“ This reassociation of image and sound is the fundamental pillar upon which the creative use of sound rests, and without which it would collapse.
Sometimes it is done simply for convenience (walking on cornstarch, for instance, happens to record as a better footstep-in-snow than snow itself); or for necessity (the window that Gary Cooper broke in "High Noon" was made not of real glass but of crystallized sheeted sugar, the boulder that chased Indiana Jones was made not of real stone but of plastic foam); or for reasons of morality (crushing a watermelon is ethically preferable to crushing a human head).
In each case, our multi- million-year reflex of thinking of sound as a submissive causal shadow now works in the filmmaker's favor, and the audience is disposed to accept, within certain limits, these new juxtapositions as the truth.
But beyond any practical consideration, I believe this reassociation should stretch the relationship of sound to image wherever possible. It should strive to create a purposeful and fruitful tension between what is on the screen and what is kindled in the mind of the audience.” [Murch, 2000]
“ The role which sound is to play in film is much more significant than a slavish imitation of naturalism on these lines; the first function of sound is to augment the potential expressiveness of the film’s content. […] It is clear that this deeper insight into the content of the film cannot be given to the spectator simply by adding an accompaniment of naturalistic sound; we must do something more. This something more is the development of the image and the sound strip each along a separate rhythmic course.” [Pudovkin, in Weis, 1985]
“ We do not need to hear the sound of clapping if we can see the clapping hands. When the time of these obvious and unnecessary effects will have passed, the more gifted filmmakers will probably apply to sound films the lesson of Chaplin taught in silent films, when, for example, he suggested the arrival of a train by the shadows of carriages passing across a face. […] It is the alternate, not the simultaneous, use of the visual subject and of the sound produced by it that creates the best effects. [Clair, in Weis, 1985]
Quelques examples extrait extrait Associations créatives
“ In language as the metacode of sounds, the most complete identification is obviously that which simultaneously designates the sound and its source ("rumble of thunder"). But if one of the two indicators has to be suppressed, it is curious to note that it's the aural indicator that can most easily be suppressed with the least loss of recognizability. If I perceive a "rumble" without further specification, some mystery or suspense remains (horror and mystery films depend on this effect): the identification is only partial. However, if I perceive "thunder" without giving any attention to its acoustic characteristics, the identification is sufficient.” […] this "apprehension" is in itself a product, the conception of sound as an attribute, as a non-object, and therefore the tendency to neglect its own characteristics in favor of those of its corresponding "substance," which in this case is the visible object, which has emitted the sound […] therefore it could very well be "otherwise" in cultures not of the describer.” (Metz, 1980)
“ La synchrèse (mot que nous forgeons en combinant ”synchronisme” et “synthèse”) est la soudure irrésistible et spontanée qui se produit entre un phénomène sonore et un phénomène visuel ponctuel lorsque ceux-ci tombent en même temps, celà indépendamment de toute logique rationnelle. […] L’effet de synchrèse est évidemment susceptible d’être influencé, renforcé et orienté par les habitudes culturelles. Mais en même temps, il a très probablement – […] une base innée .” (Chion, 2005)
“ The real world is spatially and temporally continuous; film is not. We evolved in a continuous world and, regardless of how much we may enjoy them, we emphatically did not evolve to watch movies. Instead movies evolved, at least in part, to match our cognitive and perceptual dispositions. The result is a curious melange of short shots with instantaneous camera jumps between them, something not at all like the rest of the world around us. Why and how do we accept this? Part of the answer, I claim, is that we do not necessarily perceive the world according to its physical structure. […] In addition, although we evolved in a temporally continuous world, our perception of time is not tightly bound to any temporal meter. Thus, there is a considerable plasticity to our perceptual world; its just happens that the world is mostly rigid and evenly flowing. ” (Cutting, 1995)
“ The loudspeaker makes a noise, thus producing tension, nervousness, frustration in the auditor spectator. He looks around and sees no probable source for that sound except the image on the screen. Lacking any other source, and needing to anchor the sound at all costs, he accepts the notion that it comes from the image when in fact it comes from the loudspeaker.” (Altman, 1980b)
“ By providing the audience with a more logical, simpler, and less threatening answer to the question "Where does the sound come from?" the image diverts attention from the sound's true source, rerouting us instead through a visible, but fallacious, origin.“ (Altman, 1980)
Attentes produites par l’expérience avec le monde réel et par les connections entre modalités sensorielles
par la narration
For example, we may want to have a strange-sounding machine running off-camera during a scene in order to add tension and atmosphere. If there is at least a brief, fairly close shot of some machine which could be making the sound, it will help me immensely to establish the sound. Over that shot we can feature the sound, placing it firmly in the minds of the audience. Then we never have to see it again, but every time the audience hears it, they will know what it is (even if it is played very low under dialogue), and they will make all the appropriate associations, including a sense of the geography of the place. (Thom, 1999)
par la connaissance du genre/auteur
Cartoon Law I Any body suspended in space will remain in space until made aware of its situation.
Effets de la narration et connaissance du medium
Suspension de certaines attentes issues de l’expérience avec le monde réel
Activation d’autres attentes issues de l’expérience des mondes de fiction et des media
Repoussement des limites pour que l’association soit acceptée comme vraie (crédible)
“ It is extraordinarily tempting to suppose that when one is caught up in a story, one loses touch with reality, temporarily, and actually believes in fiction. The reader of Anna Karenina abandons himself to the novel and is convinced, momentarily and partially at least, of Anna’s existence and of the truth of what the novel says about her. Otherwise why would he be moved by her predicament? Why would one be even interested enough to bother reading the novel? Yet it also seems that the normal appreciator does not (of course!) really believe in the fiction .” [Walton, 2001]
“ Representations are things […] possessing the social function of serving as props in games of make-believe, although they also prompt imaginings and are sometimes objects of them as well. A prop is something which, by virtue of conditional principles of generation, mandates imaginings. Propositions whose imaginings are mandated are fictional, and the fact that a given proposition is fictional is a fictional truth. Fictional worlds are associated with collections of fictional truths; what is fictional is fictional in a given world – the world of a game of make-believe, for example, or that of a representational work of art .” [Walton, 2001]