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C. The new government did not know how to deal with economic problems. 1. 46% unemployment and inflation 2. New political parties emerged (social democrats, Catholic Center Party, Communists, Fascist nationalists)
German Inflation Chart: 1919-1923
In 1919, how many German marks equaled 1 U.S. dollar?
In 1921, how many German marks equaled 1 U.S. dollar?
1 4,200,000,000,000 Nov. 16, 1923 1 1,300,000,000,000 Nov. 15, 1923 1 1,300,000,000 Nov. 1, 1923 1 1,000,000 Aug. 1923 1 160,000 Jul. 1923 1 7,000 Jan. 1923 1 400 1922 1 75 1921 1 4.2 1919 U.S. Dollars Marks Date
II. Who was Adolf Hitler and how did he become so powerful?
1920 – Joined right-wing political group called ____________________________________________________ - Goal to overturn Treaty of Versailles and combat communism
1923 – Hitler and others jailed for rebellion against Weimar Republic.
C. In jail, Hitler wrote ______________ (My Struggle)
- Idea of a “master race” called Aryans (blonde and blue-eyed)
- Germany was overcrowded and needed ______________.
National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) Mein Kampf lebensraum
D. 1926-1932 – Nazis organized Hitler Youth and BrownShirts - Used propaganda to rally support and blame “enemies” E. 1932 – Nazis won more seats in the German parliament than other parties - Hitler was asked to become chancellor
Hitler’s First Speech to the Reichstag as Chancellor of Germany
F. Once in office, Hitler called for new elections - 6 days before the election, a fire destroyed the _____________ (building where parliament met) - Nazis blamed the communists and won election "You are now witnessing the beginning of a great epoch in German history. . . This fire is the beginning," Hitler told a news reporter at the scene. Reichstag
On March 24, 1933, the Reichstag passed the Law for Terminating the Suffering of People and Nation, also known as the Enabling Law. Since the Nazis had only been able to gain a 44% plurality in the Reichstag in the March 5, 1933 elections, Hitler looked for another way to establish a full dictatorship.
Herman Göring--later to become the head of Germany's armed forces--declared that there was no further need for State governments. So over the next few weeks, in each of the legal Weimar states the local Nazi organizations instigated riots and then summarily replaced the elected state government by appointed Nazi Reich Commissioners to quell the disorder.
The Nazi legislators sponsored the Enabling Act, a bill that gave Hitler dictatorial powers for four years. To make sure the law passed, the Nazis imprisoned Communists and created propaganda campaigns to influence public opinion. Just days before the vote on the bill, the Nazis held a staged ceremony in Potsdam in which Hitler was depicted as a conservative national leader, not the head of a radical party. Hitler promised that the Enabling Act would only benefit the German people.
Newsreel: Hitler Assumes Full Dictatorial Control Over Germany