Cliamte Change and the Himalayan HIghlanders, by Dipak Gyawali

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Cliamte Change and the Himalayan HIghlanders, by Dipak Gyawali

  1. 1. Climate Change and the Himalayan Highlanders A Toad’s Eye View of the Problem and Responses Dipak Gyawali Nepal Water Conservation Foundation, GPO Box 3971, Kathmandu, Nepal e-mail: dipakgyawali@ntc.net.np
  2. 2. 18th August 2008 Embankment Breach Embankments in Nepal Breach Point Western Embankment Chatara Eastern in Nepal 17 km Embankment Barrage in Nepal 31 kmKosi River Laukahi CanalEmbankments in Bihar East West Highway Nepal-India Bihar border Kosi flowing after breach Ganga Schematic conceptualization Ajaya Dixit
  3. 3. East West Highway in Nepal Road in Bihar Railway Embankment Skewed Bridge in Bihar
  4. 4. Performance of Kosi ProjectIrrigation Designed 325,000 ha (West) and 347,000 ha (East). Maximum achievements so far are: 7.79 % in 2006/2007 and 29.93 % in 1983/1984Flood Mitigation Designed to protect 214,000 ha. 4,15,000 ha is under permanent water-loggingHydropower Much lower than the design capacity 20 MW
  5. 5. Sediment yieldDesigned 700m3/km2/yearAfter 1993 floods 38095 m3/km21994 83333 m3/km2Average (1981-1994) 12000 m3/km2/year
  6. 6. Mass Wasting Bed Load, Palung 1993
  7. 7. Temperature ChangeNepalIndia
  8. 8. Rainfall
  9. 9. Watershed function Green water August spring July spring Peak monsoon Foothill spring Foothill Monsoon buffer Early spring Blue Dry period water water levelBlue water
  10. 10. Managing monsoon runoff byDrainage and ponds
  11. 11. The results Active gully 1989 Stable gully 1991
  12. 12. Core messagePonds helped reduce the peak of the monsoonhydrograph and save water for winter in the system.The following were the visible benefits – Landslide stabilization – Gully stabilization – Green water preservation – Increased maize production by 50%
  13. 13. Plural Definition of the Climate ProblemPopulation - too many people is the Bureaucracies/Stateproblem: Solution is to manage itthrough regulation.Neruvian Population Climate Change Market Pricing Profligacy Social Movements/Greens Pricing is the problem: solution is to remove control remove control Profligacy is the problem: and subsidies. solution is to reign in our greed. Gandhian Regan/ Thatcheran Adapted from Rayner and Malone (1998)
  14. 14. Outrageous Conclusions from Uncomfortable Knowledge• Water or climate change – they are all wicked problems with nested layers of more trouble that won’t go away soon• They can be dealt with only by uncomfortable knowledge generated from a “toad’s eye view”, i.e. adaptation based more on household risk perception than on higher level policy prescriptions• Clumsy solutions from not just neat procedural hierarchism, but also informal market individualism and civic egalitarianism.• It requires rethinking sustainability as understood by informal households defining their sutainability over generations.

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