U sing  C ollaborative   O n-line   T eaching   E ffectively Tom Treadwell Ed.D.,   West Chester University Donna Ashcraft...
1 <ul><li>Forming - Meeting, team logo & identity, collaborative vs cooperative project, PPt presentation [1- 4 weeks] </l...
Tuckman Model Performing Norming Storming Forming Team Phases The team shares a commitment to their goals. A tangible unde...
Tuckman Model Performing Norming Storming Forming Team members are willing to challenge team collaborative goals and adopt...
Tuckman Model Performing Norming Storming Forming Discussions are open; disagreements do not lead to fear of rejection. Me...
Keeping Track of Team Communication <ul><li>Who speaks to whom in the team? When observing a group, develop a table like t...
Who to Whom   Data Chart 2 nd  Week Team Members Person Talk Project Guides / Profs Total Talk Team Talk
Who to Whom   Data Chart 7 th  Week Project Guides / Profs Team Members Person Talk Total Talk Team Talk
Who to Whom   Data Chart 14 th  Week Person Talk Team Members Project Guides / Profs Total Talk Team Talk
Communication-Collaborative Developmental Process Over 15 Weeks
Project Guide Assistance
Electronic Team Roles <ul><li>A lmost all of our time is spent interacting in groups; we are educated in groups, we work i...
Team Roles Maintenance Roles:   These roles focus on how the group works together! Elaborator (Task Clarifier) Clarifies a...
Team Roles Task-Oriented Roles:   These are roles that address the group's task. Each has a characteristic strength and we...
Team Roles Non-Functional Roles:   These are roles that detract from the group's efforts; try to avoid performing any of t...
Super-ordinate Goal(s) High appeal value to both teams   <ul><li>Underlying hypothesis:   Common goal(s) are established w...
Assessing Collaborative Teams <ul><li>Administer Pre-Post Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administered during 1 st  & 14 t...
Fall 2006 Knowledge Tests
Spring 2007 Knowledge Tests
Assessment of Knowledge  Fall 2002-Spring 2007
Teaching Ideas  -  Review the On-Line Social Psychology DVD.  C larion  U niversity &  W est  C hester  U niversity <ul><l...
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Collaborative On-Line Research & Learning (CORAL) Data

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Tuckman Stages of Team Development for On-Line Learning - Social Psychology Laboratory

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Collaborative On-Line Research & Learning (CORAL) Data

  1. 1. U sing C ollaborative O n-line T eaching E ffectively Tom Treadwell Ed.D., West Chester University Donna Ashcraft Ph.D., Clarion University http://coral. wcupa . edu CORAL
  2. 2. 1 <ul><li>Forming - Meeting, team logo & identity, collaborative vs cooperative project, PPt presentation [1- 4 weeks] </li></ul><ul><li>Storming - Task Clarification[4-8 weeks] </li></ul><ul><li>Norming -Duty/Role Clarification [4-12 weeks] </li></ul><ul><li>Performing -“Work” [12-15 weeks] </li></ul><ul><li>Adjourning - Settlement and Closure [15 + weeks] </li></ul>Phases of Collaboration <ul><li>Confusion, </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety, </li></ul><ul><li>Trepidation! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tuckman Model Performing Norming Storming Forming Team Phases The team shares a commitment to their goals. A tangible understanding for the team is clear. Agreement from most team members. Commitment is forming. The team is moving toward unity. Goals challenged as team members question parameters. There is increased clarity, yet some misconceptions linger. Members discover relevant parameters of the goals. There is little team agreement or commitment to team mission Purpose & Goal clarity Leader(s) facilitate team collaborative process, but tasks and objectives become shared leadership. Leader sees the advantage of shared (collaborative)leadership and allows other member to take the lead. Team leader begins to see that leadership is distributed. Leader acts primarily as a facilitator providing encouragement& helping team to build a collaborative consensus. A team Leader emerges, helps team by focusing on goals & expectations. Manages process and conflict, generates ideas, & makes decisions. Direct & provide structure for the team, clarifies expectations about how to initiate team project & group process. (Select wtw data collector). Instructors / Project Guides Leadership
  4. 4. Tuckman Model Performing Norming Storming Forming Team members are willing to challenge team collaborative goals and adopt changes as needed. Roles are clarified & accepted. There is discussion about how team members perform tasks and work toward collaborative goals. Individuals are not clear about roles. They privately hold opinions, but are fearful to express them. Team members incubate frustration. Leads to conflict. Roles and responsibilities emerge slowly. Members jockey for roles and power. Roles & Responsibilities Team members make distributed leadership decisions that are agreed upon. Major decisions are made by team consensus. Distributed leadership emerges -decisions are made by consensus. Differences are negotiated & some decisions are delegated to individuals. Decisions are hard to make; deadlocks common; Process is usually dominated by power plays & fast and loud talkers. Compromise is the fall back tactic. Directed by the leader. The process is sometimes dominated by the most vocal members. Decision Making
  5. 5. Tuckman Model Performing Norming Storming Forming Discussions are open; disagreements do not lead to fear of rejection. Members feel highly supported. Leaders offer inter-personal support as well as guidance. General support for distributed leadership. Leadership is shared among the group. Team members challenge the leader. Factions and cliques emerge. Power struggles and polarization often occur I.e. we vs them. Team members take a wait and see approach. They watch from a distance and remain dependent on a fixed hierarchy of responsibility. Reaction to Leadership within team Members are autonomous; not dependent on designated leaders. Everyone shares responsibility for initiating and discusses team collaborative process. Members generate team norms and develop mutual respect. However, can be sidetracked by process discussions and waste time focusing on unimportant issues. Team work doesn't seem justified for the effort required. Cliques can form! Process is usually ignored; it is noticed but avoided. Members test the waters and look for guidance from the designated instructor. Attention to team process
  6. 6. Keeping Track of Team Communication <ul><li>Who speaks to whom in the team? When observing a group, develop a table like the one on the right to keep track of the team communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Each time a member speaks to another member, make a note of it in the appropriate column. </li></ul><ul><li>You can then use the information to identify team leader(s), subgroups, social loafers, & members that are more and less active in webboard discussions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Who to Whom Data Chart 2 nd Week Team Members Person Talk Project Guides / Profs Total Talk Team Talk
  8. 8. Who to Whom Data Chart 7 th Week Project Guides / Profs Team Members Person Talk Total Talk Team Talk
  9. 9. Who to Whom Data Chart 14 th Week Person Talk Team Members Project Guides / Profs Total Talk Team Talk
  10. 10. Communication-Collaborative Developmental Process Over 15 Weeks
  11. 11. Project Guide Assistance
  12. 12. Electronic Team Roles <ul><li>A lmost all of our time is spent interacting in groups; we are educated in groups, we work in groups, we worship in groups, and we play in groups. We take on various roles in groups. We live our lives in groups & take them for granted. Roles vary - we often pay little attention to the role we assume in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>C onsider the team role you have assumed or have been appointed. How does it feel? or fit? The following are a few examples of Electronic Roles! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Team Roles Maintenance Roles: These roles focus on how the group works together! Elaborator (Task Clarifier) Clarifies and expands others' ideas through examples, illustrations, explanations. Encourager (Coral Team supporter) Friendly, warm, responsive to others, praises others and their ideas, agrees with and accepts the contribution of others. Follower (Admirer – Devotee) Goes along with the group, somewhat passively accepts ideas of others, serves as audience during discussions. Team Roles
  14. 14. Team Roles Task-Oriented Roles: These are roles that address the group's task. Each has a characteristic strength and weakness! Distributed Leader/Manager/Electronic Energizer, Team catalyst Self-confident, commands respect, good speaker, thinks positively, good at guiding the team. ( Can be domineering ) Evaluator (coral analyst) Careful, makes good judgments, test ideas, evaluates proposals, helps team avoid mistakes . ( Can become isolated, aloof, pessimistic, over-critical ) Finisher (Task master/Summerizer) Painstaking, conscientious, follows through and works hard to finish things properly. Meets deadlines; pays attention to detail. ( Can be over-anxious and perfectionist) Team Roles
  15. 15. Team Roles Non-Functional Roles: These are roles that detract from the group's efforts; try to avoid performing any of them! Aggressor (On-line Antagonist) Insults, criticizes, and blames others, showing jealousy and ill-will. Makes jokes at others' expense; tries to deflate the ego or status of others. Blocker (Short circuits team efforts) Constantly objects to others' ideas and suggestions, insisting that nothing will work. Always complaining, never satisfied. Dominator (Controls on-line interaction) Tries to monopolize group interaction, using whatever tactics seem necessary,
  16. 16. Super-ordinate Goal(s) High appeal value to both teams <ul><li>Underlying hypothesis: Common goal(s) are established whereby achievement is possible only by working together as a team . </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the assumption – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact  Familiarity  Comfort  Tolerance/Liking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Super-ordinate goals – Cooperative/Collaborative Paper, PPt presentation, Research Proposal, 4 Collaborative Analyses. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to bind teams and give impetus to resolve conflict and distance. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Assessing Collaborative Teams <ul><li>Administer Pre-Post Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administered during 1 st & 14 th week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APA Writing Style </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group Processes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Methodology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Report Student Learning Scale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administered 4 times [every 4 th week] during Semester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative Writing Assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Proposal [dispersed as lit review, hypotheses, method, discussion]. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative Analyses [4 team-process/developmental analyses every 4 th week]. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fall 2006 Knowledge Tests
  19. 19. Spring 2007 Knowledge Tests
  20. 20. Assessment of Knowledge Fall 2002-Spring 2007
  21. 21. Teaching Ideas - Review the On-Line Social Psychology DVD. C larion U niversity & W est C hester U niversity <ul><li>The Social Psychology Laboratory is on a DVD - a small demonstration – focusing on teaching social psychology “on-line” across two (distant) sites. This is intended to be a teaching example that can be applied to multiple disciplines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For a copy contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ttreadwell @ wcupa . edu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ashcraft @clarion. edu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click here for Coral Homepage </li></ul></ul>

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