LMSU Interactive education - Elyssebeth Leigh

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LMSU Interactive education - Elyssebeth Leigh

  1. 1. Effective Leadership of Interactive Education Dr Elyssebeth Leigh Sydney, Australia [email_address]
  2. 2. The Proposal <ul><li>Forms and styles for facilitating learning vary </li></ul><ul><li>None are ‘better’ or ‘worse’ (when done well) </li></ul><ul><li>We each prefer some - avoid others </li></ul><ul><li>Our actions are influenced by what we prefer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How we teach for /facilitate learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tools we choose and use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some tools work better than others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on contexts and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We work best when we know our preferences and choose tools consciously </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Goal for Facilitating Interactive Education <ul><li>This happens when there is lack of accord between the external world experienced by humans and their internal biographical interests and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Disjuncture makes learning possible </li></ul><ul><li>The paradox is that if “ harmony ” is fully established, there can be no learning situation (Jarvis,1992, p 83) </li></ul>To create “ disjuncture ” - ambiguity, uncertainty, discomfort SO – how to create [just] enough disjuncture?
  4. 4. Two Guiding Questions <ul><li>How can we identify our preferences – without judging their comparative ‘value’? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we think about interactive learning in regard to those tools? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cynefin Domains A model for thinking about different ways to manage knowledge
  6. 6. Decision rules for using interactive learning in each domain
  7. 7. A thinking continuum for 21 st Century
  8. 8. How and where do these occur in interactive learning?
  9. 9. What are your preferences? <ul><li>I will show some frameworks to choose from </li></ul><ul><li>Use the worksheets to mark your choices </li></ul><ul><li>Put an “X” in one quadrant that fits your preference </li></ul><ul><li>Remember none are ‘better’ or ‘worse’ </li></ul><ul><li>To decide where to put yor “X” think about times you have been ‘comfortable’ or ‘uncomfortable’ as a learner or teacher </li></ul>X
  10. 10. Framework One Where do you focus most of your attention in a simulation? Box 2 High focus on individual Low focus on group Box 1 Low focus on group Low focus on individual Box 3 High focus on individual High focus on group Box 4 High focus on group Low focus on individual
  11. 11. Framework Two Four Adult Learning Strategies Humanistic, Learner Centred Freedom to learn Rogers, Heron, Perls, Egan ” Unconditional positive regard&quot; Respect for learner’s goals Self Directed Learning (Andragogy) Freedom as learners Knowles Learners’ goals are central Personal judgements of success Training & Efficiency in Learning Freedom from distraction in learning Mager, Davies, Gagne Teaching from base of ‘ authority ’ There are hierarchies of values Testing as judgment Critical Pedagogy/Social Action Freedom through learning Freire, Illich Collective personal action Learning is not value free Acceptance of criticism
  12. 12. Quest Painting your house Lost in the fog Making movies Goals Well defined at start M e t h o d s Not well defined at start Well known Not well known Framework Three Methods and Goals
  13. 13. Tetramap – personal preferences <ul><li>Clear precise </li></ul><ul><li>Objective detail </li></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Lively, disorderly </li></ul><ul><li>Energy, creative </li></ul>Air Framework Four <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Calm soothing </li></ul><ul><li>People-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Solid, dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Stable, orderly </li></ul>
  14. 14. Draw this scale 7 times and use each row to mark how you manage the item? Left Right Preference <ul><li>Briefing ‘togetherness’ diversity/disparity </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator authority not a leader </li></ul><ul><li>Structure one set of rules few rules </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario begins at crisis/ problem to solve journey multiple plots </li></ul><ul><li>Action/Stages logical, goal oriented unclear stages </li></ul><ul><li>Choices become increasingly limited increasingly diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief focus on problems &answers new possibilities </li></ul>Left Right 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
  15. 15. Discussion <ul><li>Is there a pattern in your choices? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify relationships between your choices of frameworks and your preferences for ‘left’ or ‘right’ games formats? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a search for these patterns contribute to understanding the format and the role of a facilitator ? </li></ul><ul><li>NOW </li></ul><ul><li>Find two other people with patterns similar to yours </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a list of words to describe your collective position on facilitation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Style plus Format Leigh and Spindler F O R M A T Closed Open Moderator Improviser STYLE <ul><li>Plans process </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestrates action </li></ul><ul><li>Guides debrief to draw out learning </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATOR </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the process </li></ul><ul><li>Trusts something will happen </li></ul><ul><li>Helps participants meaning in their action </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVISOR </li></ul><ul><li>Plans process </li></ul><ul><li>Takes responsibility for action </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefs towards stated (pre set) goals </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the process </li></ul><ul><li>Trust participants to act </li></ul><ul><li>Guide exploration of the implications </li></ul><ul><li>FACILITATOR </li></ul>
  17. 17. Style plus Format Leigh and Spindler MODERATOR Mantle of expert, war games IMPROVISOR Starpower, XB TEACHER Puzzles, ‘games’, theatre FACILITATOR ‘ Creating a farrago’ Low High T R U S T Low High INTERVENTION
  18. 18. Expectations and Perceptions Facilitator Participant Other Expectations of self by others and others by self of self by others and others by self Perceptions Me Me Expectations and Perceptions Me Me = of self by self Triangle of Forces
  19. 19. Purposes of Facilitation <ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging with complexity </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Out of the ordinary’ learning </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting the power focus </li></ul><ul><li>Leading/emerging not imposing </li></ul>
  20. 20. Let ’s Play
  21. 21. Dr Elyssebeth Leigh Gaming Simulation Facilitation and Team Work
  22. 22. Conceptual Frameworks <ul><li>Group Emotionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilfred Bion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life Cycle of Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuckman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team Role preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meredith Belbin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parataxic distortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harry Stack Sullivan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impostor syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Brookfield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Espoused/enacted beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chris Argyris </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. What is a “Group”? <ul><li>3 or more people who share </li></ul><ul><li>Some mental models/ mind sets </li></ul><ul><li>A “collective unconscious” </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tacit knowledge that cause members to take action </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. In ALL Meetings There are Groups <ul><li>TASK group </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agendas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BASIC ASSUMPTION Group </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader as the ‘goal’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul>2
  25. 25. Basic Assumption Group <ul><li>Fight/flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can force you to lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or we ’ll run away </li></ul></ul>Dependency Who is our leader? Hint “It’s not me” Pairing Those two have something They will produce our saviour/leader!
  26. 26. Group Engagement <ul><li>Detached </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul>
  27. 27. Detachment Group Culture <ul><li>The “Flight” in the Fight/Flight response </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions - anger / apathy </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and psychological withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Low ability/willingness to influence group dynamics </li></ul>EXIT
  28. 28. Defensive Group Culture <ul><li>The “Fight” in the Fight/Flight Response </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions - anger /hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Open conflict and criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Low capacity/willingness to positively influence group dynamics </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Group looks to leader for direction and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions – fear embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Members avoid tasks - look to others to run meetings and complete tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Some ability/willingness to influence group dynamics </li></ul>Dependent Group Culture
  30. 30. <ul><li>A “norm of politeness” </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions - hope and despair </li></ul><ul><li>Warm, friendly atmosphere - looking to the future for salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Greater ability/willingness to influence group dynamics </li></ul>Dramatic Group Culture
  31. 31. Dynamic Group Culture <ul><li>Open, honest direct communication </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions – rational, responsible, aware </li></ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek relevant information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tolerate diverse opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>name and manage emotions honestly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greatest ability/willingness by all to positively influence group dynamics </li></ul>
  32. 32. A Life Cycle of Group Development According to Tuckman ’s analysis of research – groups go through a number of phases Each group may spend more or less time in each phase – but the phases occur in a specific order Groups that manage their transitions from phase to phase in a positive and open manner are more likely to have a positive experience – and may do a ‘better’ job However groups that do not do so, can still achieve goals – with less likelihood of having a ‘good’ experience
  33. 33. FORMING entering the space / working out how to act Concerns and actions - reserved, needing to be led, wanting direction, expecting to be told FORMING
  34. 34. STORMING Setting / challenging boundaries STORMING Concerns and actions - conflict, taking the lead or demanding others do so, setting direction/or resisting direction proposed
  35. 35. NORMING NORMING Finding ways to define agreement, Working together agreeably Concerns and actions - collaboration, everyone leading and following, sharing and asking
  36. 36. Concerns and actions - sub groups as more friendly, being with people I like, less concern for the whole SWARMING SWARMING Distraction by groups forces, seeking comfort in the familiar
  37. 37. UN FO RM ING UNFORMING Time and group/external factors creating desire to leave Concerns and actions - losing interest, lack of attention, concern about other/unrelated things
  38. 38. PERFORMING PERFORMING Working together, collaboration at a high level of commitment, quality is paramount Concerns and actions - are we doing the best we all can? No blame. How can we achieve our goal together?
  39. 39. MOURNING Time to end this group, leaving friends/enemies. What did we gain/learn? Concerns and actions - It’s time to part. What happens next? How did we do? I am leaving friends. I am sad MOURNING
  40. 40. Appreciating difference - Valuing diversity
  41. 41. What is a team role? <ul><li>A team role as defined by Dr Meredith Belbin is: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Belbin team roles describe a pattern of behaviour that characterises a person ’s behaviour in relationship to another in helping the team make progress. </li></ul><ul><li>The value of Belbin team-role theory lies in helping an individual or team to benefit from self-knowledge and adjust according to the demands being made by the external situation. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Resource Investigator Develops contacts with the outside world. A source of outside information and ideas. Explores and reports on ideas, developments and other resources from outside the group. Creates and maintains external contacts which may be useful to the team. Negotiates with outside contacts.
  43. 43. The Plant <ul><li>The &quot;ideas person&quot; of the team, the prime source of ideas and innovation. Can play a strategic role such as forward planning. Advances new ideas and strategies, with special attention to major issues. Looks for ways around problems confronting the team. </li></ul>
  44. 44. The Shaper <ul><li>Provides leadership (in the conventional sense of the term) by directing and controlling the team's members. Exerts a strong influence on the way in which the team operates and the objectives it pursues. Directs attention to such matters as setting goals and priorities. Imposes a predetermined shape on the team's operating style.. </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Implementer <ul><li>The backbone of the team in accomplishing detailed and practical outcomes. Is best allowed a considerable amount of direct responsibility, and a principal action role in implementing group decisions. Turns concepts and plans into practical working procedures. Carries out agreed plans systematically and efficiently. </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Monitor Evaluator <ul><li>The &quot;devils advocate&quot;, critiquing the ideas and suggestions offered by team members. Evaluates new plans (which should seldom be implemented against the ME's advice). Analyses problems. Evaluates ideas and suggestions so that the team is better placed to take balanced decisions. </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Team worker <ul><li>Maintains group harmony, member satisfaction, and team spirit to maintain team effectiveness. Usefully fills support positions within a team. There are often several in a team. Supports members in their strengths, for example by building on their suggestions. Underpins members in their shortcomings. Improves communication and fosters team spirit. </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Completer Finisher <ul><li>Attends to detail and follow-up, Maintains a sense of urgency. Most usefully given the role of checking completion of team tasks. Valuable in an emergency. Protects the team from mistakes and omissions. Searches for aspects which require special attention. </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Co-ordinator <ul><li>Provides leadership by co-ordinating the efforts and contributions of team members. Encourages contributions from others, and sums up the team verdict. Often uses a subtle form of leadership. Controls the way in which the team moves towards group objectives. Helps to make best use of the team's resources by recognising the team's strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul>
  50. 50. The Specialist <ul><li>Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes only on a narrow front. Dwells on technicalities. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Parataxic Distortion <ul><li>We tend to distort perceptions we have of others. </li></ul><ul><li>These distortions amount to cognitive errors which occur when we relate to others not on the basis of their real attributes, but chiefly on the basis of the person we see in our fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘personification’ is partly transferred from the past and partly unconsciously manufactured by us under the pressure of our needs </li></ul><ul><li>Put simply – we tend to move towards people who appear to be like people whom we know and like </li></ul><ul><li>This eases discomfort and allows us to manage the fear of new contexts </li></ul>
  52. 52. “ Impostor” Syndrome <ul><li>Feelings of inadequacy that persist when information indicates the opposite is true </li></ul><ul><li>It is experienced internally as chronic self-doubt, and feelings of intellectual fraudulence </li></ul><ul><li>A feeling you are not really a successful, competent, and smart student, you are only posing as one </li></ul><ul><li>Common feelings and thoughts characterizing the imposter syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I feel like a fake” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ My classmates/professors etc. are going to find out I don’t really belong here” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Admissions made a mistake” </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Categories of “Impostor” <ul><li>Feeling like a fake </li></ul><ul><li>Believing success is not deserved, somehow others are deceived into thinking it is </li></ul><ul><li>People who feel this way identify with statements such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can give the impression I am more competent than I really am.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am often afraid others will discover how much I don’t know ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attributing success to luck / external factors </li></ul><ul><li>People who feel this way refer to their achievements by saying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I just got lucky this time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ it was a fluke” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discounting Success </li></ul><ul><li>People who feel this way say </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ it is not a big deal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ it was not important” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I did well because it is an easy class etc.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a hard time accepting compliments </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Espoused and Enacted theories of behaviours <ul><li>What we believe and what we do – do not match </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitators may want to </li></ul><ul><li>‘ rescue ’ participants from ‘ pain ’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ save ’ learners struggling with difficult team interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitators can avoid the paradox of knowing this is real learning yet causing it to cease – BY </li></ul><ul><li>modulating frustration, so that people do not “give up” but work at the edges of their competence </li></ul><ul><li>not intervening to save students but working to help them become independent learners </li></ul>

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