts of the country. Through the Chinese, Korea learned about many ideas, such as centralized government, Buddhism, Confucianism and writing.
During the Han rule, various Korean tribes began to gather together into federations, eventually developing into three rival nations.
Under one of these kingdom, the Silla, defeated the other kingdoms and chased out the Chinese. The Silla gained control over the whole Korean peninsula.
The Koreans built Buddhist monasteries and produced elegant stone and bronze sculptures. They also developed a writing system suitable for writing Korean phonetically, while still using Chinese letters.
<---Stoneware Tou of the Silla Dynasty (57 B.C.-A.D.935) www.xenarts.com/ market/korean/index.html C.K
The Koryu Dynasty
Entering the tenth century A.D., the ancient kingdom, Silla, begins to loose it’s hold on Korea. This lead to the beginning of the Koryu dynasty. In 935, Wang Kon began to take over Korea, when he did, he changed its name. The word Koryu doesn’t relate to Korea like it sounds but instead to its full name, Koguryo. This has a literal translation of - “one of the three kingdoms.” This did sooner turn into its modern name, Korea, but it relates back to the tenth century.
China, being a main contributor to many south-eastern countries, had its central government system copied by tenth century Korea. Being a highly man populated and man dominating society, this led to many of the jobs and scholars being male oriented. Most of the government and society used or lived by Confucianism. Although many of its aspects similar to China, Korea had different needs for its society. They used the caste system as well as many others did. This means that whatever your father did is almost always what you will end up doing. This also relates to the women although rarely did they have jobs. Life seemed to be good for the Koreans for some time. Much of their society had been duplicated from great societies before and it seemed as if Koryu was a great kingdom.
By the time the twelfth century had begun, it seemed that many people began to rebel against the new dynasty. Although tough, the Koryu managed to stay in power until the Mongols entered Korea in 1231 A.D. This made life very hard for the new kingdom. They forced to pay tribute, not of money, of many horses and clothing for their soldiers. For over 100 years this kept going on until, around the 1350's, the Mongol empire fell. They then left the Koreans to be. Once gone, the kingdom was almost bled dry of money. This led the king to a rise in taxes. This, as a chain reaction led to more riots from the Korean people.
Seeing their chance, a group of people took over Korea in 1392. This resulted in a new dynasty, the Chosen (A.K.A. Yi) dynasty. Their conquering of Korea lasted for 518 years.
The Koryu’s Culture
A lot of the Korean, and also Chinese, culture had to do with the Buddha. They made paintings of the Buddha, sculptures, wrote books on him, you name it. This “Buddha-fest” lasted for about 60 years. Artists made as much art of him as possible, he was a craze, a fad. Today, there are over 81,000 “blocks” (Buddha sculpture) remaining in Korea today.
http://www. sino . net/guide/images/south-korea/Buddha .jpg