Anticipation The setup before the main action. It lets the audience know that something is aboutto happen and gathers the necessary energy. Why? In animation, a viewer’s eye ends to lag behind by a fewframes, so it is often necessary to announce thatsomething is about to happen so your audience doesn’tmiss it. Anticipation are often physical movements in theopposite direction of the intended motion. Exception: a growl before an attack or a deep breathbefore a bold statement.
Staging (Composition) Animation is communication. Successful staging will result in the clear presentationof an idea. Choose the best scene layouts and camera angles todeliver that story with appropriate style and mood. If a scene has a singular focus, you need to decidewhether it should be centered or perhaps off to theside a bit. Maybe the best staging for a particular shot would beto put its main focus off the screen (Rule of Third)and reveal the action with sound or dialogue.
Staging Poses should be strong, and elements of your sceneshould work well together visually. Typically, you should not hide important sceneelements behind less important elements
Pose-to-pose & straight ahead actionStraight Ahead Involves steppingthrough the individualframes of your sceneand manipulatingthem sequentially. Requires more pre-planning Used for stop motionPose to pose Involves defining theextremes & then fillingin the spaces inbetween. Used for CGanimations
Follow-through & overlapping action The extension of a main action. Occur when a secondary appendage, e.g. a tail or anantenna, is indirectly driven by the primary motion of thebody. Occur later than the main action as the force dictatingthe main action takes longer to reach the appendages. When an object in motion changes direction, stopsaccelerating, or stops completely, secondary parts of thatobject will continue in original direction after the changein the main force. Follow-through is often reduced if an appendage has &uses its own muscles.
Follow-through & overlapping action Overlap is the concept that not all moving parts ofa body will start and end at exactly the same time. If you turn your head and point, you armmovement might begin before your head finishesturning. Overlap is nonexist if the head and arm start andstop on the same frame or if the arm waits to moveuntil the head has completed its motion. Such non-overlapped motions tend to look robotic.
Slow-in and slow out The acceleration and deceleration of action, i.e. the waythat an action begins slowly, moves quickly through themain action, and then slows down as it comes to a stoprather than moving linearly from one position to another.
Arcs The visual path of action for naturalmovement. Straight-line paths look stiff. Arcs show the most economical route. With computer animation the inbetweenframes may follow straight lines - may need toadd a curve too it to make it more realistic. Using arcs to animate the movements ofcharacters helps achieve a natural lookbecause most living creatures move in curvedpaths, never in perfectly straight lines.
Secondary action Any motion that is secondary to the main action. E.g. drumming your fingers on your knee while talking. Secondary action often reveal emotional subtleties orhidden thoughts. If secondary action pulls the viewer’s attention awayfrom the main action, however, it becomes the mainaction.
Timing Realism of an object depends on how it looks andmoves. The precise moment and the amount of time thata character spends on an action. Timing adds emotion and intention to thecharacter’s performance. The timing of a response to someone callingus, or a noise; tells a lot about ourattitude, confidence and disposition.
Timing Not too slow or audience eyes wander. Not too fast or action is misunderstood. The faster the motion, the more critical it isto make the audience focus on it.
Exaggeration To increase the readability of emotions and actions. To effectively tell the story of a particular performance. Animation medium don’t deliver all of the sameinformation that exists in real life. Effective exaggeration isn’t always a matter of making amotion larger. Significant decreasing an action is also a type ofexaggeration. E.g. completely stopping a character’s motion for anunnaturally long period of time can demonstrate aparticular emotion, e.g. shock or disgust. Exaggeration is especially appropriate in cartoon-styleanimation.
Solid drawing /modeling & rigging Each individual drawing should be a work of art onits own. Each drawing should look like the character beingpresented. Avoid inconsistency in terms of character’s size &volume
Appeal In the context of animation, appeal means that acharacter or its performance is visually interesting. The most subjective of all the principles. Is the presentation of your idea pleasant (or unpleasant)to look at? Apply fundamental aesthetic principles to yourshots—though appeal doesn’t necessarily meanattractive.