Geography of South Asia Southeast Asia lies between the Indian and Pacific Ocean with two main parts; the mainland peninsula that borders China to the north and India to the west and the islands Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. Most of the land is warm and humid with monsoon winds that bring long annual rain. There was poor communication and travel between the islands because of the seas and straits and valleys with raised hills and mountains. They had control of trade routes and harbors because powerful lords charged merchants high fees for using their ports, passing through their waterways, and/or protecting their ships from pirates. Southeast Asia also lies on the most direct sea route between the Indian Ocean and South China Sea. Cathy Hsu
Influence of India and China When Indian merchant boats began arriving in Southeast Asia, Hindu and Buddhist missionaries spread their faiths to different regions and many people adapted the religion and political ideas of Indians. People of Southeast Asia also adopted Hindu practices, wrote poems in Sanskrit which was an ancient Indian language. Migration and trade was used to spread Chinese ideas and culture southward Chinese also had a political influence through direct rule or demanding tributes from local rulers. Cathy Hsu
The Khmer Empire was the main power on Southeast Asia mainland. An early kind named Funan dominated sea trade between India and China and Khmer reached a peak of power and had expanded their land to an empire. Rice cultivation helped Khmer prosper. They built irrigation and waterway systems which increased the crop production of an area in a year. The Angkor Wat was also built which was a city-and-temple complex. It is one of the world’s greatest architectural achievements. It is built as a symbolic mountain dedicated to the Hindu god, Vishnu and also used as an observatory. Cathy Hsu Khmer Empire
Island Trading Kingdoms While the Khmer empire expanded on the southeastern Asian mainland the Sailendra Dynasty arose to create an agricultural kingdom on the island of java. The Sailendra kings made one of the world’s greatest monuments, the Buddhist temple in Boroburdur in 800 and it reflects Indian influences. A key feature of the temple was its nice terraced levels. Soon the Sailendra would fall to the Srivijaya empire which would now have control of the powerful island. Srivijaya grew in power by taxing the trade through the waters that they controlled. At their capital of Palembang, Buddhism became a center of learning in Asia so monks did not have to travel all the way to India to continue their prayers.
Vietnam The Vietnamese country was least influenced by Indian culture. Vietnam is located on the costal region south of China. It was taken control over by China around 100 B.C. The Han Dynasty took control over Northern Vietnam for 1000 years until the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 900 and became an independent kingdom in 939. Chinese culture influenced the country especially with Buddhism but the Vietnamese preserved many of their own individual cultural identity , for instance Vietnamese women had more freedom than Chinese women. On the red river delta, leaders of the Ly Dynasty established their capital of Hanoi. Slowly Vietnam began to conquer neighbors to the south. Even when Mongols tried to conquer Hanoi three times, Vietnam was always able to force them out.
The establishment of Korea is based on a Korean and Chinese legend. The Korean one says it was founded by a hero, and the Chinese says it was founded by the Shang Dynasty. Both stories reflect Korean Culture. Korea, like many countries borrowed many ideas from China but also had their own traditions. Korea is located on a peninsula right above china and left of Japan. The size of Korea is about the size of Utah. Korea’s weather is very hot in the summer, and very cold in the winter. Korea is a very mountainous land and only a portion can be farmed. Because of its mountain and the sea, Korea developed isolation from its northern neighbors. Korea and its Geography
EARLY KOREAN HISTORY <ul><li>Different clans or tribes controlled different parts of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>108 B.C. Han Empire controlled different parts of the country and established a military government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned about ideas such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Styles of writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During Han rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various Korean tribes began to gather together in mid 600’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of these kingdoms, Silla, defeated other kingdoms. </li></ul></ul>Kylah Bruno
EARLY KOREAN HISTORY CONT… <ul><li>Under Silla Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Koreans built Buddhist monasteries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced elegant stone and bronze sculptures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a writing system that used Chinese characters. </li></ul></ul>Kylah Bruno
THE KORYU DYNASTY <ul><li>During the 10 th century Silla rule began to weaken. </li></ul><ul><li>935 rebel officer names Wang Kon gained control of the country and became king. </li></ul><ul><li>Established a new dynasty, the Koryu dynasty, which lasted 4½ centuries (935 to 1392). </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled central government after Chinas. </li></ul><ul><li>Established Confucian civil service examination and because of this the society was soon divided between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landed aristocracy and the rest of the population which included military, commoners and slaves. </li></ul></ul>Kylah Bruno
KORYU DYNASTY CONT… <ul><li>In the 1100’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1231 Mongols swept into Korea and demanded tribute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tribute included 20,000 horses, clothing for 1 million solders and children and artisans to use as slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During this time the Koryu dynasty remained in power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongol rule (1231-1350’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1392 scholar- officials and military rulers overthrew Koryu Dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established new dynasty- Choson (Yi) which ruled for 518 years. </li></ul></ul>Kylah Bruno
KORYU CULTURE <ul><li>Koryu artists produced celadon pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Writers and scholars produced fine poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60 years printers carved thousands of large wooded blocks for printing the entire canon of Buddhist scriptures. </li></ul><ul><li>The blocks were destroyed when the Mongols cam to power but were able to recreate more than 81,000 blocks in the new set which is still in Korea today. </li></ul>Kylah Bruno