Drag pic ture to p lac eholder o r cl i ck i c on to ad d Church-State Relations in Russia A discussion on Western and non-Westernperspectives on the Russian Orthodoxy Church Project by Olivia &
Brief HistoryRus’ converts to Eastern Christianity c. 94515th – early 20th centuries, Russian State(Orthodox Church (ROC)ROC highly influenced cultureIn 1917, Bolsheviks declare separation of church andstate thus destroy church power and influenceCommunism Era, destroyed churches and thousandsof clergy were murdered.The ROC resurges as power after Soviet break up
Book & Central ArgumentMain Book: Garrard, John and Carol. Russian Orthodoxy Resurgent:Faith and power in the new Russia. Princeton University Press, 2009. -WesternArgument: There is a strong link between the ROC and the NewRussian Federation.Russia has never been a secular state.The ROC has influence on policy making and the military.The ROC revived Russian historical heritage of moral, religiousand traditional values.
Main Books Evidence1. Russia has never been a secular state.Evidence: State religion before the Rev. of 1917 after the Rev. no religious freedom after the coup Orthodoxy became the dominate religion2. The ROC has influence on policy making and the military.Evidence: Changes of the laws of 1990 and 1997 faith-based army3 . The ROC revived Russian historical heritage of moral, religious and traditional values.E v i d e n c e : Icons, churches, Saints Faith, State, and People Flag, Anthem, and Holidays
Alternative PerspectiveAlternative Book: Papkova, Irina. The Orthodox Church and RussianPolitics. Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson center, 2011.Argument: Anti-Western. The relationship between the ROC and thestate is far weaker and much less politically important than Westernanalysts like to believe.Outward reverence for Orthodoxy DOES NOT reflects a real ideologicalshift among Russia’s ruling post-Soviet elite towards the Patriarchatespolitical preferences.Religious language/allusions in politics reflect culture more thaninfluenceChurch has relatively failed in mobilizing parishioners, influencingpolitical parties, and lobbying the state
Alternative’s EvidenceReverence does not equate ideological shift Evidence: 1) Strong secular mood within political class andpeople 2) Less people are religious than Westerners believeReligion language in politics reflects culture Evidence: 1)Focus on spirituality/Orthodoxy peaked in themid-1990s and has been decreasing 2) Many people identify culturally as ROCChurch had failed in political influence Evidence: 1)Personal interests have been more important inpolitical competition than ideological considerations
Comparison TableGarrard Central Argument Papkova Central Argument Russia is not a secular country. Russia is secular Russia has never been a secular state. Outward reverence does not reflect ideology The ROC has influence on policy making Church has relatively failed in mobilizing and the military parishioners, influencing political parties, and lobbying the state The ROC revived Russian historical Religious language/allusions in politics heritage of moral, religious and reflect culture more than influence traditional values.
Comparison Table 2Evidence Garrard Evidence PapkovaRussia has never been a secular state. Reverence does not equate ideological shiftEvidence: State religion before the Rev. of 1917 Evidence: 1) Strong secular mood within after the Rev. no religious freedom after political class and people the coup Orthodoxy became the dominate 2) Less people are religious than Westerners religion believeThe ROC has influence on policy making and Church had failed in political influence the military. Evidence: 1)Personal interests more importantEvidence: Changes of the laws of 1990 and 1997 2)Divisions within the ROC have made it fait h-based arm y difficult to influence politics. The ROC revived Russian historical heritage of Religion language in politics reflects culture moral, religious and traditional values. Evidence: 1)Focus on spirituality/ Orthodoxy peaked in the mid-1990s and has been
A Lesson for Politics & Our PerspectiveWhat should the Russian Our Opinion aboutgovernment do in light o Russia is that; eventhis? though, officially Russia is a secular state, thereIn order to develop are more elements ofdemocracy, Russia state established religion.should give freedom toother religious minorities Garrard has betterto practice their religion. evidence than Papkova.
Drag pic ture to p lac eholder o r cl i ck i c on to ad d In ConclusionThe role of the church instate affairs is verycomplex and is not easily