Comparative History

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Comparative History

  1. 1. Comparative History in the Age of the Renaissance: Central and South Asia John Estrella Alexis Feliciano Kate Heaney Class Periwinkle
  2. 2. Politics: Safavid Empire (1501 – 1722) <ul><li>16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Founder: Sufi leader named Isma’il </li></ul><ul><li>Fought frequently with Ottoman empire (west), Mughal Empire (east) and Uzbeks (north) </li></ul><ul><li>Abbas I: greatest Safavid king </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humble; interacted with common folk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened central government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created standing army </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeated Uzbeks and Ottomans, recovering Persian territory and capturing Baghdad </li></ul>
  3. 3. Politics: Mughal Empire (1526 – 1857) <ul><li>Early 16 th to mid - 19 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Effective rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven generations of rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempted to integrate Muslims and Hindus into a united Indian state </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Babur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and Genghis Khan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oust from central Asia, he turned to Delhi Sultanate to satisfy his desire for conquest </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Politics: Major Mughal Rulers <ul><li>Babur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>faced armies of a Rajput confederacy in 1527 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>far outnumbered yet clever stratagem and reckless courage determined his victory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Akbar: the “Great Mughal” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established strong military force and effective administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized all of northern and part of central India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted peace-making policies toward Hindus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened and united Mughal Empire </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Politics: Major Mughal Rulers <ul><li>Shah Jahan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion for building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left great monuments i.e. Taj Mahal and Great Mosque of Delhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His reign marked cultural peak of Mughal rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military expeditions brought empire to brink of bankruptcy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aurangzeb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political and religious intolerance led to its decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excluded Hindus and destroyed their schools and temples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persecutions roused rebellions against Muslim rule </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Geography: Map of Safavid Empire <ul><li>Red: Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Green: Safavid Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Isfahan </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geography: Map of Mughal Empire <ul><li>Pink: Under Akbar (1556 - 1605) </li></ul><ul><li>Purple: Expansion under Shah Jahan (1627 - 1658) and Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Economics: Safavid Empire <ul><li>Economy was never rich and prosperous </li></ul><ul><li>At times successful at trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shahs played a major role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Money came from carpet and leather goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isfahan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constantly at war against the Ottomans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not afford cost of war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>loss of money and the incompetence of the rulers lead to downfall of empire </li></ul>
  9. 9. Economics: Mughal Empire <ul><li>Agriculture was of some importance </li></ul><ul><li>India was known for textile manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Markets for Indian textiles accepted trade from Europe </li></ul>
  10. 10. Religion <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam had spread throughout the region around 632 when Abu Bakr, the first caliph, conquered areas across the Byzantine and Persian empires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 1000, Turkish Muslims invaded predominantly Hindu India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They conquered Hindu armies and set up the Delhi sultanate (1210-1526), which consisted of various Muslim dynasties that ruled the area </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Religion <ul><li>India became part of the Islamic world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam became the major religion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buddhism began to decline in India, partially because many Buddhist monasteries were destroyed </li></ul>
  12. 12. Religion <ul><li>Many Hindus were also killed, contributing to the decline of Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>However, some Hindus whose land now belonged to Muslim officials were offered special protection from persecution if they paid a tax </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually some elements of Hindu culture were incorporated into Muslim culture </li></ul>
  13. 13. Religion <ul><li>Islam continued to be main religion in India after Delhi sultanate had been conquered and Mughal dynasty had begun. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion and land and sea trade routes united the entire area </li></ul><ul><li>Religion spread through the trade routes to different parts of the area </li></ul><ul><li>The Safavid Empire in Iran was also Muslim, meaning that Islam became a major religion in Iran as well </li></ul>
  14. 14. Society: Safavid Empire <ul><li>Began as group of Turkish tribes people of Shiite Sufi descent </li></ul><ul><li>Triangle-formed monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Shah – considered to have divine powers </li></ul><ul><li>Women had considerable freedom and liberty compared to those of different empires </li></ul>Shah (ruler) Appointed Bureaucracy/ Landed Classes Common People
  15. 15. Society: Mughal Empire <ul><li>Akbar brought religious tolerance and art appreciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished discriminatory taxes on Hindus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included non-Muslims in his group of advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As other rulers came to power, religious tolerance diminished </li></ul><ul><li>Men relied on wives for political advice </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned to read and write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked and received salaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were allowed to own land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought in wars </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Science/Technology <ul><li>Very few advancements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly gun and ammunition advancments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder popular in both Empires </li></ul>
  17. 17. Art and Architecture <ul><li>Defined many of the dynasties that ruled in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Provided monuments that would last for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Art also greatly linked to religion </li></ul><ul><li>The Mongol invasion destroyed works of art from before the 13th century </li></ul><ul><li>However, Persian art emerged in part because of the Mongol school in the 14th century </li></ul>
  18. 18. Art and Architecture <ul><li>Incorporated Indian, Persian & Islamic art from the Delhi Sultanate to create new kinds of art </li></ul><ul><li>Probably the most famous monument of the Mughal dynasty was the Taj Mahal, built by the ruler Shan Jahan for his wife in 1632. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Art and Architecture <ul><li>Great monuments left behind in India and Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>During 15th century, Timurid painting incorporated aspects from Chinese art </li></ul><ul><li>During 16th century, mosaic-covered architecture reached its peak </li></ul><ul><li>Safavid dynasty specialties - murals in palaces, ink drawings, single-figure portraits, jewelry, book illustrations </li></ul>
  20. 20. In conclusion… <ul><li>Comparing the European Renaissance to the occurrences of Central and South Asia, both faced various political situations that primarily was the cause of religious differences. Not only that, but in each region grew great cultural aspects such as art and architecture. Although both regions are quite different, they significantly influenced the nations there today. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Questions?
  22. 22. Works Cited <ul><li>Blanchette, Mike, Anna Hinohara, and Corey Van Der Wal. &quot;The Safavid Empire.&quot; Menloschool . 4 Nov. 2007 <http://sun.menloschool.org/~sportman/westernstudies/first/1718/2000/cblock/safavid/index.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulliet, Richard W., Pamela K. Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulliet, Richard W., Pamela K. Crossley , Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples: a Global History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Delhi: The City of Delhi.&quot; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. © 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. © 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 06 Nov. 2007 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0857722.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Delhi Sultanate.&quot; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. </li></ul><ul><li>© 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. © 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 06 Nov. 2007 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0815061.html>. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Works Cited <ul><li>Ellis, Elizabeth Graynor, and Anthony Esler. World History: the Modern Era . Boston: Prentice Hall, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;History of the Moghul Emperors.&quot; WriteSpirit . 4 Nov. 2007 <http://www.writespirit.net/stories_tales/stories_by_sri_chinmoy/the_moghul_emperors/history_of_the_moghul_emperors>. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Architecture . 4 Nov. 2007 <http://www.islamicarchitecture.org/dynasties/safavids.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>L. Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples: a Global History . New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Mughal.&quot; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. © 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. © 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 06 Nov. 2007 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0834335.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Mughal art and architecture.&quot; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. © 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. © 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 06 Nov. 2007 http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0834336.html </li></ul><ul><li>Lagod, Stephanie, Lara Vanyo, and Griffin Camper. &quot;Safavid Empire.&quot; Menloschool . 4 Nov. 2007 <http://sun.menloschool.org/~sportman/westernstudies/first/1718/2000/eblock/safavid/index.html>. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Persian art and architecture: The Mongol and Timurid Periods.&quot; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. © 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. © 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 06 Nov. 2007 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0860317.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Persian art and architecture: The Safavid Dynasty.&quot; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. © 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. © 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 06 Nov. 2007 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0860318.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Safavid Empire.&quot; Verizon . 4 Nov. 2007 <http://mysite.verizon.net/jdehullu/islam/more_029.htm>. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Society and Culture in the Mughal Empire.&quot; Menloschool . 4 Nov. 2007 <http://sun.menloschool.org/~sportman/westernstudies/first/1718/2000/gblock/mughal/societyandculture.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;South Asian arts.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 Nov. 2007  <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-65282> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Timurids.&quot; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. © 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. © 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 06 Nov. 2007 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0848796.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Upshur, Jiu-Hwa L., Janice J. Terry, James P. Holoka, Richard D. Goff, and George H. Cassar. World History Fourth Edition . Belmot, California: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2002. </li></ul>

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