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Do I know you CO2?
Teacher´s manual for the development of
activities related to the project:
Promotion of scientific cult...
Teacher´s notes:

Objectives:
The activities in this document have been designed to
awaken the interest of children in sci...
Activity 1
Discovering CO2

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 1: Discovering CO2
Objective: Discovering the CO2 molecule and its activity in the planet
CO2 is an invisible gas...
Activity 1: Discovering CO2
Objective: Discovering the CO2 molecule and how it is created
Materials:
1.2: The
Cardboard wi...
Activity 2
CO2 Experiments I

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 2 Discovering CO2
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2
2.1: Fireman for a day I

Materials:
Bowl
Sodium bica...
Activity 2 Discovering CO2
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2
2.1: Fireman for a day II
Classroom arrangement:
Stud...
Activity 2 Discovering CO2
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2
Classroom arrangement:
Students are divided in to gro...
Activity 3
CO2 Experiments II

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 3 CO2 Experiments II
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 - CO2 is invisible and denser than air

3.1: Bubbl...
Activity 3 CO2 Experiments II
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 - CO2 dissolves into water and is acidic
3.2: Magi...
Activity 3 CO2 Experiments II
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 - CO2 is a gas and it tends to expand!

3.3: The m...
Activity 4
CO2 Experiments III

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 4 CO2 Experiments III
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2- CO2 changes from a solid state to a gas without ...
Activity 4 CO2 Experiments III
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2- CO2 changes from a solid state to a gas without ...
Activity 4 CO2 Experiments III
Objective: Learning the properties of CO2- CO2 changes from a solid state to a gas without ...
Activity 5
The Greenhouse Effect

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect
Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas
Pre-activity E...
Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect
Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas

5.2: The Gree...
Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect
Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas

5.3: The Gree...
Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect
Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas

5.4: Reflecti...
Activity 6
The Greenhouse Effect II

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 6 The Greenhouse Effect
Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas

6.1: The gree...
Activity 6 The Greenhouse Effect
Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas

6.2: The gree...
Activity 6 The Greenhouse Effect
Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas

6.3: Puzzle
M...
Activity 7
Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs I

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process

7.1: Geological Storage mock-up
Mat...
Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process

Activity:
Pour white sand into the ...
Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process
Activity:

Make a hole with a straw,...
Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process

7.1: Geological Storage Mock-up

Th...
Activity 8
Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs II

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 8 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: Learning about the geotrapping mechanisms of CO2 in the reservoir
rock

8.1...
Activity 8 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: Learning about the geotrapping mechanisms of CO2 in the reservoir
rock

8.1...
Activity 9
Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs III

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: learning about differences between rocks

9.1: Carbonate and siliciclastic ...
Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: learning about the differences between rocks

9.2: Porous and nonporous roc...
Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: learning about the differences between rocks

9.2: Porous and nonporous roc...
Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs
Objective: learning the differences between rocks

9.2: Porous and nonporous rocks

Wh...
Annex II
Making Your Own Lab-coat

Fold

You can make your own scientists lab-coat with just a big and white plastic bag,
...
Thanks for your attention
Daniel Fernandez-Poulussen
Business Development Unit
CO2 Geological Storage Programme
Tel.+34 98...
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Do I Know You CO2? (English)

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Transcript of " Do I Know You CO2? (English)"

  1. 1. Do I know you CO2? Teacher´s manual for the development of activities related to the project: Promotion of scientific culture and innovation in the population of the Merindad del Río Ubierna Municipality in collaboration with CIUDEN Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  2. 2. Teacher´s notes: Objectives: The activities in this document have been designed to awaken the interest of children in science, and more specifically in CO2 and climate change. Through these funny activities, students are introduced to the properties of CO2, and to concepts of reducing CO2 emissions to curb the greenhouse effect through small changes in our daily lives. Furthermore, students will learn how CO2 geological storage works. Materials: The activities can be easily adapted by teachers to suit groups of different ages. The materials used should all be easy and cheap to buy. Each activity is scheduled to last for approx. 55 minutes, although this will vary depending on the age and ability of the students involved. Classroom arrangement: All the activities are based on the poster exposition called “Discover CO2 with us” developed by Ciuden´s “Ene” National Museum of Energy. It is recommended that you decorate the classroom with the posters from the exposition and keep them visible during the development of the activities. They will be a support for the teacher and will encourage the visual memory of the children. For each experiment, it is recommended that the children wear a lab coat, which they can make themselves with a white plastic bag (see annex). In some of the experiments, the teacher will be responsible for handling the materials which could be dangerous for the children (candles, dry ice, etc). It will be the teacher´s responsibility to define which experiments are suitable for the age and experience of their students There are warnings for the compulsory use of protective equipment such as eye goggles, gloves and tongs throughout the document. Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  3. 3. Activity 1 Discovering CO2 Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  4. 4. Activity 1: Discovering CO2 Objective: Discovering the CO2 molecule and its activity in the planet CO2 is an invisible gas. It is what we exhale, what plants use for breathing during the day, and the gas which is present in Coca-Cola and other fizzy drinks. CO2 gas is made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. Atoms are like really tiny balls - so tiny that they are impossible to see using a microscope! But we will make a large model of a CO2 molecule using plastic balls and toothpicks… 1.1: Model of a CO2 Molecule 3 plastic foam balls (2x 5cm & 1x6 cm), toothpicks, paint, permanent marker Development: Paint two plastic foam balls (like ping pong balls) one colour and one slightly bigger ball another colour. Only use a small amount of paint to make sure the ‘atoms’ dry quickly. For painting, we can poke them with a toothpick and stick them in a lump of plasticine to create a stand while they dry. CO2 is made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. Draw the letter ‘O’ on the small balls and the letter ‘C’ on the bigger ball. On the C ball we can draw a smiley face on the back! We will connect the balls with toothpicks leaving a centimeter or so of the toothpick (or bond) in view, the two small balls should be on each side and the big one in the middle. We can use a drop of glue if needed. Now we have a CO2 molecule. If we hang all the molecules from the ceiling at different heights using transparent thread, we can see how they move with the wind. Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  5. 5. Activity 1: Discovering CO2 Objective: Discovering the CO2 molecule and how it is created Materials: 1.2: The Cardboard with the letters “C” and “O” (“O” boards should be half the size of the “C” boards), music player Classroom arrangement: In a large classroom or gym, draw a chimney (or a chalk circle to symbolise a chimney) in the corner. CO2 Molecule Game Explanation: When fossil fuels are burnt in power stations, carbon atoms are released from the chimney and the oxygen atoms present in the air catch carbon to form CO2. Activity: Explain to students that they are going to turn into atoms. Some will be carbon atoms and others oxygen ones. Hand out the ‘C ‘and ‘O’ boards to the students making sure there is always at least one extra atom - these participants will be eliminated from the game because they won´t be able to form CO2 molecules. In the beginning, “C” students will be placed in the chimney/stack and the “O” students will be all around the classroom. When the music starts, all the “C” students will start running around the room (being careful not to crash!) The idea is for all the “C” atoms to be moving chaotically while the music is being played. When the music stops, they shall form CO2 molecules by holding hands with the “O” atoms as in the picture example above. The children that aren´t able to form correct CO2 molecules will be out. The game continues with further rounds, but at every round the students boards are changed to make sure there is always one or two extra atoms who won´t be able to form CO2 molecules. The game continues until only three children are left - they win the game.
  6. 6. Activity 2 CO2 Experiments I Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  7. 7. Activity 2 Discovering CO2 Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 2.1: Fireman for a day I Materials: Bowl Sodium bicarbonate Vinegar Candles Lighter Classroom arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment (except the lighter which will be kept by the teacher). WARNING: Beware of fire! This experiment will need to be adapted to a simple demonstration for younger children. Only a responsible adult should be allowed to light candles and students must always be monitored when working near lit candles. Activity: Put some bicarbonate in a bowl. Place some candles on the bicarbonate and light the candles. Next pour vinegar onto the bicarbonate, CO2 will be generated that should extinguish the flames on the candles... CO2 is a great fire extinguisher! Scientific Explanation Once you mix vinegar with bicarbonate, CO2 is generated. CO2 displaces the oxygen. It is impossible to have fire if there is no oxygen this is why the candle flame gets extinguished!
  8. 8. Activity 2 Discovering CO2 Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 2.1: Fireman for a day II Classroom arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment. Materials: Tea bag Sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate soda) Vinegar Flask (a half-litre plastic bottle is ok too) WARNING: This experiment can be messy! Activity: Pour a small amount of vinegar into a flask or a half litre plastic bottle. Carefully open and fill the tea bag with the bicarbonate soda, tying it tightly with the thread of the teabag. Add the teabag to the flask of vinegar - the extinguisher will start bubbling and the CO2 will rise out of the bottle like a real fire extinguisher. (To get more bubbling add more vinegar). You have made our own fire extinguisher! Scientific Explanation When you mix vinegar and bicarbonate, a chemical reaction takes place and CO2 is generated, creating many bubbles. The CO2 displaces oxygen. It is impossible to have fire if there is no oxygen that is why CO2 is used to make real extinguishers.
  9. 9. Activity 2 Discovering CO2 Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 Classroom arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment (except the lighter which will be kept by the teacher). WARNING: Beware of fire! This experiment will need to be adapted to a simple demonstration for younger children. Only a responsible adult should be allowed to light candles and students must always be monitored when working with the lit candles. Activity: Half fill the flask or bottle with vinegar. Add a teaspoon of bicarbonate and the mixture will start bubbling (but less than with the previous experiment). Emphasise to students that the CO2 is there, even though it is invisible. In order to prove it, they can hold the bottle close to a lit candle. Hold the bottle/ flask close to the candle like in the picture opposite – making sure that the liquid remains in the bottle. As the invisible CO2 moves little by little out of the bottle. The candle will go out magically. You have just made another home-made extinguisher! Materials: Candles Sodium bicarbonate Vinegar Flask (a half-litre plastic bottle is ok too) Scientific Explanation When you mix vinegar and bicarbonate, a chemical reaction takes place and CO2 is created. By holding the neck of the bottle next to the candle, the CO2 present in the upper part of the mixture will fall smoothly over the flame, putting out the candle. CO2 is heavier than air, so it tends to fall.
  10. 10. Activity 3 CO2 Experiments II Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  11. 11. Activity 3 CO2 Experiments II Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 - CO2 is invisible and denser than air 3.1: Bubble Leak Classroom arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment. Materials: Sodium bicarbonate Vinegar Soap-bubbles 5 litre water container with its upper part cut, in order to have a transparent and broad container Activity: Pour vinegar up to 1cm height from the bottom in a high, big and transparent container. Then, spread bicarbonate all over the bottom of the container. This reaction will generate CO2. It will start bubbling. Once you try to make soap-bubbles in the container, you´ll see that they don´t reach the bottom, CO2 pushes them up and towards the walls of the container. CO2 might be invisible, but it is there! Scientific Explanation The CO2 is filling the container little by little. When the soap-bubbles fall over the CO2, CO2 displaces them sideways, so they don´t reach to the bottom.
  12. 12. Activity 3 CO2 Experiments II Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 - CO2 dissolves into water and is acidic 3.2: Magic CO2lours Materials: Lombardy cabbage Flask or a half-litre water bottle Mineral water Sodium bicarbonate Straw Other acid and base (alkali)substances (eg. lemon, milk, vinegar). Preparation: Boil some Lombardy (red) Cabbage leaves 10 minutes prior to the experiment. Drain the water the cabbage was boiling in into a flask – it will be a blue coloured liquid. The liquid (or solution) is an excellent pH indicator. Leave the solution to chill. Activity: Fill ¼ of the flask with mineral water and add a couple of spoonfuls of the blue solution. If the water is too dark, it must be diluted until it becomes transparent and a violet colour. The teacher should add a pinch of bicarbonate to the water. It is important to add only a really small amount or it will become difficult to see the effect. Mix the solution until it turns greenish blue. Put some straws in the container and 2-3 people have to blow to make bubbles in the water. After some minutes, the water will change back to a violet colour again. Scientific Explanation The water from the Lombardy Cabbage is a pH indicator. When you blow air through the straw, CO2 is introduced to the solution. The CO2 is dissolved in water and makes it more acid, this is why the water becomes blue. This is how we know CO2 is acidic. Try the same experiment with other acid substances such as lemon juice or vinegar, which will turn the water different shades of blue, and base (alkali) substances, such as milk or ammonia, which turn it green.
  13. 13. Activity 3 CO2 Experiments II Objective: Learning the properties of CO2 - CO2 is a gas and it tends to expand! 3.3: The magic balloon Materials: Vinegar Sodium bicarbonate A flask or a half-litre water bottle Balloons A funnel. Activity: Fill the bottom of the flask/bottle with approx. 1cm of vinegar. Blow up and then deflate the balloon to soften it. Pour a couple of spoonfuls of bicarbonate in the balloon – use a funnel to make it easier. Fit the balloon around the bottleneck and then let the bicarbonate fall into the container. You will see the balloon swelling as if by magic! Classroom arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment. Scientific Explanation When you mix vinegar and bicarbonate, a chemical reaction takes place and CO2 is created. The CO2 is a gas and it will tend to fill all the available space, so it will escape from the bottle and fill the balloon.
  14. 14. Activity 4 CO2 Experiments III Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  15. 15. Activity 4 CO2 Experiments III Objective: Learning the properties of CO2- CO2 changes from a solid state to a gas without being a liquid. 4.1: Mystic Mist Materials: Big bowl 3 litres of hot water (or enough to fill the bowl) Dry-ice (pellets or small-cubes) Thermal gloves Plastic tongs. Preparation: Dry-ice is easy to buy on the internet. 5kgs is enough for the development of this activity with 25 children. Activity: Pour 3 litres of hot water into a big bowl, and then add ¼ kg of small bits of dry ice using thermal gloves and tongs. The hotter the water, the more spectacular the effect, but be careful or you will get burned! The mist generated will spread all around the room. To create more mist, add more dry ice. Scientific Explanation CO2 has a special skill – it can change from a solid (dry ice) to a gas without becoming a liquid. This skill or ‘property’ is called sublimation. When CO2sublimates a mystic mist is generated! WARNING: Dry ice is CO2 in a solid state and it is VERY cold -78ºC! So cold that it can burn! You need thermal gloves and tongs to handle it and avoid direct contact with the skin. Dry ice should only be handled by responsible adults.
  16. 16. Activity 4 CO2 Experiments III Objective: Learning the properties of CO2- CO2 changes from a solid state to a gas without being a liquid. 4.2: Huge Bubbles Materials: A big circular bowl Warm water Dry ice A plastic cup Dishwater detergent Wide and flat string - 2 times the length of the bowl diameter. Classroom Arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Children are allowed to try making bubbles, but they should not handle the dry ice. Scientific Explanation CO2 has the property of changing from a solid to a gas without being a liquid, that is to say, it sublimates. During this process, it tends to fill all the available space - swelling the soap bubble. Activity: Pour warm water into the bowl and some dry ice bits. The water will start bubbling and generating a light mist. Fill a plastic cup with ¼ detergent and ¼ with water and mix it together. You are going to spread the mixture across the bowl. Immerse the string in the plastic cup with the mixture. Hold the string tightly, and move it carefully from side to side over the edge of the bowl, a bubble will be generated, covering the bowl. If you achieve that, the bubble will grow due to the effect of the released CO2 once dry ice is sublimated. Eventually it will explode creating a spectacular cascade! WARNING: Dry ice is CO2 in a solid state and it is VERY cold -78ºC! So cold that it can burn! You need thermal gloves and tongs to handle it and avoid direct contact with the skin. Dry ice should only be handled by responsible adults.
  17. 17. Activity 4 CO2 Experiments III Objective: Learning the properties of CO2- CO2 changes from a solid state to a gas without being a liquid. 4.3: Bubble cascade Materials: Half litre of water Dry ice Detergent A high and narrow container (like a bottle of water with the top cut off). Preparation: Dry-ice is easy to buy on the internet. 5kgs is enough for the development of this activity with 25 children. Scientific Explanation CO2 can change from a solid to a gas without becoming a liquid, that is to say, it sublimates. During this process, a beautiful bubble cascade is easy to generate if you add soapy water to the CO2! Activity: Fill the container with half a litre of water. Add three spoonfuls of detergent. Then, pour some bits of dry ice and the bubbles will appear and won´t stop growing! You have just created a CO2 bubble cascade! WARNING: Dry ice is CO2 in a solid state and it is VERY cold -78ºC! So cold that it can burn! You need thermal gloves and tongs to handle it and avoid direct contact with the skin. Dry ice should only be handled by responsible adults.
  18. 18. Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  19. 19. Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas Pre-activity Explanation: With the help of a poster, it will be explained that the greenhouse effect is caused by a series of gases, like CO2, which are present in the atmosphere. These gases allow the Sun’s heat energy to pass through to the Earth. The Sun’s rays are reflected on the Earth’s surface and some of their heat energy bounces back to the atmosphere. There, the greenhouse gases (like CO2) block part of the rays from escaping back into space – trapping some of the Sun’s heat energy on earth to make the earth a comfortable temperature for life. BUT… recent Human activities like burning coal, oil and gas for electricity, transport and fuel, deforestation, fires and sea water contamination have all changed the natural CO2 cycle, so that much more CO2 than we need is going into our atmosphere! This extra CO2 is trapping extra heat energy in our atmosphere and warming the planet too much. CO2 is needed for life, but an excess of CO2 in the atmosphere can be very harmful. 5.1: The Greenhouse Effect Game - part I Materials: Giant poster with the word SUN Giant poster with the word EARTH Tape or something to mark the line between the two sides Face paints Activity: Each student is given a role: 5 of them will play the role of HEAT (paint a sun on their hands or face). 10 of them will play the role of CO2 (paint a molecule on their hands or faces). The number of students playing the role of CO2 should always be double the number playing the role of HEAT. The HEAT students start the game on the side of the room with the SUN poster - the sun produces heat, which arrives at the earth’s surface. The HEAT children run from side to side showing that solar heating goes from the sun to the Earth and that the Earth reflects it sending it again to the space. Preparation: A poster with the word ‘SUN’ is placed on one side of the classroom, and a poster with the word ‘EARTH’ is placed on the opposite side. A line is drawn down the middle of the room, dividing the two halves. Q: What would happen if there wasn´t any CO2 in the atmosphere? A: The Sun’s radiation would escape and the Earth would be really cold, life would be impossible!
  20. 20. Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas 5.2: The Greenhouse Effect Game – part II Materials: Giant poster with the word SUN Giant poster with the word EARTH Tape or something to mark the line between the two sides Face paints Preparation: A poster with the word ‘SUN’ is placed on one side of the classroom, and a poster with the word ‘EARTH’ is placed on the opposite side. A line is drawn down the middle of the room, dividing the two halves. Activity: CO2 students will be placed in the centre of the room, with their back towards the Sun poster. The HEAT students will have to repeat their course from the Sun to the Earth, but this time the CO2 students will try to catch the HEAT students on their way back to the Sun - few of them will be able to escape! Q: What happens when there is CO2 in the atmosphere? A: Part of the Sun’s heat energy (radiation) is trapped on Earth – without this there would be nothing living on Earth!
  21. 21. Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas 5.3: The Greenhouse Effect Game - part III Materials: Giant poster with the word SUN Giant poster with the word EARTH Tape or something to mark the line between the two sides Face paints Preparation: A poster with the word ‘SUN’ is placed on one side of the classroom, and a poster with the word ‘EARTH’ is placed on the opposite side. A line is drawn down the middle of the room, dividing the two halves. Activity: To introduce the concept of global warming, all the CO2 students are placed in the centre of the room. Then, they are asked what would happen if there was more CO2 added to the Earth’s atmosphere... Add more students to the CO2 group, leaving the same number, or less, playing the role of HEAT. The more CO2 there is, the more HEAT students are trapped – this is how the ‘greenhouse effect’ creates global warming. Q. What happens when there is too much CO2 in the atmosphere? A. Heat can not escape back to Space, it gets trapped by the CO2, and the Earth’s temperature slowly rises until it gets too hot, making conditions on Earth difficult to support life.
  22. 22. Activity 5 The Greenhouse Effect Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas 5.4: Reflections on the Greenhouse Effect Materials: Posters with basic information on the “consequences of the rise of CO2 concentration”, the “technology and economics of CO2” or the “CO2 at home” Activity: In order to finish the activity on the greenhouse effect, we will explain the contents of the posters related to CO2 emissions. After that, students can take their fact sheets home, including their drawing activities. Discussion Questions: What is happening in the planet? What emits CO2? Which things have CO2? How can we save CO2 emissions at home?
  23. 23. Activity 6 The Greenhouse Effect II Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  24. 24. Activity 6 The Greenhouse Effect Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas 6.1: The greenhouse effect in a bottle Materials: 2 thermometers 2 bottles of still mineral water 1 bottle of sparkling water Reading lamp. Classroom arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment. Activity: Take two bottles of water - one still and one sparkling water. Both bottles should have the same amount of water. Add a thermometer to each bottle and tap them until they reach the same temperature. If there is any difference, then record the starting temperature of each bottle. Point the lamp towards the bottles – ideally you would use one lamp for each bottle – but if only one lamp is available try to make sure that both bottles are receiving equal amounts of light. After approximately 40 mins, you should see that the sparkling water (which contains CO2) has increased its temperature. Scientific Explanation The CO2 in the sparkling water traps the heat from the lamp, just as happens in the atmosphere!
  25. 25. Activity 6 The Greenhouse Effect Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas 6.2: The greenhouse effect in a glass Materials: 2 thermometers 2 transparent drinking glasses Mineral water Reading lamp Big transparent bowl. Activity: Half fill two glasses with water and expose them to the sun (close to a window or outdoors - if it is cloudy you will need a reading lamp). Add a thermometer to each glass for some time, then record the temperature of the water. Next, cover one of the glasses with a transparent bowl. Wait about 40 minutes. The water of the covered glass will be warmer than the other. Classroom arrangement: Students are divided in to groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment. Scientific Explanation The transparent bowl simulates the greenhouse effect caused by CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere – they act like a greenhouse retaining the heat from the sun. . You can start to prepare the next activity while you are waiting for the water to increase in temperature...
  26. 26. Activity 6 The Greenhouse Effect Objective: Learning about CO2’s role in the atmosphere as a Greenhouse Gas 6.3: Puzzle Materials: Backing foam or card Scissors Glue Glue spreader Colour pencils Printed puzzle in A-3 format Activity: Colour in the printed puzzle then paste it to the backing foam or card using glue. A very thin layer of glue should be carefully spread all over the back of the poster. Once it is dry, cut out the puzzle pieces, being sure to stick to the dotted lines! You can keep the jigsaw pieces in a zip bag once they are cut out to make sure you don´t lose them.
  27. 27. Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs I Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  28. 28. Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process 7.1: Geological Storage mock-up Materials: Different coloured plasticine Transparent tupperware container White sand Newspaper Straws Plastic syringe that fits in the straw Coloured oil and water. Classroom arrangement: In order to explain how geological storage works put posters of storage images where you can see different layers of rock underground up in the classroom. Divide students into groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment. Activity: CO2 is created when fossil fuels (coal/oil/gas) are burned. Scientists have found ways to capture and remove the CO2 from the smoke produced when fossil fuels are burned in power stations or in other large industrial sites. This CO2 can be transported (usually by pipeline) to a geological store deep underground. Geological storage describes storing CO2 in a natural rock formation more than 1000 metres below ground. In order to securely store CO2, these rock formations (or reservoirs) have to be made up of a reservoir rock, which is porous and will often contain very salty water (brine) or sometimes oil or gas, and a seal or cap rock, which is impermeable and above the porous rock – acting like a seal. When CO2 is injected into a well, more than 1000 metres deep into the ground, the porous rock absorbs it like a sponge and the seal rock, which is impermeable, keeps the CO2 stored there, preventing it from coming back to the atmosphere and harming the environment. Over a long time, some of the CO2 will turn into a carbonate rock like the White Cliffs of Dover.
  29. 29. Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process Activity: Pour white sand into the transparent container until it is approximately one third full of its height. Drop in some water and mix until the texture is similar to beach sand. Shape the sand into a small mountain the centre, so the profile view is like a wave. Cut a bit of the newspaper of a size slightly bigger than the section of the container and put it over the sand. Mould the plasticine and stretch it until you have a piece similar in size of the sand section and place it over the paper. You have to make sure that it is attached to the walls of the container by pushing it up with the fingers. You can add more plasticine layers of different colours over it, until the container. Is full. These coloured layers to represent the different layers of rock. If you make the top layer green to represent the surface of the Earth - perhaps you can add small trees to it? You should make sure that all these layers are also pushed up tight against the container walls.
  30. 30. Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process Activity: Make a hole with a straw, crossing all the layers until reaching the sand. The hole should be made ion one side of the sand mountain close to the wall of the container so you can see the results. Discard this straw as it will be full of plasticine. Take another straw and place it in the same hole. Insert straw bendy end first, a few centimetres down. Put some plasticine around the straw entrance to seal the area between them. Fill the syringe with coloured water and inject it several times through the straw until the sand is saturated with water. Then, fill the syringe with oil, preferably coloured, and inject it; we will need to inject for several times to see the effect. After a time, we will see the oil bubbles located in the upper part of the sand with the plasticine keeping them trapped there.. Scientific Explanation Oil, like CO2, is lighter than water. The reservoir rock (sand) is saturated in water, so the oil will tend to rise above it. The seal or cap rock (plasticine) prevents the CO2 (oil) to move upwards.
  31. 31. Activity 7 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: Learning about the CO2 Storage Process 7.1: Geological Storage Mock-up The oil in this experiment represents CO2, the plasticine is the seal or cap rock, and the sand the reservoir rock. What has happened? Why did the oil migrate upwards to the area below the plasticine? Why does it not escape?
  32. 32. Activity 8 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs II Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  33. 33. Activity 8 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: Learning about the geotrapping mechanisms of CO2 in the reservoir rock 8.1: Geological Storage mock-up II Materials: Small bottle of water Foam balls Water Oil Colouring. Pre-activity Explanation: When CO2 is injected into a reservoir rock, it has two immediate ways of getting trapped: The seal or cap rock creates a physical barrier preventing CO2 from migrating upwards. Capillary forces mean the CO2 molecules get trapped in the tiny rock pores. We will imagine that the foam balls are mineral grains of a rock. Oil will act as CO2 and water will simulate the brine filling the pores of the rock in a saline aquifer. Classroom arrangement: In order to explain how geological storage works put posters of storage images where you can see different layers of rock underground up in the classroom. Divide students into groups. A lab-coat should be worn for this activity (see appendix 1). Each group will have their own set of materials for the experiment.
  34. 34. Activity 8 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: Learning about the geotrapping mechanisms of CO2 in the reservoir rock 8.1: Geological Storage mock-up II Activity: Fill the bottle to the top with foam balls. Fill ¾ of the bottle with coloured water, using food colouring. Fill the remaining space with oil, until the bottle is full. Tightly close the bottle and wash it with soap. Observe what happens. Oil will simulate the behaviour of CO2 in the rock, the foam balls are the rock grains. Once the bottle is turned you will see the oil bubbles accumulate in the upper part of the bottle, but the bottle cap acts like the seal rock, preventing it from leaking out. There are other oil drops that remain between the balls; they are being trapped by capillary forces just like the CO2 in the reservoir rock. TIP: If you use coloured oil the effect will be more obvious. What happens to the CO2 (oil) once it is injected in the reservoir rock? What will migrate upwards and end up in the upper part of the rock given that it is lighter than water? Will it leak? NO, because the seal rock (bottle and bottle cap) prevents it from escaping. How is CO2 trapped? 1. The seal or cap rock prevents it from escaping. 2. CO2 bubbles remain trapped in the rock pores by capillary forces (they get stuck).
  35. 35. Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs III Fundación Ciudad de la Energía
  36. 36. Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: learning about differences between rocks 9.1: Carbonate and siliciclastic rocks Materials: Different rocks like marble, granite, sandstone, shale (you could try and collect these during a nature walk?) Lemon juice Vinegar Juice squeezer Dropper Glasses A glass fragment. Classroom arrangement: Encourage students to go for a walk and pick up rocks with different colours and textures. You should be prepared with some rock samples in case you can’t find good ones while out in the field. Once back in the classroom, split into groups and provide materials for each group. Activity: Pick some rock samples during the walk. Make sure students are choosing different ones, it doesn´t matter if they are small in size. Once in the classroom, wash and dry the rocks. Prepare an acid solution by squeezing lemons and adding vinegar. 3 parts of lemon juice per one of vinegar. With a dropper, pour the mixed solution on to the rocks. Carbonate rocks will cause the solution to start bubbling. Rocks mainly composed of quartz (siliciclastic rocks), will scratch the glass. Which group has more siliciclastic rocks? And carbonates? Which ones have more carbonates (the ones that produce more bubbles)? Scientific Explanation The carbonate rocks are rocks which are created from CO2. When you drop an acid on them you will see how it dissolves and starts bubbling. Which of your rocks are carbonates?
  37. 37. Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: learning about the differences between rocks 9.2: Porous and nonporous rocks Materials: Rock cores Precision scales Chronometer Water Newspaper Trays Cleaning cloths. Classroom arrangement: Place the precision scales on the table, level and zero them. Share the material among the groups, each group should have one porous and one nonporous rock. Pre-experiment Explanation: Some rocks are very porous – they have many empty spaces between the grains that form the rock. Other rocks are impermeable - they have very few pores or spaces between grains making it a perfect seal. Nature uses the porous rocks for storing water, oil or gas. Humans have then extracted these resources by drilling into these rocks. We can also use these rocks for storing CO2. We are going to see which ones are suitable to become a reservoir and are not.
  38. 38. Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: learning about the differences between rocks 9.2: Porous and nonporous rocks Activity: • Weigh each rock and write the exact weight of each one. • Place two sheets of newspaper in a tray. Add some water until the paper sheets are soaked. • Put the rocks over the paper and start the chronometer for 3 minutes. • In the meantime, take a cleaning cloth, soak it in water and wring out slightly. After three minutes, dry the side of the cylinder that is immersed, putting it on the cleaning cloth for a second and then weigh it. Write the weight. Repeat the procedure with both rocks. • Remember to set the precision scale to zero before weighing each sample. Write the results of all groups on a blackboard. The difference between the weight of a dry sample and the wet one will be the amount of absorbed water. If we compare the weights 2 and 10 minutes after, we can conclude which one has been faster at absorbing water. We can leave the rocks immersed for one hour and weigh them again. The most porous one will be the ones that absorb the most liquid..
  39. 39. Activity 9 Rocks are CO2 Reservoirs Objective: learning the differences between rocks 9.2: Porous and nonporous rocks Which rocks have absorbed more water? Why? The most porous ones absorb more water, because they have more connected, empty spaces (pores). Which rock is the best for CO2 Storage? The one that has absorbed the most liquid. Which rock is the worst for CO2 Storage? The one that has absorbed the least liquid - the most impermeable one. This one would make the best seal! In which rock did the water reach highest? In which one did water raise fastest? The one that has highest capillarity The water level in rock A is higher than in rock B. Rock A has more capillarity (traps more in its pores)
  40. 40. Annex II Making Your Own Lab-coat Fold You can make your own scientists lab-coat with just a big and white plastic bag, scissors and a permanent marker. -Draw lines as indicated on the image to the left. Belt -Cut the bag following the lines. Warning! Only cut the front side of the bag. -If you cut the whole bottom part of the bag it can be used as a belt. -Fold the lapels below the neck. -Draw some pockets, buttons, a pin or whatever you want to make it more realistic.
  41. 41. Thanks for your attention Daniel Fernandez-Poulussen Business Development Unit CO2 Geological Storage Programme Tel.+34 987 456 323 Mobile +34-689 586 637 d.fernandez@ciuden.es Technological Development Plant for CO2 Storage www.ciuden.es Special thanks to: Andrea Pérez, Marta Ferrero, Beatriz Taladrid, Roberto Cuadrado, Montse, Veronica and all the colleagues who have kindly collaborated in the project.
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