Archaeological Report - Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny (Ireland)

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Eachtra archaeological projects undertook excavation of Stratham’s garage in January and February of 2005 under licence 99E0757, an extension to a pre-existing licence. In total some eighty pits were …

Eachtra archaeological projects undertook excavation of Stratham’s garage in January and February of 2005 under licence 99E0757, an extension to a pre-existing licence. In total some eighty pits were excavated with a small number of linear features and post-medieval wall foundations, drains and a cobbled surface also present. There was no evidence for a medieval structure in this area of the site and many of the pits were filled with refuse. The excavated area was interpreted as the partial remains of four medieval burgage plots. Recent excavations of the area immediately north and adjacent to this site will hopefully provide material comparable to the results from the Stratham’s Garage site.

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  • 1. Eachtra Journal Issue 14 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report99E0757 ext - Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny Medieval and post-medieval pits and ditches in Kilkenny city burgage plots
  • 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,Stratham’s Garage Site,Patrick Street,KilkennyMedieval and post-medieval pits and ditches inKilkenny city burgage plots April 2007Client: Belem Valley Properties Ltd., c/o Nolan Ryan Partnership, No. 10 Ormonde St., KilkennyPlanning Register No.: P.39/99Licence No.: 99E0757 extLicensee: Bruce Sutton Contact details: The Forge,Written by: Bruce Sutton Innishannon, Co. Cork Tel.: 021 4701616 Penny Johnston E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  • 3. Table of Contents1 Summary...........................................................................................................................12 Acknowledgements............................................................................................................13 Introduction......................................................................................................................14 Background to the Development.......................................................................................15 Background to the current project.....................................................................................26 Historical background.......................................................................................................37 Patrick Street: recent archaeological investigations............................................................78 Patrick Street: the cartographic evidence ..........................................................................89 Description of excavation . ................................................................................................9 9.1 Property 1...................................................................................................................9 9.2 Property 2..................................................................................................................10 9.3 Property 3..................................................................................................................10 9.4 Property 3a................................................................................................................11 . 9.5 Property 3b................................................................................................................12 9.6 Property 4?.................................................................................................................1310 Discussion........................................................................................................................14 10.1 Pottery....................................................................................................................... 15 10.2 Animal Bone.............................................................................................................. 15 10.3 Plant Remains............................................................................................................1611 Conclusion. ......................................................................................................................17 .12 Bibliography.....................................................................................................................1813 Figures..............................................................................................................................1914 Plates................................................................................................................................3015 Appendices.......................................................................................................................34 15.1 Appendix 1: Context Register....................................................................................35 15.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix..............................................................................83 15.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register........................................................................................91 . 15.4 Appendix 4: Pottery Report.......................................................................................109 15.5 Appendix 5: Faunal Remains Report......................................................................... 132 14.6 Appendix 6: Plant Remains from Patrick Street, Kilkenny 99E757...........................144 . 15.7 Appendix 7: Catalogue of Clay Pipes......................................................................... 151 15.8 Appendix 8: Catalogue of Metal Artefacts................................................................. 154 15.9 Appendix 9: Catalogue of Stone Artefacts................................................................. 157 iii
  • 4. List of Figures Figure 1: Extract from OS Discovery Series map. Site location highlighted...........................................19 Figure 2: Extract from RMP sheet KK019. Site location highlighted.................................................... 20 Figure 3: Extract from a map of Kilkenny, 1758, by John Rocque. Site location highlighted.................21 Figure 4: Extract from OS 1st Edition map, 1841, sheet 19. Site location highlighted.. .........................22 . Figure 5: Extract from OS 5ft map, sheet 19, 1872. Site location highlighted........................................23 Figure 6: Down Survey map of 1655. Taken from Historic Towns Atlas No. 10................................... 24 Figure 7: Extract from OS Irish Historic Atlas map of Kilkenny, 1999. Site location highlighted..........25 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the archaeological features at the Stratham’s Garage site, Patrick Street, Kilkenny. . .............................................................................................................................................26 Figure 9: Extract from 5ft map of Kilkenny with the outline of medieval properties shown..................27 Figure 10: Sections through some of the excavated features...................................................................28 Figure 11: Drawing of possible whetstone from a linear feature C.271...................................................29List of Plates Plate 1: General photograph of Property 3a, taken from the east...........................................................30 . Plate 2: Ditch C.235 from south-west....................................................................................................30 Plate 3: Furrows in Properties 1 and 2 from north.................................................................................31 Plate 4: Pits in Property 3a, taken from the east.....................................................................................31 Plate 5: Cobble-stone surface C.254 from west......................................................................................32 Plate 6: Wall C.295 from south-west.....................................................................................................32 Plate 7: Sewage outlet C.168 from south................................................................................................33 Plate 8: Section through pit C.143 from the south-west.........................................................................33Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, includingall original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s,remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproducedor used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects. iv
  • 5. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 1 Summary Location Site of Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street Kilkenny County Kilkenny National Grid Reference 250700 155610 Sites and Monument Record No. KK19026 Excavation Licence no. 99E0757ext OS Map Sheet no. KK 019 Elevation OD 2 Acknowledgements The excavation director was Bruce Sutton. Field crew included Antonia Doolan and Juliana O’Donoghue. Post-excavation work was carried out by Antonia Doolan, Robin Turk, Sara Camplese and Penny Johnston. Specialists included Clare McCutcheon (medieval ceramics), Mary Dillon (plant remains), Margaret McCarthy (animal bone) and ArchCon Labs Ltd. (metal conservation). 3 Introduction This report comprises the final report on archaeological excavations which took place at the former site of Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny city, Co. Kilkenny (Figure 1). These excavations were carried out by Eachtra Archaeological Projects under the direction of Bruce Sutton in January and February of 2005 (Licence number for 2005 work: 99E0757ext). The excavations were carried out in advance of the construction of a hotel and associated services on the site (Planning Ref. no. P.39/99). The archaeological remains included a dense concentration of medieval and post-medieval refuse pits in addition to a post-medieval cobbled surface and a small section of a post-medieval wall. 4 Background to the Development Previous archaeological work at the site consisted of an archaeological assessment, undertaken in 1999 by Jacinta Kiely of Eachtra Archaeological Projects (Kiely 2000a). Three trenches were opened, each of which produced archaeological material. Based on the results presented in the assessment report, the subsequent Grant of Planning contained a condition related to the archaeological aspects of the site. Condition 5 stipulated: “ it shall be necessary for the applicant/developer to employ an archaeologist to carry out an excavation… within the proposed development site in advance of site preparation and /or construction works … A series of open trenches shall be archaeologically excavated by hand in the areas affected by the proposed structures as follows: a) The archaeology in the basement area of the hotel shall be fully excavated. b) The archaeology in the area of the restaurant and kitchen shall be excavated to a depth of 0.81m and a buffer zone measuring 0.5m shall be established. c) The archaeology in the area of the stores shall be excavated to a depth of 1.213 and a buffer zone measuring 0.5m shall be established. d) The archaeology in the area of the car park shall be excavated to a depth of 0.5m”. The necessary archaeological excavations were carried out in January and February of 2005 underhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 1
  • 6. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext an extension to the original testing licence conducted in 1999 (Licence number for 2005 work: 99E0757ext). 5 Background to the current project This site at Patrick Street, prior to excavation, was occupied by Stratham’s Garage. This building was erected in the early 1900s and had lain derelict for some time. Lanigan and Tyler (1987) describe the building, along with that of the adjacent South East Health Board building, as being out of propor- tion with the surrounding Georgian terrace that lay along the eastern side of Patrick Street. The garage was demolished prior to archaeological investigations and on arrival, only the façade fronting onto Patrick Street remained. The site is located within the zone of archaeological potential for Kilkenny City (Figure 2) The initial archaeological impact assessment undertaken by Jacinta Kiely at the former site of Stratham’s Garage in 1999 involved opening three trenches along the line of the proposed hotel foundations. Trench 1 was T-shaped and was excavated to a depth of 0.9 m below the modern ground surface. A layer of concrete and rubble was found to overlay the subsoil. Upon removal of the rubble layer, eight possible pits were recorded in the base of the trench. Trench 2 was excavated to a depth of 1 m below the surface. This uncovered a brown silty clay garden soil underlying the concrete that included post- medieval glass, brick, slate, shell etc. An east to west orientated ditch was recorded in the base of the trench, from the upper part of which a piece of Medieval pottery was recovered. A partly demolished wall of roughly hewn limestone was encountered in the northern section of the trench. Trench 3 was excavated to a depth of 0.7 m. Two possible pits were recorded in the base of the trench, the eastern end of which was disturbed by a concrete pipe (Kiely 2000). The discovery of archaeological deposits in the three trenches opened led to the recommendation that the area of proposed development be archaeologically excavated prior to development. Initial plans for the development of the hotel were altered during excavation. In the original plans the proposed area for the car park to the side and rear of the hotel were to be developed at the current ground level, which that meant that excavation was only to take place on the northern half of the site and at a small area adjacent to the southern wall. It was then proposed to drop the entire level of the parking area by c.0.5. This resulted in the entire area of what was Stratham’s Garage requiring excava- tion following the DoEHLG’s recommendations of a 0.5 m buffer zone around any general ground disturbance. The DoEHLG was contacted and informed by of the changes from the original method statement.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 2
  • 7. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 6 Historical background To date, no archaeological evidence for prehistoric settlement has been uncovered in Kilkenny city, suggesting that it was first occupied in historic times, and it has been a country town for as long as historical records have existed (Bradley 1990, 63). Kilkenny is a corruption of Cill chainnigh which means ‘Canice’s Church’ and owes its name to the foundation of St. Canice’s Monastery in the 6th century AD. According to the Annals of Ulster, St. Canice died c. 600 AD, but this date is based on later calculations (Bradley 1990, 64). There are dif- ferent accounts of the life of St. Canice all of which were compiled in the 12th century. It is possible that St. Canice himself founded the monastery but alternatively it may have been one of his disciples. The monastery itself was founded on a small hill overlooking a fording point of the River Nore, at the present location of Green’s Bridge. Although St. Canice’s church provides the city of Kilkenny with its name, it was not the earliest religious structure. A second church, St. Patrick’s, is also mentioned in a Life of St. Canice and was located to the south, off what is now Patrick Street Lower, though nothing survives of it today (Farrelly et al. 1993, 79). This church is known to have pre-dated St. Canice’s and was possibly founded in the 5th century, with a later dedication to St. Patrick (Bradley 2000, 1). Although nothing is known of this early monastery there must have been a central church building. There is evidence for a surrounding enclosure, similar to other ecclesiastical sites of this period, which can be seen in the curved pattern of Vicar Street, St. Canice’s Place and Dean Street (Bradley 1995, 156). Although not present today, a lane running north to Troy’s Gate of the then existing town wall is visible on Rocque’s map of 1758 (Figure 3) and traces a possible continuation north of the enclosure (Bradley 1990, 65). By the time of the arrival of the Normans, a stone church was located at St. Patrick’s along with a round tower, which would have been a later 11th or 12th century addition to the site (ibid., 66). With the emergence of a powerful group known as the Osraige in the latter half of the first millen- nium, Kilkenny began to increase in importance due to the fact that the central base of power for this group comprised the fertile plains of Co. Kilkenny (Bradley 1990, 65). The location of the monastery towards the centre of these lands, and at a fording point of the River Nore, meant that its success as an ever growing settlement in size and importance was almost guaranteed (Bradley 1995, 154). By the 12th century, the successors to the Osraige, the Mac Gilla Patraic, held court at Kilkenny which sug- gests that even in pre-Norman times the settlement served not just a religious function, but also an ad- ministrative one (ibid., 156). This political importance most likely drew craftspeople and tradespeople to the settlement, further increasing its importance. The Anglo-Normans arrived in Ireland towards the end of the 12th century and quickly supplanted the Mac Gilla Patraic in Kilkenny. At this time, settlement in the country consisted of ports established by the Vikings and inland settlements concentrated around ecclesiastical sites. The Anglo-Normans swiftly constructed a number of towns and boroughs around Ireland over the next hundred or so years,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 3
  • 8. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext indicating a large influx of people into the country. Kilkenny is one such city that saw the construction of an Anglo-Norman borough in the town. The Normans were initially attracted to Kilkenny due to its strategic location on land and riverine routeways (Bradley 2000, 2). Kilkenny castle, most likely constructed on an earlier motte and bailey, was built in 1173 some 750m south of St.Canice’s on a knoll overlooking a second fording point of the Nore. The existing structure dates to some time in the 13th century and served as an aristocratic residence, administrative centre and gaol (Bradley 2000, 2). The castle passed out of the Marshall family to the Norman de Clares in the mid 13th century. It passed to the Butlers in 1391 and stayed with this family until 1969 when the state took ownership (Bradley 1995, 158). Kilkenny Castle to the south and St. Canice’s to the north effectively defined the boundaries of the town. It is around the castle that the borough of Hightown or Englishtown was established with burgesses - the backbone of Anglo-Norman town planning – in existence here by 1176 (Bradley 1990, 66). The earlier pre-Norman settlement centred on St. Canice’s became known as Irishtown (Farrelly et al. 1993, 1), although care should be taken when referring to these as ethnically separate areas (Bradley 1985, 446). The 13th century saw large-scale development in Kilkenny, development which defined the town for centuries to come. Richard Fitzgilbert de Clare undertook the initial Norman settlement of Kilkenny, but it was not until his successor, William Marshall, visited Kilkenny in 1207 that much of the build- ing works in the settlement commenced. In that year new foundation charters were issued to the town (Farrelly et al. 1993, 1) and after Marshall negotiated with the Bishop of Ossary for the procurement of the land between the castle and St. Canice’s, the settlement began to expand. The settlement was centred on a single main street, High Street, which was wider in the centre to accommodate a market in the town. The burgage plots along the street would have been well-suited for commercial premises due to their narrow frontage area, allowing a large number of shops and houses to front onto the mar- ket and the main street (Bradley 1985, 439). Once burgage plots had been handed out, it is quite pos- sible that their boundaries remained unchanged for many years, although some plots may have been divided or combined over time (ibid., 429) as owners bought or sold adjacent plots of land. It is also during the middle of the 13th century that the first references are made to a third borough, Donagh- more, which was located outside the town wall to the south of Hightown, at what is now the southern end of Patrick Street. It is likely that a pre-existing settlement was located here prior to this centred on St. Patrick’s Church. The 13th century also saw the construction and renovation of a number of religious establishments, some of which later served as parish churches. Between 1207 and 1225 a Franciscan monastery was built in Hightown. Construction of an Augustinian priory commenced in 1211 and was completed in 1220. This was the first religious structure to be located on the eastern bank of the River Nore. It prompted the building of a road and a second bridge which linked the priory, and subsequent growth of settlement, to the town (Bradley 2000, 4). The Dominican priory, or ‘Black Abbey’, was established in 1225 outside the city walls and a small portion of it survives today (ibid., 4). St. Mary’s Church pos-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 4
  • 9. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext sibly began as a chapel for those living close to the castle and would have been established soon after the foundation of Hightown at the end of the 12th century. It later grew into a large Medieval parish church with council meetings and town plays performed here (ibid., 3). Perhaps the most impressive religious structure to be constructed in the 13th century was the Cathedral, built at the location of the earlier Canice’s church by Bishop Hugh de Rous. Building of the various sections continued through- out the 13th century, long after de Rous’ death (Bradley 2000, 5). The Cathedral is the only religious structure to have been constructed in the Borough of Irishtown and continues to dominate the area to this day. Construction of town walls around Hightown also began in the 13th century, probably instigated by William Marshall after his visit in 1207, though they were not completed for many years. The final completion of the town walls is dated to 1400 and attributed to Robert Talbot, a man about which little is known (Prim 1949-51, 36). The walls are known to have been in a near perfect state in the 18th century as represented on Rocque’s map of 1758 (Figure 3) (Birthistle 1966, 5), although only small sections survive at present. There are 11 known murage grants from Kilkenny dating to between 1250 and 1460 (Bradley 1990, 70) which suggest ongoing work on the walls. These grants were provided by the king and gave towns the right to impose tolls and taxes for the purpose of building the town’s defences, in order to lessen the cost to the inhabitants. Kilkenny Castle was incorporated into the southern line of the town wall, as often seen where castles are located at the edge of towns (Bradley 1985, 444). The western town wall ran along a natural ridge that commanded the approach from that side. The northern wall formed the boundary with Irishtown. There was no eastern wall as the river ran along this side creating a natural boundary. In total, the Hightown wall encompassed an area of roughly 29 hectares (Farrelly et al. 1993, 7). That the construction of the town walls took such a substantial length of time is evidenced by the fact that the wall is of varied thickness and the four known towers – only one of which survives – were of different types. This lack of uniformity suggests that the long length of time needed to build the walls resulted in a lack of continuous planning in their construction (Bradly 1985, 442). Seven gates are known to have existed along the length of the wall: one at the border to Irishtown, three along the western wall, one at John’s Bridge and two in the southern wall. The gates in the southern wall were located next to the castle with a second on Patrick Street, roughly between Upper and Lower Patrick Street The latter was demolished at the end of the 19th century (Kenealy 1948, 34). Irishtown was protected by its own set of defences, although these were neither as substantial nor as well maintained as those of Hightown, and little is known about them (Kenealy 1948, 32). It has been suggested though that these walls were completed prior to 1400, therefore before the completion of the Hightown wall. Four gates were located in the defences surrounding Irishtown. As with the Hightown walls, no wall was present to the east as the River Nore provided sufficient natural defence. During the 14th century Kilkenny saw a period of decline with the outbreak of the Black Plague. It was not until the 16th century when the Butler family were reinstated that the town once again beganhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 5
  • 10. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext to expand (Bradley 1995, 151). Prior to this, Kilkenny was ruled by a number of rich merchant fami- lies. These families constructed many of the stone houses of Kilkenny, such as Rothe House on High Street. It was the work of these families in 1609 that secured the elevation of Kilkenny to city status by James I (Farrelly et al. 1993, 2), although this was revoked in 1650 with the Cromwellian invasions. After its capture by Cromwell the importance of Kilkenny began to decline, although it was granted university status in 1690. The rise of Dublin and Waterford meant that Kilkenny would never again be the administrative centre it had been in the past. By the 18th century it had become a quiet country town, despite the development of some new industries. In 1843 the boroughs of Irishtown and Hightown were joined to form a single city with one corpora- tion and although much had changed, the basic layout of the city remained constant to the early street pattern set out by the Normans, as can be seen by the first edition ordnance survey map and 1872 5ft map (Figure 4 & 5).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 6
  • 11. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 7 Patrick Street: recent archaeological investigations A large number of testing and excavation works have been undertaken on Patrick Street and the area around Pennyfeather Lane/Pudding Lane and St. Mary’s/ St. Patrick’s Ward between 1990 and 2002. The following descriptions are taken from www.excavations.ie; the Excavations Bulletin numbers are given first. 1990:078 Test excavation by Heather King at Pennyfeather Lane/Pudding Lane and St Mary’s/ St Patrick’s. Eighteen trenches were opened on the site, the front area of which was disturbed. Evidence for Anglo-Norman occupation was uncovered at the rear of the site along with part of the foundations of the Medieval town wall and the town ditch, possibly dating to the 13th / 14th centuries. 1995:171 Test excavation undertaken by Margaret Gowen Ltd. at Pudding Lane (Licence 95E224). Five trenches were opened, with a cobbled surface being uncovered. 1997:305 Patrick Street/Pudding Lane/Pennyfeather Lane. Nine test trenches were excavated by Judith Carroll (Licence 97E468). Medieval pottery and slag was recovered from the layers and the remains of a wall were uncovered, along with a possible 17th – 18th century ditch. 1998:356 26-29 Patrick Street Archaeological excavation located in the back gardens of nos. 26-29 Patrick Street and at house no. 26 by Judith Carroll (Licence 98E0092). A dense concentration of pits was excavated with a possible 12th – 16th century date, along with a large possible palisade trench. 1998:357 Excavation at 33 Patrick St, undertaken by Judith Carroll (Licence 98E0402) led to the discovery of a dense concentration of medieval pits. 1998:358 Excavation at Patrick Street/Pudding Lane/Pennyfeather Lane (Licence 97E0468) by Judith Carroll. Five areas were excavated with the discovery of a large number of medieval and post-medieval pits and linear features, the foundations of earlier walls, structural trenches, hearths, metal working evidence and undated human remains, both articulated and disarticulated. 1999:451 Eachtra Archaeological Projects undertook further excavations at 26 Patrick St under licence 99E0165. During this work a number of medieval pits were excavated and recorded along with the foundations of a post-medieval building. 2000:0547 Eachtra Archaeological Projects conducted further excavations at 33 Patrick Street in 1999 following design changes under licence 98E0402ext. A number of large deep pits were excavated which were interpreted to have served a variety of functions, from domestic cess pts to industrial pits. Two small drying kilns and iron working evidence were also recorded on the site. 2000:0548 Eachtra Archaeological Projects conducted further excavations at Patrick Street/Puddinghttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 7
  • 12. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Lane/Pennyfeather Lane in 1999 under an extension to licence 97E0468. This additional area was composed of a cluster of intercutting pits, with the partial remains of a post-medieval building. In 2002 Daniel Noonan conducted an impact assessment at 101 Patrick St under licence 02E1570. The five trenches opened contained no archaeological remains. Overall, excavations over the past 10 years along Patrick Street have produced similar archaeological material characterised by large numbers of densely concentrated medieval pits in addition to a number of linear trenches and ditches. The pits served a variety of functions, from domestic cesspits to in- dustrial metal working pits and hearths. Although structural remains of buildings and floor surfaces were recorded, these date to the post-medieval period and there is no structural evidence for the early Anglo-Norman occupation that founded Patrick Street. 8 Patrick Street: the cartographic evidence  On the Down Survey Map of c. 1655 the street is represented by a dotted line leading to Patrick Gate (Figure 6).  Rocque’s map of Kilkenny dating to 1757 depicts buildings on both sides of the street continu- ing outside the town walls. The site is visible on the map as a large building fronting onto Patrick Street, with gardens to the rear (Figure 3).  The 1841 OS map shows buildings fronting onto Patrick Street at the location of Stratham’s Ga- rage with garden space to the rear (Figure 4).  The Ordnance Survey 5ft Map of 1872 clearly shows the same buildings and garden plot located at this site (Figure 5).  The 1999 Ordnance Survey Map clearly shows the location of Stratham’s Garage prior to demoli- tion. There has been a slight change in the northern boundary wall with the adjacent plot to the north now being partially under the site of the garage (Figure 7).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 8
  • 13. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 9 Description of excavation Most of the archaeological features recorded during this excavation were pits (Figure 8, Plate 1), al- though ditches, furrows, walls and a cobble-stone surface were also investigated. Full contextual de- tails are listed in the context register (Appendix 1) and the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2). The catalogue of all artefacts found is in the finds register (Appendix 3) and specialist report on the pottery is in Appendix 4. The results of analysis of environmental material is presented in the animal bone report (Appendix 5) and the plant remains report (Appendix 6). Catalogues of clay pipes are in Ap- pendix 7, metal artefacts are in Appendix 8 and stone artefacts in Appendix 9. Most of the contexts were dated according to the artefacts retrieved from their fills. Therefore, pits with exclusively medieval pottery were classified as medieval, whereas pits with medieval and post-medieval finds were classified as post-medieval. However, as most of the excavated features were backfilled, it is possible that some of the cut features that contained deposits with some post-medieval artefacts were actually open and in use in the medieval period. Although no definite boundaries delineating different medieval properties were recorded during exca- vation, a combination of the existing boundary lines and the character of the archaeology in different portions of the site suggests that this site represents portion of three (perhaps four) different medieval burgage plots (Figures 8 and 9). 9.1 Property 1 The first property was located at the south-eastern part of the excavation site (Figure 8). Only a small portion of this plot was available for excavation, the rest was filled by upstanding buildings. The exca- vated portion covered an area that measured c.17.5 m by 11.25 m. The topsoil in this area was a good quality garden soil (C.7) that covered much of the site and which would appear to be from the gardens visible on the 18th and 19th century maps. The medieval archaeology included three pits (C.212, C.223 and C.234). The only artefact type found was pottery, predominantly Kilkenny types, but also including Leinster Cooking Ware and a fragment of possible Redcliffe (a type imported from the Bristol area). These are all indicative of a thirteenth century date. The medieval pits in this property measured on average 1.83 m long, 0.98 m wide and 0.55 m deep. The post-medieval archaeology included the post-medieval pits (C.226 and C.228) and a ditch C.235. The pits measured on average 1.51 m long, 1.23 m wide and 0.3 m long. Both were very shallow and they were truncated by a modern concrete and iron cellar. The finds from these pits included Kilkenny- type wares, Leinster Cooking Ware, brick fragments and a clay pipe stem. The ditch C.235 was uncovered at the extreme edge of the excavation running east to west, and con- tinued off site in both directions (Plate 2). Only the northern edge of the feature was visible as the remainder lay under the southern edge of the excavation. It produced medieval pottery and animal bone, as well as some post-medieval pottery sherds and brick.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 9
  • 14. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext A furrow (C.221) traversed the site, visible for 16 m before it disappeared under the baulk at both the eastern and western edges of the excavation. No dateable artefacts were retrieved from this feature. It ran parallel to another furrow, C.239, just near the boundary between Property 1 and Property 2, and two furrows C.241 and C.243 excavated in Property 2. All of these features share a roughly east to west alignment and they occur only at the eastern end of the archaeological site (Plate 3). All are undateable, but they suggest a common use of the land in this part of the site. 9.2 Property 2 The second property was located to the north and north-west of Property 1, and it covered an area of 43.75 by 8.25 m (Figure 8). The overburden in this area consisted of good quality loose topsoil (C.7), most likely from the rear gardens visible on the 18th and 19th century maps. Fourteen medieval pits were excavated in this property (C.193, C.251, C.257, C.283, C.358, C.360, C.374, C.376, C.378, C.382, C.392, C.394, C.400 and C.407) including one pit that was re-cut (C.255). On average, the pits measured 1.67 m in length, 1.33 m in width and 0.44 m in depth. They generally contained a single fill and pottery sherds were the most common artefact types recorded. These contexts were classified as medieval in date based on the pottery types recovered during exca- vation. This included local wares such as Kilkenny-types and Leinster Cooking Ware, and imported Ham Green B ware. These finds indicate a thirteenth century date. The post-medieval archaeology in Property 2 comprised nine pits (C.322, C.364, C.366, C.368, C.380, C.395, C.397, C.403 and C404). On average these measured 1.68 m in length, 1.17 m in width and 0.38 m in diameter. The fills of these pits included re-deposited medieval wares and post- medieval pottery such as Merida type and glazed red earthenware. Several features of unknown date were excavated in this part of the site. No artefacts were found in association with these contexts and therefore they could not be assigned to any period of occupation at the site. The features included six pits (C.350, C.352, C.354, C.356, C.372 and C.384), one linear feature (C.413) and two furrows (C.241 and C.243). The furrows were aligned in the same direction as two furrows from Property 1 and these agricultural features are possibly all related to each other (see above). 9.3 Property 3 This property was the largest plot available for excavation; it measured c. 55 by 12.5 m (Figure 8). Situated to the north of Property 2, the archaeology in this property was very dense, in particular at the eastern part of the plot, where a cluster of medieval and post-medieval pits was excavated. In gen- eral the overburden in this property consisted of good quality topsoil (C.7), most likely from the rear gardens visible on the cartographic evidence from the 18th and 19th centuries. However, at the western portion of the site the over burden consisted of a mixture of post-medieval and early modern rubblehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 10
  • 15. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext (C.6) that lay under the concrete floor of the garage. The north-west corner of the site was truncated when deep excavation for petrol tank storage occurred during use of the site as a garage. The petrol tank was still in situ at the time of excavation. The contrast between the concentration of archaeologi- cal features at the eastern and western ends of this property is stark: there is a feature-rich area at the east of the property (Plates 1 and 4), but at the west, archaeological features are much less frequent. This is at least partially the results of truncation by activity at the garage. It may also be because the pits at the eastern end of the plot acted as cess and waste disposal pits, and were kept as far from the street and dwellings as possible. Because of the differences in the archaeology, the two ends of Property 3 will be examined separately here, with the area rich in archaeology referred to as Property 3a and the truncated area referred to as Property 3b. 9.4 Property 3a In total twenty pits in Property 3a were classified as medieval in date (C.100, C.102, C.105, C.113, C.118, C.120, C.123, C.172, C.176, C.186, C.229, C.231, C.237, C.245, C.320, C.329, C.331, C.334, C.336 and C.343). On average the pit dimensions were 1.98 m long, 1.33 m wide and 0.48 m deep. In general the pits contained a single fill and pottery sherds were the most common artefact types. These were mostly local Kilkenny-type wares but Leinster Cooking Ware was also found. A small quantity of imported pottery was recovered, including sherds such as Minety-type, Saintonge and a fragment of possible Redcliffe. These finds suggest that the pits dated from the thirteenth to the fourteenth cen- turies (Appendix 4). The pits were classified based on the pottery recovered from the fills and/or their stratigraphic relationship to other features. Three pits (C.102, C.113 and C.120) had a form of cobbled stone lining on the base and sides and loose cobbles frequently occurred in the base of the fills. All the finds recovered from these pits (mostly Kilkenny type pottery and medieval nails) were medieval in date. Although these pits were filled with waste, the cobble lining suggests that they originally had a different function, perhaps they were origi- nally used as cess pits. Two medieval layers (C.370 and C.371) were located in the eastern part of Property 3a; both contained animal bone and charcoal and were 0.12m in depth. They are interpreted as medieval in date as all the features, both medieval and post-medieval, in this portion of the site truncated these layers. The post-medieval archaeology in Property 3a comprised sixteen pits (C.124, C.133, C.170, C.174, C.178, C.195, C.197, C.216, C.259, C.275, C.277, C.279, C.281, C.338, C.340 and C.346) and a ditch (C.179). The pits measured on average 1.41 m in length, 0.87 m in width and 0.75 m in depth. Artefacts retrieved from these features included brick, clay pipe stems, post-medieval pottery (such as Pearlware and Frechen) and re-deposited medieval pottery (Kilkenny types, Leinster Cooking Ware and Saintonge). A ditch (C.179) was found along the northern edge of the excavation area and it truncated two pits ofhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 11
  • 16. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext unknown date (C.130 and C.181), a medieval pit (C.172) and a post-medieval pit (C.174). Artefacts and environmental material from the ditch included animal bone, medieval and post-medieval pot- tery, glass and a metal object. It probably represented the boundary of the Property 3 burgage plot. The modern features from the site included four pits (C.191, C.214, C.218 and C.220), dated either by the retrieval of finds that dated to the twentieth century, or by stratigraphic relationships with other material on the site. There was also a modern linear wall (C.286) which extended 18.5m north to south across Properties 2 and 3. It was constructed from material that was apparently taken from an earlier, post-medieval structure that was demolished and used as a base for this concrete structure. The wall truncated many archaeological contexts in Property 3a. Eight features excavated in Property 3a are of unknown date. There were six pits (C.130, C.136, C.138, C.181, C.195 and C.197) and two linear features (C.183 and C.271). Most of the un-dated pits had no relationship to other features and they contained no dateable artefacts. A linear ditch (C.183) was possibly a continuation of the possible boundary ditch (C.179) although it was much deeper. C.271 was a small linear feature that truncated a pit (C.261) along the eastern edge. It was filled with C.272 and contained a possible whetstone (Figure 11). 9.5 Property 3b Three medieval pits were excavated in Property 3b (C.146, C.297 and C.317). The average dimensions of these pits were 1.5 m length, 1.01 m width and 0.32 m deep. The pits were classified as medieval based on the pottery sherds (such as Kilkenny types and Leinster Cooking Ware) recovered from their fills. In C.317 a large portion of a medieval pot (Kilkenny type ware) was preserved almost intact. These finds indicated thirteenth century activity. No other medieval features were discovered in this area of the site. A cobble-stone surface (C.254) was uncovered at the western end of Property 3 (Plate 5). It was trun- cated on all sides and was located over the top of a post-medieval sewage pipe that ran under Patrick Street, indicating that it was post-medieval in date. The stones were well set into the underlying soil and a gutter or gully ran east-west through the cobbles (Fig. 11). The material excavated from between the stones (C.264) was firm in compaction with the odour of horse manure, suggesting that this had been compacted between the stones during the use of the surface. A number of post-medieval features were excavated beneath the level of the coble-stone surface (C.254). Four inter-cutting pits (C.304, C.306, C.308 and C.310) and a linear feature (C.312) were found be- neath the cobble-stones. The pits measured on average 0.99 m in length, 0.73 m in width and 0.29 m in depth. They were classified as post-medieval based on the artefact types recovered from their fills (including Pearlware, Mottled Ware, Glazed red earthenware and brick). To the east of the cob- ble-stone surface foundation stones for the corner of a post-medieval wall (C.295) were uncovered, constructed of loosely coursed limestone (Plate 6).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 12
  • 17. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext At the extreme west of the site, a square limestone and brick coursed sewage area or lavatory was un- covered with a slate flagstone floor (C.168) (Plate 7). This was infilled with post-medieval and early modern rubble consisting of slate, glass, brick, 19th century pottery all in a matrix of organic soil (C.192). In the western wall of the feature, a later addition of ceramic sewage pipe had been inserted into the wall and packed in with bricks. Excavation revealed that this was connected to a slate-lined culvert that ran along the length of Patrick Street. There were also several features of unknown date, including twelve pits (C.141, C.148, C.150, C.151, C.153, C.156, C.162, C.164, C.288, C.290, C.292 and C.315), and a sterile layer (C.314). As the ma- jority of excavated features at this part of the property were post-medieval or modern, it is likely that these features are also quite late. 9.6 Property 4? Eight pits (C.143, C.159, C.198, C.202, C.206, C.208, C.210 and C.274) were located at the northern edge of the site, beyond the northern boundary to Property 3 (Figure 8). It is likely that these features relate to activity in another burgage plot. Most of these features contained either modern finds or no dateable artefacts. The pit C.143 contained a single fill of dark brown burnt material with frequent inclusions of burnt clay, indicating that the pit was backfilled with hearth or furnace waste (Plate 8). A single isolated pit was located along the northern edge of excavation (C.274), probably within Property 4. The base of the pit contained a large number of cobbles, both loose and compacted into the base. Excavations of the area to the north of these have recently been completed (11 Patrick Street Kilkenny, 06E0230) and the results from this should shed more light on the nature of the archaeology in this part of the site.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 13
  • 18. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 10 Discussion The area of Patrick Street was originally occupied in the late 12th century by the Anglo-Normans. The archaeological evidence from this excavation supports this as no earlier material was recorded during the course of the excavation. The archaeological features excavated at the former site of Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street indicate activity in this area from the medieval period through to post-medieval times. If we compare Rocque’s map of 1758 (Figure 3) with the modern 1999 map (Figure 7) of the site it would appear that the boundaries of the site have changed little. The southern and eastern boundaries appear much as they were on the earlier map. However, the northern boundary has been altered, with about half of the adjacent plot now being located under the former site of Stratham’s Garage. Although ditch features C.179 and C.183 seem to be located in the approximate location of the boundary, the features are not continuous and vary in depth. Also, C.179 truncated a number of pits in this area. A second possible boundary ditch (C.235) was located in the south-east corner of Property 1, but as only a small section could be excavated it was impossible to accurately determine its function. Nevertheless, by continuing existing boundaries and combining this information with the spatial pattern of the medieval archaeol- ogy, it was relatively simple to demonstrate that the site covered four separate medieval burgage plots, with most of Properties 2 and 3 available for excavation, and only small portions of Properties 1 and 4 excavated. The cartographic evidence from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also indicates that the eastern area of the site served as a garden, with the western area, fronting on to Patrick Street, being occu- pied by buildings. The majority of the archaeological features were located in the garden areas. The overburden across the entire site, with the exception of western part of Property 3b, was rich loose brown topsoil, more typically seen in rural agricultural fields than in urban areas. This suggests that Stratham’s garage simply laid concrete over this pre-existing garden soil horizons. Further evidence for the gardens can be taken from the existence of parallel agricultural furrows (C221, C.239, C.241 & C.243) located at the east of the site in Properties 1 and 2. These suggest an agricultural as well as aesthetic function for the gardens. The fact that the furrows cover two properties may indicate that any boundary that existed between Property 1 and 2 was not in use by the time the furrows were made. The majority of the cut features at the site were pits, c. eighty of these were excavated with artefactual evidence suggesting that they dated to both the medieval and the post-medieval periods. Iron slag was present in some of the pit fills, indicating that metalworking was carried out in the area, although the small amount of industrial residues retrieved during this excavation suggests that it was on a small scale. The large amounts of medieval and post-medieval pottery sherds, animal bones and metal ob- jects found at the site suggest that the final use of most of the pits at the site was as a refuse dump. In general, the fact that it was not possible to re-fit many of the sherds suggests that only partial vessels were present in most of the deposits.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 14
  • 19. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext The medieval pits were primarily either rounded or sub-rectangular, with steep sides and flat base. Some of the pits contained cobbled linings in the base and sides, although the reason for this is un- known. Others contained a large amount of similar ‘cobbles’ in the base of the fill and can possibly be interpreted as ‘soakaways’. All of the pits, whether lined, stone filled, or otherwise contained similar fills and inclusions. This could indicate that they originally fulfilled different functions but finally were infilled with the same (refuse) material. The evidence from the excavation at Patrick Street Kilkenny suggests that the area originally formed part of an Anglo-Norman burgage plot, which was intensively utilised. No evidence of a medieval structure was recorded on site. Any form of medieval house site may have been destroyed during the construction of the buildings that fronted onto Patrick Street or they may have been located further west, under the footpath and/or road surface. The archaeological material recorded at Patrick Street is comparable to that of earlier excavations in this part of Kilkenny city. 10.1 Pottery Pottery from the site was examined by Clare McCutcheon (Appendix 4). A total of 823 sherds were counted from the site (after re-fitting) and almost 90% of these were medieval wares, with types dating from the late twelfth to the fourteenth centuries. The assemblage was predominantly local Kilkenny Type wares, but Leinster Cooking Ware was also found. Imported ceramics included wares from Eng- land (Ham Green B, Minety-type and possibly Redcliffe), France (Saintonge) and Belgium/Holland (Flemish redware). 10.2 Animal Bone The animal bone assemblage from this site was examined by Margaret McCarthy (Appendix 5). Cattle were the most common domestic mammal. Body parts indicate that they were probably brought to the town on the hoof, and slaughtered thereafter. Sheep bones followed cattle in order of importance. Age- ing data from both cattle and sheep indicate that most were culled after reaching maturity, suggesting that they were exploited for both their meat and their secondary products; hide and horns, and after several years of milk yields. There was also some evidence for marrow extraction from late medieval cattle and sheep bones, and butchery marks that indicated that cattle tongue was extracted in the late medieval period. The medieval pits produced a relatively large sample of horse bones in comparison to other contemporary urban sites and a number of these displayed butchery traces consistent with the eating of horseflesh. Other domestic mammals included pig, with all skulls showing evidence of smashing, probably for retrieval of the brains. There was evidence for suckling pig consumption, and neo-natal pig bones from the late medieval period indicate that the animals were bred in the town. Fowl included domestic fowl, goose and duck. The wild mammals included red deer and hare in the medieval period, with rabbit occurring in the later medieval deposits. Marine species included cod, haddock and ling. Domestic pets such as cats and dogs were also recovered in small quantities.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 15
  • 20. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 10.3 Plant Remains The charred plant remains from this site were examined by Mary Dillon (Appendix 6). The medieval samples contained roughly equal portions of wheat and oat, with very small quantities of rye and bar- ley found. There were many weed seeds, including seeds from the knotgrass, goosefoot, daisy, sedge and legume families. The post-medieval samples contained a large amount of wheat and much smaller amounts of oats and rye. Barley was present in very large amounts in one sample. Two flax bolls were identified and a large amount of weed seeds were found, including many from the knotgrass, goosefoot and legume families.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 16
  • 21. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 11 Conclusion Eachtra archaeological projects undertook excavation of Stratham’s garage in January and February of 2005 under licence 99E0757, an extension to a pre-existing licence. In total some eighty pits were excavated with a small number of linear features and post-medieval wall foundations, drains and a cobbled surface also present. There was no evidence for a medieval structure in this area of the site and many of the pits were filled with refuse. The excavated area was interpreted as the partial remains of four medieval burgage plots. Recent excavations of the area immediately north and adjacent to this site will hopefully provide material comparable to the results from the Stratham’s Garage site.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 17
  • 22. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 12 Bibliography Birthistle, D. 1966. Gateways of the walls of Kilkenny. Old Kilkenny review, 18, 5-9. Bradley, J. 1985. Planned Anglo-Norman towns in Ireland. In. H.B. Clarke and A. Simms, eds. History of Urban origins in Non-Roman Europe: Ireland, Wales, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Part ii. BAR international series 255 (ii). Bradley, J. 1990. The early development of the medieval town of Kilkenny. In. W. Nolan and K. Whelan, eds. Kilkenny. History and society. Geography publications Bradley, J. 1995. Kilkenny – The Faire City. In. C. Howard, ed. In Irish Cities. Dublin: Mercier Press, 150-163. Bradley, J. 2000. Kilkenny. In. A. Simms, H.B Clarke and R. Gillespie, eds. Irish Historic Towns Atlas, Royal Irish Academy. S D Elder, S. D & Richardson, A. 2001. Final Report on Excavations to the rear of No. 33 Patrick Street, Kilkenny, including Area six of the Patrick Street/Pudding Lane/Pennyfeather Lane Development block. Aechtra Archaeological Projects unpublished report. Farrelly, J, Loughran, A, and O’Reilly, B. 1993. Urban archaeological survey: County Kilkenny. Dublin: Office of public works. Kenealy, C.J. 1948. The Walls of Kilkenny. Old Kilkenny Review, 11, 32-38. Kiely, J. 2000a. Archarological assessment report, former Stratham’s garage, Patrick St, Kilkenny. Eachtra Archaeological Projects unpublished report Kiely, J. 2000b. Archaeological excavation at No. 26, Patrick Street, Kilkenny. Old Kilkenny review, 52, 116-122. Lanigan, K.M. and Tyler, G. (ed) 1987. Kilkenny: Its Architecture and History, Belfast. Noona , D and Ryan, M. 2002. Archaeological assessment at 101 Patrick St, Kilkenny. Eachtra Archaeological Projects unpublished report Prim, J.G.A. 1849-51. The builder of the walls of Kilkenny. Royal society of antiquities in Ireland, 1, 34-37. Smithwick, P. 1988. St Francis Abbey. Old Kilkenny review, 5, 521-525.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 18
  • 23. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 13 Figures Figure 1: Extract from OS Discovery Series map. Site location highlighted.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 19
  • 24. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Figure 2: Extract from RMP sheet KK019. Site location highlighted.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 20
  • 25. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Figure 3: Extract from a map of Kilkenny, 1758, by John Rocque. Site location highlighted.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 21
  • 26. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Figure 4: Extract from OS 1st Edition map, 1841, sheet 19. Site location highlighted.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 22
  • 27. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Figure 5: Extract from OS 5ft map, sheet 19, 1872. Site location highlighted.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 23
  • 28. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Figure 6: Down Survey map of 1655. Taken from Historic Towns Atlas No. 10http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 24
  • 29. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Figure 7: Extract from OS Irish Historic Atlas map of Kilkenny, 1999. Site location highlighted.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 25
  • 30. 159 143 206 PROPERTY 4 151 210 202 148 153 162 198 183 141 179 181 150 174 179 186 274 164 146 172 115 118 195 102 288 123 306 120 329 308 297 124 290 PROPERTY 3 320 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 310 138 229 100 323 281 105 216 275 331 325 214 279 218 338 245 133 277 220 231 343 237 340 1 34 191 261 259 176 336 363 400 403 189 334 189 8 19 374 370 392 376 394 283 413 PROPERTY 2 397 404 243 407 366 322 354 251http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 364 372 358 257 380 352 378 356 350 255 382 241 395 360 239 212 PROPERTY 1 223 221 234 226 228 235 0 5m Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of the archaeological features at the Stratham’s Garage site, Patrick Street, Kilkenny.26 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 31. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Figure 9: Extract from 5ft map of Kilkenny with the outline of medieval properties shownhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 27
  • 32. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 271 272 290 291 401 268 402 403 314 261 389 391 262 392 292 400 399 390 293 263 345 332 346 331 348 349 347 Figure 10: Sections through some of the excavated features 344 343 406 404 405 406 407 411 410 409 412 342 413 341http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 28
  • 33. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 5 cm Possible Whetstone 99E0757:08:05 0 Figure 11: Drawing of possible whetstone from a linear feature C.271 5 cm 99E0757:249:03 Flint 0http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 29
  • 34. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 14 Plates Plate 1: General photograph of Property 3a, taken from the east Plate 2: Ditch C.235 from south-westhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 30
  • 35. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Plate 3: Furrows in Properties 1 and 2 from north Plate 4: Pits in Property 3a, taken from the easthttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 31
  • 36. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Plate 5: Cobble-stone surface C.254 from west Plate 6: Wall C.295 from south-westhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 32
  • 37. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Plate 7: Sewage outlet C.168 from south Plate 8: Section through pit C.143 from the south-westhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 33
  • 38. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 15 Appendiceshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 34
  • 39. 15.1 Appendix 1: Context Register Appendix 2 Context Register Kilkenny 99E757 C o n t e x t Area Grid Type F i l l e d Fill of Description Artefacts no. with 1 Extensive All Natural subsoil 6 Extensive All Rubble overburden Brick, Glazed red earth- enware, Pearlware, Clay ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 pipe stems, 7/8/11/16 Extensive All Garden soil overbur- Pearlware Frechen, Trans- den fer printed ware, Glazed red earthenware, clay pipe stems, tin glazed earthenware, modern glass (discarded), Brick, Westerwald 100 A+B 130E 95N Cut of Late Medieval 107 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Kilkenny-type ware,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ pit Break of slope top sharp, sides vertical, break Saintonge (green glazed), of slope base sharp, base flat, slightly concave. Kilkenny-type cooking Orientated N-S. Measured 2.8m by 2.2m by ware, Minety type ware, 0.5m depth. Nails, Brick 102 A+B 130E 95N Cut of Late Medieval 109 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Kilkenny-type ware, pit Break of slope top sharp, sides sloping to W Kilkenny-type cooking and N and vertical to S and E, break of slope ware, Brick, Clay pipe base sharp, base flat. Orientated E-W. Meas- stems, Slag, Nail ured 1.8m by 1.6m by 0.5m depth.35 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 40. 105 A+B 130E 95N Cut of Late Medieval 111 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Kilkenny-type ware pit Break of slope top sharp, sides straight and sloping, base flat. Orientated N-S. Measured 1.53m by 0.92m. 107 A+B 130E 95N Fill of Late Medieval - 100 Light brown firm sandy clay. Frequent small Kilkenny-type ware, pit stones and occasional charcoal. Measured 2.8m Saintonge (green glazed), by 2.2m by 0.5m. Kilkenny-type cooking ware, Minety type ware, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Nails, Brick 109 A+B 130E 95N Fill of Late Medieval - 102 Mid brown soft sandy clay, compact towards Kilkenny-type ware, pit base. Occasional charcoal with small and me- Kilkenny-type cooking dium stone lining in base. Measured 1.8m by ware, Brick, Clay pipe 1.6m by 0.5m depth. stems, Slag 111 130E 95N Fill of Late Medieval - 105 Dark brown loose silty clay. Frequent stones Kilkenny-type ware pit and occasional bone, mortar and chalk. Meas- ured 1.53m by 0.92m.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 113 A+B 125E 95N Cut of Late Medieval 114 Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- pit Break of slope top sharp, sides concave to N kenny type cooking ware, and stepped elsewhere, break of slope base Saintonge green glazed, sharp, base flat. Orientated E-W. Measured Ham Green B 2.6m by 1.6m by 0.7m depth. 114 A+B 125E 95N Fill of pit C.113 - 114 Dark brown soft sandy clay. Small stones con- Crucible fragment, Glass, centrated at base. Measured 2.6m by 1.6m by Slag 0.7m depth.36 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 41. 117 A+B 125E 95N Fill of pit C.118 - 118 Dark greyish brown soft clayey silt. Occasional pebbles, small stones, animal bone and shell. Measured 2.1m by 1.2m by 0.8m depth. 118 A+B 125E 95N Cut of medieval pit 117 - Sausage shaped pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top sharp, sides concave and vertical, break of slope base gradual and sharp, base un- dulating. Orientated E-W. 2.1m by 1.2m by 0.8m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 119 A+B 130E 95N Fill of Early/Late - 120 Mid brownish grey moderately compact silty Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- Medieval pit clay. Frequent animal bone and stones in base. kenny-type cooking ware, Measured 2m by 1.05m by 0.55m depth. Kilkenny-type coarse ware, Saintonge green glazed, Leinster cooking ware, Nail 120 A+B 130E 95N Cut of medieval pit 119 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top sharp, Sides concave to Whttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ and S and undercut to N and E, break of slope base gradual, base rounded. Orientated NE- SW. Filled with C.119. Measured 2m by 1.05m by 0.55m depth. 122 A+B 130E 95N Fill of Late Medieval - 123 Dark brown loose silty clay. Occasional stone, Kilkenny-type ware pit mortar, gravel, burnt bone and animal bone. Measured 1.25m by 0.52m by 0.58m depth.37 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 42. 123 130E 95N Cut of medieval pit 122 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top sharp, sides concave at W and undercut on others, break of slope base gradual, base concave. Orientated NE-SW. Filled with C.122. Measured 1.25m by 0.52m by 0.58m depth. 124 A+B 140E 95N Cut of post-medieval 1 2 5 , - Oval pit with rounded corners. Break of slope Kilkenny-type ware, pit 1 2 6 , top sharp, sides convex and vertical, break of Kilkenny-type cook- ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 127, 128 slope base sharp, base concave and uneven. ing ware, Kilkenny-type Orientated N-S. Filled with C.125, C.126, coarse ware, Saintonge C.127, C.128. Measured 2.4m by 1.45m by green glazed, Merida 0.85m depth. type, Mottled ware, Nail 125 140E 95N Fill of Late/Post Me- - 124 Dark greyish brown firm silty clay. Small - dieval pit stones. Over C.126. Measured 2.4m by 1.45m by 0.28m depth. 126 140E 95N Fill of Late/Post Me- - 124 Mid orange brown firm sandy clay. Frequenthttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ dieval pit pebbles and small stones, occasional charcoal. Under C.125, over C.127. Measured 2.4m by 1.45m by 0.35m depth. 127 140E 95N Fill of Late/Post Me- - 124 Mid yellowish brown firm sandy clay. Very dieval pit small stones and occasional charcoal. Under C.126, over C.128. Measured 2.4m by 1.45m by 0.2m depth. 128 140E 95N Fill of Late/Post Me- - 124 Light greyish brown firm sandy clay. Occasion- dieval pit al very small stones and charcoal. Under C.127. Measured 2.4m by 1.45m by 0.12m depth.38 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 43. 129 A+B 125E 95N Fill of pit C.130 - 130 Mid brown soft sandy silty clay. Animal bone - and very occasional charcoal and small stone. Measured 1.5m by 1.2m by 0.35m depth. 130 A+B 125E 95N Cut of pit 129 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break - of slope top sharp, sides vertical to S and oth- ers sloping, base slopes to north. Truncated by C.179. Measured 1.5m by 1.2m by 0.35m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 131 - - Re-numbered as 179 & 180 Kilkenny-type ware, Kilkenny-type cooking ware, Brick, Slate 132 Re-numbered as 179 & 180 133 A+B 135E 95N Cut of post-medieval 134 - Kidney shaped pit with rounded corners. Break - pit of slope top sharp, sides vertical, break of slope base gradual. Base flat, slight central depres- sion. Measured 3.1m by 3m by 0.6m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 134 135E 95N Fill of Late Medieval - 133 Mid brown friable silty clay. Animal bone, Kilkenny-type ware, pit small stones and pebbles. Measured 3.1m by Kilkenny-type cook- 3m by 0.6m depth. ing ware, Kilkenny-type coarse ware, Leinster cooking ware, Saintonge green glazed, Nail, Slag, Iron fragment 135 A+B 1 2 0 E Fill of pit C.136 - 136 Dark greyish brown clayey silt. Moderate small - 100N stone and frequent pebbles. 0.8m by 0.4m by 0.15m depth.39 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 44. 136 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of pit 135 - Sub-rectangular pit. Break of slope top sharp, - 100N sides concave, break of slope base impercepti- ble, base undulating. Orientated E-W. Filled with C.135. Truncated by C.183. Measured 0.8m by 0.4m by 0.15m depth. 138 A+B 140E 95N Cut of pit 139, 140 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break - of slope top gradual, sides irregular to N and W and steep to S and E, break of slope base ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 gradual, base irregular with depression in cen- tre. Measured 1.6m by 1.5m by 0.58m depth. 139 A+B 140E 95N Fill of pit C.138 - 138 Mid brown firm silty clay. Mortar, moderate - small stones and occasional charcoal. Over C.140. Measured 1.6m by 1.5m by 0.15m depth. 140 A+B 140E 95N Fill of pit C.138 - 138 light yellowish brown firm sandy clay. Small and large stones and brick. Under C.139. Meas-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ ured 1.6m by 1.5m by 0.43m depth. 141 E 105E 95N Cut of pit 142 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break - of slope top sharp, sides gradual, break of slope base gradual, base concave. Orientated N-S. Measured 1.6m by 1.5m by 0.45m depth. 142 105E 95N Fill of pit C141 - 141 Mottled orange/black brown firm silty clay. - Frequent stones, ash and charcoal flecks. Meas- ured 1.6m by 1.5m by 0.45m depth.40 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 45. 143 E 1 0 5 E Cut of pit 144 - Circular pit with rounded corners. Break of 100N slope top sharp, sides undercut and then grad- ual, break of slope base gradual, base concave. Orientated N-S. Truncated by C.166. Meas- ured 2.5m by 2.3m by 0.55m depth. 144 1 0 5 E Fill of pit C.143 - 143 Dark brown firm silty ashy clay. Frequent char- 100N coal flecks and burnt clay. Measured 2.5m by 2.3m by 0.55m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 145 110E 95N Fill of pit C.146 - 146 Mid greyish brown soft sandy clay. Animal bone and occasional small stones. Measured 1.4m by 1m by 0.15m depth. 146 E 110E 95N Cut of Late Medieval 145 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- pit Break of slope top gradual, sides concave and kenny-type coarse ware, shallow, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Leinster cooking ware, Orientated E-W. Measured 1.4m by 1m by Unidentified medieval 0.15m depth. potteryhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 147 1 0 5 E Fill of pit C.148 - 148 Dark brown loose silty clay. Occasional char- 100N coal, decayed stone and mortar. Measured 0.7m by 0.66m by 0.3m depth. 148 E 1 0 5 E Cut of pit 147 - Circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, sides 100N gradually sloping, break of slope base gradual, base rounded. Measured 0.7m by 0.66m by 0.33m depth. 149 110E 95N Fill of pit C.150 - 150 Dark brown fairly compact sandy clay. Fre- quent small stones, occasional bone and slag. Measured 1.06m by 1m by 0.14m depth.41 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 46. 150 E 110E 95N Cut of pit 149 - Circular pit. Break of slope top gradual, sides gently sloping, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Measured 1m by 0.7m by 0.37m depth. 151 E 1 1 0 E Cut of pit 152 - Oval pit with rounded corners. Break of slope 100N top sharp, sides almost vertical, break of slope base gradual to sharp, base undulating. Orien- tated N-S. Filled with C.152. Measured 1m by 0.7m by 0.37m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 152 1 1 0 E Fill of pit C.151 - 151 Mid to dark brown loose sandy silt. Bone and 100N small stones. Measured 1m by 0.7m by 0.37m depth. 153 E 1 1 0 E Cut of pit 154 - Sub-oval pit with rounded and sharp corners. 100N Break of slope top sharp S and W and grad- ual N and E, sides steep, break of slope base gradual, base uneven. Orientated N-S. Filled with C.154. Measured 1.4m by 1.25m by 0.2mhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ depth. 154 1 1 0 E Fill of pit C.153 - 153 Very light brown/grey friable sandy gravel. 100N Measured 1.4m by 1.25m by 0.2m depth. 155 1 1 0 E Fill of pit C.156 - 156 Dark brown moderately compact silty clay. 100N Stone, charcoal and organic material. Meas- ured 0.6m by 0.42m by 0.06m depth.42 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 47. 156 E 1 1 0 E Cut of pit 155 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. 100N Break of slope top sharp on N and W and un- defined on E and S, sides gradual, break of slope base gradual, base uneven. Orientated NW-SE. Filled with C.155. Measured 0.6m by 0.42m by 0.06m depth. 159 1 1 0 E Cut of pit 160 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break 105N of slope top gradual and varied, sides gradual, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 break of slope base gradual, base undulating. Orientated E-W. Measured 1.7m by 1.2m by 0.2m depth. 160 1 1 0 E Fill of pit C.159 - 159 Dark brown loose sandy clay. Bone, gravel and 105N 15% pebbles. Measured 1.7m by 1.2m by 0.2m depth. 161 1 1 0 E Fill of pit C.162 - 162 Greyish brown fairly compact clayey sand. 105N 40% small stones and occasional animal bone.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ Measured 2m by 1.25m by 0.24m depth. 162 E 1 1 0 E Cut of pit 161 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded and squared 105N corners. Break of slope top sharp, sides verti- cal and sloped on W, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Orientated NE-SW. Measured 2m by 1.25m by 0.24m depth. 163 105E 95N Fill of pit - 164 Dark brown firm silty clay. Frequent stones, oc- casional charcoal, mortar and decayed stone. Measured 2.5m by 1.48m by 0.44m depth.43 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 48. 164 E 105E 95N Cut of pit 163 - Semi-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top sharp, sides gradual, break of slope base gradual, base undulating. Orientated east-west. Measured 2.5m by 1.48m by 0.44m depth. 168 1 0 0 E Sewage outlet con- - - Rectangular stone and brick sewage outlet with - 105N nected to culvert un- squared corners. Walls made up of roughly der street pavement coursed stone and brick with sand mortar. Slate ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 floor. Orientated E-W. Measured 1.8m by 1.3m by 1.1.m depth. 169 A+B 125E 95N Fill of Late/Post Me- - 170 Dark brown firm silty clay. Tree roots, decayed Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- dieval pit stone, mortar, charcoal and frequent stone. kenny-type coarse ware, Measured 2.16m by 1.35m by 0.3m depth. Frechen ware 170 A+B 125E 95N Cut of post-medieval 169 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. pit Break of slope top sharp and gradual to N, sides vertical, gradual to N, break of slope basehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ gradual, base undulating. Orientated NW-SE. Measured 2.16m by 1.35m by 0.3m depth. 171 A+B 1 2 0 E Fill of pit C.172 - 172 Dark brown fairly compact sandy clay. Organic Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- 100N material and occasional small stones. Measured kenny-type coarse ware, 1.9m by 1.1m by 0.54m depth. Leinster cooking ware 172 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of medieval pit 171 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. 100N Break of slope top sharp, sides gradual, break of base sharp, base flat. Orientated E-W. Truncat- ed by C.174. Measured 1.9m by 1.1m by 0.54m depth.44 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 49. 173 A+B 1 2 0 E Fill of Late Medieval - 174 Dark brown fairly compact sandy clay. Ani- Kilkenny-type ware, 100N pit mal bone, occasional small stone, more fre- Saintonge green glazed, quent stone and yellow clay at edge truncating Clay pipe stem pit C.172. Measured 2.1m by 1.8m by 0.45m depth. 174 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of post-medieval 173 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. 100N pit Break of slope top sharp, sides straight, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Truncates pit C.172. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Truncated by ditch C.179. Measured 2.1m by 1.8m by 0.45m depth. 175 A+B 135E 85N Fill of pit C.176 - 176 Mid grey/brown moderately compact silty clay. Animal bone and small-medium stones. Meas- ured 2.3m by 2.2m by 0.5m depth. 176 A+B 135E 85N Cut of medieval pit 175 - Sub-circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base sloped towards southern end and rounded. Measuredhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 2.3m by 2.2m by 0.5m depth. 177 A+B 1 2 5 E Fill of Late Medieval - 178 Dark brown loose silty clay. Roots, charcoal, Kilkenny-type ware, Clay 100N pit mortar, animal bone and decayed stone. Meas- pipe stems, ured 2.43m by 0.8m by 0.53m depth. 178 A+B 1 2 5 E Cut of post-medieval 177 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. 100N pit Break of slope top sharp, sides vertical, break of slope base gradual, base undulating. Orientated N-S. Truncated by ditch C.183. Truncates pit C.170. Measured 2.43m by 0.8m by 0.53m depth.45 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 50. 179 1 3 5 E Cut of post-medieval 180 - Linear ditch. Break of slope top sharp, sides Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- 100N linear ditch sharp, break of slope base sharp, base concave. kenny-type cooking ware, Orientated E-W. Filled with C.180. Truncates Kilkenny-type coarse pit C.181 and pit C.174. Measured 10.80m by ware, Leinster cooking 0.9m ware, Glazed red earth- enware, North Devon gravel free, Black glazed ware, Clay pipe stems & ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 bowl fragments, Slag 180 1 3 5 E Fill of ditch Late Me- - 179 Mid brown soft silty clay. Occasional stones 100N dieval/Post-Medieval and charcoal flecks. Measured 10.80m by 0.9m. ditch 181 A+B 1 3 5 E Cut of pit - 182 Sub-circular pit cut with rounded corners. - 100N Break of slope top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base concave. Orientated N-S. Truncated by C.179. Measured 1.56m by 1.1mhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ by 0.35m depth. 182 A+B 1 3 5 E Fill of pit C.181 181 - Light-mid brown hard clay. Frequent medium - 100N stones, occasional small stones and charcoal. Measured 1.56m by 1.1m by 0.35m depth. 183 1 2 0 E Cut of linear ditch 184, 185 - Linear ditch. Break of slope top sharp, sides 100N vertical, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Orientation WSW-ENE. Truncates pit C.178. Measured 4.9m by 1.1m by 0.75m depth.46 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 51. 184 1 2 0 E Fill of ditch 183 - 183 North Devon gravel free, 100N Clay pipe stem, metal fragment 185 1 2 0 E Fill of ditch C.183 - 183 Dark brown loose silty clay. Animal bone inclu- Kilkenny-type ware, 100N sions. Measured 4.9m by 1.1m by 0.75m depth. Glazed red earthenware, North Devon gravel free, Glass, Clay pipe stem, Brick ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 186 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of medieval pit 187 - Sub-circular pit cut with rounded corners. 95N Break of slope top sharp, sides gentle, break of slope base gradual, base concave. Orientat- ed E-W. Measured 1.75m by 1.6m by 0.25m depth. 187 1 2 0 E Fill of pit C.186 - 186 Light mottled brown hard clay. Occasional 95N medium and frequent small stones. Measured 1.75m by 1.6m by 0.25m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 190 A+B 130E 95N Fill of pit C.191 - 191 Dark blackish brown loose silty clay. Frequent Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- stone, especially in south of pit and occasional kenny-type cooking ware, charcoal. Measured 1.97m by 1.53m by 0.71m Kilkenny-type coarse depth. ware, Bone, Nail, Slag 191 A+B 130E 95N Cut of modern pit 190 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Stoneware, Pearlware, Break of slope top sharp on S and N and grad- Transfer printed ware, ual on others, sides steep and undercut on S Shell edged ware, porce- and SW, break of slope base gradual, base flat. lain, Black glazed ware, Orientated N-S. Truncates C.245. Measures Glazed red earthenware, 1.97m by 1.53m by 0.71m depth. Glass47 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 52. 192 135E 85N Fill of Late Medieval - 193 Dark grey/brown soft silty clay. Animal bone Kilkenny type ware pit and occasional small to medium stones. Meas- ures 1.6m by 1.4m by 0.5m depth. 193 A+B 135E 85N Cut of Late Medieval 192 - Sub-triangular pit with rounded corners. Break pit of slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base slightly concave. Measures 1.6m by 1.4m by 0.5m depth. 194 A+B 1 2 0 E Fill of pit C.195 - 195 Dark greyish brown soft silty clay. Bone, mod- Kilkenny-type ware, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 95N erate stones and occasional charcoal. Measures Saintonge green glazed, 2.2m by 1.48m by 0.95m depth. Pearlware wall tile, Nail- like objects 195 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of pit 194 - Sub-oval pit. Break of slope top sharp on NW 95N and S and gradual on others, sides steep and undercut on S, break of slope base gradual, base rounded point. Orientated NW-SE. Measures 2.2m by 1.48m by 0.95m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 196 A+B 1 3 0 E Fill of Late Medieval - 197 Dark greyish brown sandy clay. Bone and me- Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- 90N pit dium sized stones. Measures 2.4m by 1.3m by kenny-type coarse ware, 0.15m depth. Saintonge green glazed, 197 A+B 1 3 0 E Cut of pit 196 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Sides 90N straight, base flat. Orientated N-S. Truncates pit C.259. Measures 2.4m by 1.3m by 0.15m depth.48 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 53. 198 1 2 5 E Cut of modern pit 199 - Sub-rectangular pit with sharp corners. Break Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- 100N of slope top sharp, sides vertical, stepped at kenny-type cooking ware E, break of slope base sharp, base flat, steeped down at west. Orientated E-W. Truncated by modern disturbance. Measures 1.5m by 0.9m depth. 199 1 2 5 E Fill of pit C.198 and - 1 9 8 , Mid brown friable silty clay. Mortar, animal Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- 100N linear feature C.208 208 bone, small and large stones. Measures 3.75m kenny-type cooking ware, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 by 2m. Glazed red earthenware, Tin glazed earthenware, Westerwald, Clay pie, Glass shards, Wood 202 A+B 1 2 5 E Cut of pit 203 - Sub-circular pit cut with rounded corners. 100N Break of slope top gradual, sides gentle, break of slope base gradual, base concave. Orientated E-W. Filled with C.203. Measures 0.7m byhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 0.6m by 0.35m depth. 203 A+B 1 2 5 E Fill of pit C.202 - 202 Mid yellowish brown firm sandy clay. Modern - 100N mortar, occasional charcoal flecks and frequent small stones. Measures 0.7m by 0.6m by 0.35m depth. 206 1 2 5 E Cut of modern pit 207 - Oval pit with rounded corners. Break of slope 100N top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Orientated E-W. Truncated by mod- ern disturbance. Measured 1.6m by 1m by 0.8m depth.49 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 54. 207 1 2 5 E Fill of pit C.206 - 207 Dark brown firm silty clay. Mortar, small stones 100N and charcoal. Measured 1.6m by 1m by 0.8m depth. 208 1 2 5 E Cut of modern pit 199 - Sub-rectangular lpit/inear feature with rounded 100N corners. Break of slope top sharp, sides vertical, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Orientated NE-SW. Truncated by modern disturbance. Measured 3.26m by 0.5m by 0.6m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 212 D 140E 70N Cut of medieval pit 213 - Oval pit with N/S linear extension. Break of slope top sharp and gradual, sides steep and shallow, break of slope base sharp and imper- ceptible. Base flat and irregular. Orientated E-W. Measured 2.4m by 1.6m by 0.35m depth. 213 140E 70N Fill of pit C.212 - 212 Mid grey/brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal - bone, small and medium stones. Measured 2.4m by 1.6m by 0.35m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 214 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of modern pit 215 - Irregular pit cut with rounded corners. Break 90N of slope top gradual, sides gentle, break of slope base gradual, base uneven. Orientated N-S. Truncates C.216. Measured 1.1m by 0.95m by 0.2m depth. 215 A+B 1 2 0 E Fill of pit C214 - 214 Mid brown firm silty clay. Occasional charcoal - 90N and frequent small stones. Measured 1.1m by 0.95m by 0.2m depth.50 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 55. 216 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of post-medieval 217 - Oval pit with rounded corners. Break of slope 90N pit top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base concave. Orientated E-W. Truncated by C.214 and C.218. Measured 1.3m by 0.9m by 0.6m depth. 217 1 2 0 E Fill of Late Medieval - 216 Mid-dark brown firm silty clay. Animal bone Kilkenny-type ware, 90N pit and occasional small stones. Measured 1.3m by Kilkenny-type cook- 0.9m by 0.6m depth. ing ware, Kilkenny-type ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 coarse ware, Glazed red earthenware 218 A+B 125E 90N Cut of modern pit 219 - Sub-rectangular pit cut with rounded cor- ners. Break of slope top sharp, sides steep and gradual at SW, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Orientated NW-SE. Contemporary with C.220. Truncates C.216. Measured 2.65m by 1.45m by 0.5m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 219 A+B 125E 90N Fill of adjacent pits - 2 1 8 , Medium brown loose silty clay. Animal bone, Nail, C.218 and C.220 220 5% small to medium stones and occasional charcoal flecks. Measured 3m by 2.65m by 0.5m depth. 220 A+B 125E 90N Cut of modern pit 219 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top sharp at N and gradual all others, sides gradual, break of slope base gradu- al and imperceptible, base flat. Orientated E-W. Contemporary with C.218. Measured 2.2m by 1.2m by 0.3m depth.51 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 56. 221 D 65N Cut of linear furrow 222 - Linear furrow. Break of slope top sharp, sides Kilkenny-type ware steep, break of slope base gradual, base concave. E-W orientated. Measured 1.6m by 0.3m by 0.15m depth. 222 65N Fill of furrow C.221 - 221 Mid grey/brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal - bone, occasional small and medium stones. Measured 16m by 0.3m by 0.15m depth. 223 D 140E 65N Cut of Late Medieval 224 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 pit Break of slope top sharp, sides concave becom- ing vertical, break of slope base gradual, base rounded. Orientation NE-SW. Truncated by modern disturbance. Measured 2.1m by 0.9m by 1.1m depth. 224 140E 65N Fill of Late Medieval - 224 Dark brown soft clayey silt. Animal bone, oc- Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- pit casional charcoal and small stones. Measuredkeny-type cooking ware, 2.1m by 0.9m by 1.1m depth. Leinster cooking ware,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ Redcliffe?, Slag 225 140E 65N Fill of pit C.226 - 226 Light greyish brown firm silty clay. Animal Kilkenny-type ware, bone, moderate small stones and occasional Leinster cooking ware, charcoal flecks. Measured 1.37m by 1.1m by Brick 0.23m depth.52 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 57. 226 D 140E 65N Cut of post-medieval 225 - Possibly sub-rectangular pit. Break of slope top pit Gradual, sharp at N, sides gradually sloping, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orien- tated E-W. Truncates pit C.228. Truncated by modern disturbance. Measured 1.37m by 1.1m by 0.23m depth. 227 140E 65N Fill of pit C.228 - 228 Dark grey loose silty clay. Roots, shell, animal Kilkenny-type ware, Clay bone and stones. Measured 1.65m by 1.36m by pipe stem ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0.37m depth. 228 D 140E 65N Cut of post-medieval 227 - Sub rectangular pit with sharp and rounded pit corners. Break of slope top gradual, undercut on W, sides gradual, vertical at W, break of slope base gradual, sharp at W, base undulating. Orientated NE-SW. Truncated by pit C.226 and modern disturbance. Measured 1.65m by 1.36m by 0.37m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 229 A+B 1 2 0 E Cut of medieval pit 230 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break 90N of slope top gradual and sharp, sides gradual and stepped, break of slope base gradual, base irregular. Orientated N-S. Measured 1.8m by 1.5m by 0.45m depth. 230 A+B 1 2 0 E Fill of pit C.229 - 229 Medium brown loose silty clay. Animal bone, Kilkenny-type cook- 90N occasional charcoal and 20% medium sized ing ware, Kilkenny-type stones, mainly at base. Measured 1.8m by 1.5m coarse ware,Copper Alloy by 0.45m depth. fragment53 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 58. 231 A+B 1 3 0 E Cut of medieval pit 232 - Oval pit cut with rounded corners. Break 90N of slope top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base flat/concave. Orientated N-S. Measured 3.2m by 1.8m by 0.3m depth. 232 1 3 0 E Fill of pit C.231 - 231 Mid brown firm silty clay. Animal bone, occa- 90N sional charcoal and frequent stones at base, pos- sible lining. Measured 3.2m by 1.8m by 0.3m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 233 D 150E 65N Fill of pit C.234 - 234 Light brown friable sandy silt. Animal bone, Kilkenny-type cooking occasional charcoal and small pebbles. Meas- ware ured 1m by 0.46m by 0.19m depth. 234 D 150E 65N Cut of medieval pit 233 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top gradual, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base flat, sloping to N. Orientated N-S. Measured 1m by 0.46m by 0.19m depth. 235 D 60N Cut of medieval lin- 236 - Linear ditch. Break of slope top sharp, sides Kilkenny-type ware,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ ear ditch both concave and convex along length, break of Kilkenny-type cook- slope base gradual, base rounded and uneven. ing ware, Kilkenny-type Orientated E-W. Located at southern edge of coarse ware, Leinster excavation and continues off-site. Measured cooking ware, Late Local 10.5m by 2m by c. 0.4m depth. ware, Glazed red earth- enware, Clay pipe stem, Brick, Nail 236 60N Fill of ditch C.235 - 235 Mid-dark brown firm sandy clay. Animal bone, moderate small-medium stones. Measured 10.5m by 2m by c. 0.4m depth.54 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 59. 237 A+B 130E 85N Cut of medieval pit 238 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- Break of slope top gradual, sides moderately kenny-type cooking ware, sloping, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Leinster cooking ware Orientated NE-SW. Truncated by C.245. Measured 1.45m by 0.6m by 0.12m depth. 238 130E 85N Fill of pit C.237 - 237 Dark brown loose silty clay. Animal bone, 5% medium stones and occasional charcoal flecks. Measured 1.45m by 0.6m by 0.12m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 239 D 70N Cut of furrow 240 - Linear furrow. Break of slope top sharp, sides Kilkenny-type ware concave, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orientated E-W. Measured 7.1m by 0.38m by 0.14m depth. 240 70N Fill of furrow C.239 - 239 Mid grey/brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone, occasional small and medium stones. Measured 7.1m by 0.38m by 0.14m depth. 241 D 75N Cut of furrow 242 - Linear furrow. Break of slope top sharp, sideshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ concave and steep, break of slope base sharp, rounded base. Orientated E-W. Measured 8.8m by 0.3m by 0.28m depth. 242 75N Fill of furrow C.241 - 241 Mid grey/brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal - bone, occasional small and medium stones. Measured 8.8m by 0.3m by 0.28m depth. 243 D 80N Cut of furrow 244 - Linear furrow. Break of slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orientated E-W. Measured 17.3m by 0.7m by 0.22m depth.55 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 60. 244 80N Fill of furrow C.243 - 243 Mid grey/brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal - bone, occasional small and medium stones. Measured 17.3m by 0.7m by 0.22m depth. 245 A+B 1 3 0 E Cut of Late Medieval 246 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. 90N pit Break of slope top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base undulating. Orientated N-S. Truncates C.238. Measured 3.2m by 3m by 0.45m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 246 1 3 0 E Fill of Late Medieval - 245 Mid yellowish/mottled brown firm sandy clay. Kilkenny-type ware, 90N pit Animal bone, occasional charcoal, burnt clay. Nail Measured 3.2m by 3m by 0.45m depth. 249 Possible pit cut (1.50mN of 248) 250 Possible pit cut Glazed red earthenware, (2.50mNW of 249) Tin glazed earthenware 251 C 125E 75N Cut of medieval pit 287 - Sub-rectangular cut with rounded corners.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ Break of slope top gradual, sides steeply slop- ing, break of slope base gradual, base uneven and flat. Truncated by C.322. Measured 1.22m by 1.25m by 0.28m depth.56 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 61. 254 105E 95N Post-medieval cob- 264 - Sub-rectangular remains of cobbled surface, Mottled ware? blestone surface truncated on all sides by modern disturbance. Made of rounded medium sized stone. Orien- tated E-W. Drain in cobbles runs ESE-WNW. Under C.264. Over pits C.288, C.297, C.312, C.308, C.318 and deposit C.314. Measured 6.73m by 2.47m width. 255 135E 75N Cut of Late Medieval 256 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of Kilkenny-type ware, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 pit slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope Kilkenny-type cook- base sharp, base rounded. Truncates C.257. ing ware, Kilkenny-type Truncated by southern edge of excavation. coarse ware, Saintonge Measured 1.48m by 0.86m by 0.36m depth. green glazed 256 135E 75N Fill of Late Medieval - 255 Dark brown/black friable sandy silt. Animal pit bone, occasional charcoal and small stones. Measured 1.48m by 0.86m by 0.36m depth. 257 C 135E 75N Cut of Late Medieval 258 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break Kilkenny-type ware,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ pit of slope top sharp, sides concave and stepped, Kilkenny-type cook- break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orienta- ing ware, Kilkenny-type tion E-W. Truncated by C.255 and southern coarse ware edge of excavation. Measured 3.55m by 1.6m by 0.6m depth. 258 135E 75N Fill of Late Medieval - 257 Light brown moderately compact sandy silt. pit Animal bone, charcoal and small stones. Meas- ured 3.55m by 1.6m by 0.6m depth.57 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 62. 259 A+B 135E 85N Cut of post-medieval 260 - Oval pit with rounded corners. Break of slope pit top sharp, sides vertical, break of slope base sharp, base concave. Orientated E-W. Trun- cated by C.133 and C.197. Measured 3.3m by 2.2m by 1.6m depth. 260 135E 85N Fill of pit C.259 - 259 Light mottled brown soft sandy clay. Animal Kilkenny-type ware, bone and frequent large stones located mainly Kilkenny-type cook- at base and sides. Measured 3.3m by 2.2m by ing ware, Kilkenny-type ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1.6m depth. coarse ware, Leinster cooking ware, Saintonge green glazed, Brick 261 A+B 140E 85N Cut of Late Medieval 2 6 3 , - Cut of circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- pit 270 very steep sides, break of slope base gradual, kenny-type cooking ware base concave. Filled with C.263 and C.270. Truncated by pit C.267 and linear feature C.271. Measured 2.3m by 2.2m by 0.5m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 262 140E 85N Fill of pit - 285 Mixed black/dark grey brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone, burnt bone, frequent char- coal, occasional small stones, burnt clay. Meas- ured 1.7m by 1.2m by 0.3m depth. 263 140E 85N Fill of Late Medieval - 261 Mid grey/brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal pit bone, occasional charcoal flecks and small stones. Measured 2.3m by 2.2m by 0.6m depth. 264 135E 75N Compacted deposit - 254 Light-dark brown hard silty clay. Occasional between stones of small stones, odour of horse droppings. Over cobbled surface C.254. Measured 6.73m by 2.47m.58 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 63. 267 A+B 140E 85N Cut of Late Medieval 2 6 8 , - Cut of circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, Kilkenny-type ware, pit 269 sides steep, unclear at E, break of slope base Ham Green B, Leinster gradual, base concave. Truncates pit C.261. cooking ware Truncated by pit C.285. Measured 1.7m by 1.7m by 0.5m depth. 268 140E 85N Fill of Late Medieval - 267 Mid grey/brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal pit bone, occasional small stones and charcoal. Gravel lens at western edge. Measured 1.7m by ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 1.7m by 0.2m depth. 269 140E 85N Fill of Late Medieval - 267 Dark black/grey loose fine silt. Animal bone, Kilkenny-type ware pit burnt material, charcoal rich. Measured 1.7m by 1.7m by 0.05m depth. 270 140E 85N Fill of Late Medieval - 261 Mottled pale orange/ mid grey brown moder- - pit ately compact fine silty clay. Occasional small stones. Small patches of material in base of cut. Measured 0.06m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 271 140E 85N Cut of linear feature 272 - Linear cut. Break of slope top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base concave. Ori- entated NE-SW. Truncated by modern wall. Truncates C.261. Truncated by modern wall C.286. Measured 2.7m by 0.75m by 0.25m depth. 272 140E 85N Fill of linear feature - 271 Mid grey-brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal Kilkenny-type ware, Silt bone, occasional small stones and charcoal stone or slate flecks. Measured 2.7m by 0.75m by 0.25m depth.59 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 64. 273 D 150E 95N Fill of pit C.274 - 274 Brown loose silty clay. Animal bone, roots, small and medium stones in compact layer at base. Measured 2.15m by 0.66m by 0.59m depth. 274 D 150E 95N Cut of pit located at 273 - Semi-circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, northern edge of ex- sides vertical and undercut to W and S, break cavation of slope base gradual, base sloping. Orientated E-W. Measured 2.15m by 0.66m by 0.59m ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 depth. 275 A+B 140E 90N Cut of post-medieval 276 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of pit slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base imperceptible, base rounded. Truncated by pits C.277 and C.279. Measured 1.9m by 1.8m by 0.65m depth. 276 140E 90N Fill of pit C.275 - 275 Dark grey brown moderately compact sandy Kilkenny-type coarse silt. Animal bone, occasional charcoal, frequent warehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ small stones. Measured 1.9m by 1.8m by 0.65m depth. 277 A+B 140E 90N Cut of post-medieval 278 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break pit of slope top sharp, sides vertical and concave, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orientat- ed E-W. Truncates C.276. Measured 1.7m by 1.1m by 0.55m depth. 278 140E 90N Fill of pit C.277 - 277 Dark grey brown moderately compact sandy Kilkenny-type ware silt. Animal bone, occasional charcoal flecks and small stones. 1.7m by 1.1m by 0.55m.60 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 65. 279 A+B 140E 90N Cut of post-medieval 280 - Sub-circular pit cut with rounded corners. pit Break of slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base gently rounded. Orientated NE-SW. Truncates pits C.275 and C.281. Measured 2m by 1.1m by 0.8m depth. 280 140E 90N Fill of pit C.279 - 279 Dark grey brown moderately compact sandy silt. Animal bone, occasional small stones and charcoal. Measured 2m by 1.1m by 0.8m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 281 A+B 140E 90N Cut of post-medieval 282 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of pit slope top sharp, sides gradual at SW and others concave, break of slope base gradual to SW and others sharp, base flat, slopes down from SW to NE. Orientated NE-SW. Truncated by C.279 and modern wall C.286. Measured 1.3m by 1.2m by 0.6m depth. 282 140E 90N Fill of pit C281 - 281 Dark grey brown moderately compact sandy Kilkenny-type ware,http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ silt. Animal bone, Occasional charcoal and Kilkenny-type cooking small stones. Measured 1.3m by 1.2m by 0.6m ware, Merida-type depth. 283 C 120E 80N Cut of medieval pit 284 - Dark grey brown moderately compact sandy silt. Animal bone, Occasional charcoal and small stones. Measured 1.65m by 1.35m by 0.6m depth.61 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 66. 284 120E 80N Fill of pit C.283 - 283 Mottled firm mid-light yellow/brown clay. Animal bone, occasional charcoal flecks, 15% redeposited natural. 1.65m by 1.35m by 0.6m depth. 285 A+B 140E 85N Cut of medieval pit 262 - Sub-circular pit. Break of slope top gradual, Kilkenny-type ware sides concave, break of slope base gradual, flat base. Truncates pit C.267. 286 D 140E Modern wall - - N-S orientated modern wall. Construction 1601 Elizabeth 1 penny ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 material appears to have been taken from an copper coin earlier structure. Stones and brick randomly coursed with concrete to secure in places. Trun- cates C.271 and C.281. 18m by 1.3m by 0.8m depth. 287 125E 75N Fill of pit C.251 - 251 Soft dark grey clayey silt. Inclusions of animal - bone, occasional charcoal flecks, moderate small to medium stones.1.22m by 1.25m byhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 0.28m depth. 288 E 100E 95N Cut of linear pit 289 - Linear pit with rounded corners. E-W orienta- tion. Break of slope top sharp, steep sides, break of slope base sharp, concave base. Truncates pit C.364 289 100E 95N Fill of pit C.288 - 288 Mottled dark blackish orange/brown firm ashy Discarded glass, Slag silt clay. Inclusions of animal bone, burnt clay, burnt organic material, charcoal flecks. 1.25m by 0.5m.62 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 67. 290 E 105E 95N Cut of pit 291, 314 - Sub-circular pit. Break of slope top gradual, Kilkenny-type ware sides gradually sloping, break of slope base gradual, concave base. Contemporary with ad- jacent pit C.292. Under deposit C.314. Trun- cates C.310. 291 105E 95N Fill of pit C.290 - 290 Loose mottled orange/red/light grey silty sand. Clay pipe stem Inclusions of animal bone, occasional charcoal flecks and small-medium stones, burnt clay and ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 clay pipe. 2.4m by 1.6m by 2.5m depth. 292 E 105E 95N Cut of pit 293, 314 - Sub-circular pit. Break of slope-top gradual, sides steep and irregular, break of slope base gradual, base flat and irregular. Under C.314. 1.2m by 1m by 0.4m depth. 293 105E 95N Fill of pit C.292 - 292 Mottled orange/red and mid/dark grey silty sand. Animal bone, burnt clay, frequent char- coal, occasional small and medium stones.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 2.4m by 1.6m by 0.45m depth. 295 110E 90N Post-medieval wall L shaped post-medieval wall remains located to Kilkenny-type ware, remains the east of cobbles surface C.254. Roughly cut Saintonge green glazed coursed limestone, largest 0.55m x 0.3m. Trun- cates pit C323. Measured 8m by 0.75m. 296 105E 95N Fill of pit C.297 - 297 Dark brown/grey silty clay. Animal bone with layer of stones near top. Measured 1.42m by 1.34m by 0.52m depth.63 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 68. 297 D 105E 95N Cut of medieval pit 296 - Sub-square pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top gradual, sides gradual, break of slope base gradual, base undulating. Orientated NE- SW. Filled with C.296. Under cobbled surface C.254. Measured 1.42m by 1.34m by 0.52m depth. 304 E 105E 95N Cut of post-medieval 305 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break pit of slope top imperceptible, sides concave, break ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 of slope base gradual, base flat. Truncated by C.312. Measured 0.57m by 0.45m by 0.02m depth. 305 105E 95N Fill of pit C304 - 304 Mottled dark grey/yellow/dark orange sticky - sandy clayey silt. Occasional charcoal. Meas- ured 0.57m by 0.45m depth by 0.02m depth. 306 E 105E 95N Cut of post-medieval 307 - Sub-circular pit cut with rounded corners. pit Break of slope top gradual, sides concave, breakhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ of slope base gradual, base rounded. Truncated by C.310 and C.312. Measured 0.8m by 0.62m by 0.2m depth. 307 105E 95N Fill of pit - 306 Dark grey/yellow/dark orange sticky sandy - clayey silt. Occasional charcoal pieces. Meas- ured 0.8m by 0.62m by 0.2m depth. 308 E 105E 95N Cut of post-medieval 309 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of pit slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base imperceptible, base rounded. Measured 1.3m by 1.2m by 0.4m depth.64 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 69. 309 105E 95N Fill of pit - 308 Dark grey, yellow and dark orange mottled fri- Copper alloy metal frag- able sandy clayey silt. Occasional small stones ment and charcoal pieces. Measured 1.3m by 1.2m by 0.4m depth. 310 E 105E 95N Cut of post-medieval 311 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of pit slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base imperceptible, base rounded. Truncated by C.290. Truncates C.306. Measured 0.6m by ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 0.3m by 0.25m depth. 311 105E 95N Fill of pit C310 - 310 Light grey moderately compact silty clay. Oc- casional charcoal and frequent small limestone. Measured 0.6m by 0.3m by 0.25m depth. 312 105E 95N Cut of linear feature 313 - Linear cut. Break of slope top sharp, sides con- cave, break of slope base gradual, base rounded. Orientated N-S. Under cobbled surface C.254. Measured 2.3m by 1.3m by 0.4m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 313 105E 95N Fill of linear feature - 312 Dark grey moderately compact clayey silt. Ani- - mal bone, frequent small limestone. Measured 2.3m by 1.3m by 0.4m depth. 314 E 105E 95N Deposit overlying - 2 9 1 , Mid-grey moderately compact fine gritty silty Glazed red earthenware, pits 293 sand deposit related to cobbled surface con- Clay pipe stems struction. Frequent small to medium stone inclusions. Under C.254. Over pit C.290 and C.292. Measured 2.4m by 2.3m by 0.15m depth.65 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 70. 315 E 100E 95N Linear cut 316 - Linear cut with rounded corners. Break of slope top, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base concave and irregular. Orientated E-W. Trun- cated by C.288. Measured 1.3m by 0.45m by 0.65m depth. 316 E 100E 95N Fill of linear cut - 315 Light brown loose clay. Occasional small stone C.315 and charcoal. Measured 1.3m by 0.45m by 0.65m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 317 D 110E 95N Cut of medieval pit 318 - Sub-circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, sides Kilkenny-type ware, steep and irregular, break of slope base sharp Kilkenny-type cook- and irregular. Orientated E-W. Under cob- ing ware, Kilkenny-type bled surface C.254. Measured 1.7m by 0.7m by coarse ware, Leinster 0.3m depth. cooking ware 318 110E 95N Fill of pit - 317 Mixed pale yellow/mid grey loose coarse sandy clay. Animal bone. Occasional small and mod- erate medium stones. Measured 1.7m by 0.7mhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ by 0.3m depth. 319 150E 90N Fill of pit - 320 Dark brown loose silty clay. Animal bone, Kilkenny-type ware, burnt wood, occasional stones, decayed stone Miscellaneous French and roots. Measured 1.68m by 1.67m by 0.44m pottery, Leinster cooking depth. ware, Saintonge green glazed, Iron nail 320 D 150E 90N Cut of medieval pit 319 - Sub-circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, sides vertical and undercut on the NW, break of slope base gradual, base undulating. Measured 1.68m by 1.67m by 0.44m depth.66 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 71. 321 125E 75N Fill of Post Medieval - 322 Dark grey firm silty clay. Animal bone, occa- Glazed red earthenware pit sional charcoal and small to medium stones. Measured 0.8m by 0.4m by 0.26m depth. 322 C 125E 75N Cut of post-medieval 321 - Sub-rectangular pit. Break of slope top sharp pit on N, gradual on W & E, imperceptible on S, sides N & E vertical, W steep, S imperceptible, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orientat- ed N-S. Filled with C.321. Truncates pit C.251. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Measured 0.8m by 0.4m by 0.26m depth. 323 E 115E 90N Cut of post-medieval 323 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of pit slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base gradual on E & W, imperceptible on S, base gently rounded. Truncated by wall C.295. Truncates C.325. Measures 1.7m by 1.06m by 0.59m depth. 324 115E 90N Fill of pit C.323 - 324 Dark grey friable sandy silt. Animal bone, oc- Kilkenny-type warehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ casional small and medium stones. Measures 1.7m by 1.06m by 0.48m depth. 325 115E 90N Cut of Post-Medieval 326 - Linear cut. Break of slope top sharp, sides near- Glazed red earthenware, linear feature ly vertical, concave, break of slope base sharp, Clay pipe stem base rounded. Orientated E-W. Truncated by C.323. Measured 0.8m by 0.62m by 0.34m depth.67 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 72. 326 115E 90N Fill of Linear feature - 325 Mid grey moderately compact sandy silt. Ani- mal bone, frequent small rounded limestone, pebbles at base. Measured 0.8m by 0.62m by 0.34m depth. 327 115E 90N Fill of Post Medieval - 323 Light grey loose silty sand. Animal and burnt pit bone, very frequent small rounded pebbles. Measured 0.9m by 0.46m by 0.26m depth. 328 145E 95N Fill of Late Medieval - 329 Dark brown-grey loose silty clay. Animal bone, Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 pit C.329 oyster shell, moderate stones. Measured 0.93m kenny-type coarse ware, by 0.59m by 0.28m depth. Copper alloy token 329 D 145E 95N Cut of medieval pit 328 - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top gradual, sides gradual, Ver- tical to N, Break of slope base Gradual, base undulating. Orientated E-W. Measured 0.93m by 0.59m by 0.28m depth. 331 D 145E 90N Cut of medieval pit 3 3 2 , - Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 345 Break of slope top sharp, sides vertical, break of slope base sharp, base flat, sloping from NE to SW. Orientated NE-SW. Truncated by C. 346 and C.343. Measured 1.8m by 1m by 0.74m depth. 332 145E 85N Fill of pit C.331 - 331 Light yellow grey loose silty sand. Frequent Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- gravel and occasional small limestone pebbles. kenny-type coarse ware, Measured 1.2m by 0.7m by 0.1m depth. Kilkenny-type cooking ware68 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 73. 333 145E 85N Fill of Late Medieval - 334 Mid grey firm silty clay. Animal bone, occa- Kilkenny-type ware pit sional charcoal and small stones. Measured 1.96m by 1.35m by 0.15m depth. 334 D 145E 85N Cut of Late Medieval 333 - Irregular pit. Break of slope top gradual on E pit & N, imperceptible W & S, sides steep on E, gradual on N, truncated on W & S, break of slope base gradual, base irregular. Truncated by C.336 to W and modern Linear cut to S. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Measured 1.96m by 1.35m by 0.15m depth. 335 145E 85N Fill of pit C.336 - 336 Dark grey firm clayey silt. Animal bone, mod- Kilkenny-type ware, erate stones, occasional charcoal. Measured Saintonge green glazed 2.15m by 2.18m by 0.44m depth. 336 D 145E 85N Cut of medieval pit 335 - Sub-square pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top gradual on W & N, sharp on E and imperceptible on S, sides S truncated, all oth- ers steep, break of slope base gradual, base flat.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ Truncated by modern linear feature. Truncates C.334. Measured 2.15m x 1.28m x 0.44m depth. 337 150E 90N Fill of pit C.338 - 338 Mid grey brown moderately compact clayey Kilkenny-type ware, silt. Occasional charcoal and small stones. Ani- Kilkenny-type cooking mal bone inclusions. Measured 1.3m by 1.11m ware, Pearlware, Glass by 0.85m depth.69 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 74. 338 D 150E 90N Cut of post-medieval 3 3 7 , - Rectangular pit with sharp corners. Break of pit 3 8 6 , slope top sharp, sides nearly vertical, break 3 8 7 , of slope base sharp, base unknown as located 388 at edge of excavation. Truncated by C.340. Measured 1.84m by 1.15m by 1.84m depth. 339 150E 90N Fill of pit C.340 - 340 Dark grey loose sandy silt. Frequent limestone. Kilkenny-type ware, Animal bone inclusions. Measured 1.08m by Leinster cooking ware, 0.29m by 0.3m depth. Frechen ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 340 D 150E 90N Cut of post-medieval 339 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of pit slope top gradual, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orientated E-W. Trun- cates pit C.338. Measured 1.08m by 0.29m by 0.3m depth. 341 145E 85N Cut of Late Medieval 342 - Curvi-linear cut with rounded corners. Break curvi-linear feature of slope top gradual, sides vertical and concave, break of slope gradual on southern side, sharphttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ on northern, base rounded. Orientated NE- SW. Truncated by C.286. Truncates C.336 and C.343. Measured 1.4m by 0.7m by 0.28m depth. 342 145E 85N Fill of Late Medieval - 341 Dark brown friable sandy-silt. Animal bone, Kilkenny-type ware, curvi-linear feature occasional charcoal flecks and small stones. Kilkenny-type cook- Measured 1.4m by 0.7m by 0.28m depth. ing ware, Kilkenny-type coarse ware70 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 75. 343 D 145E 85N Cut of medieval pit 344 - Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of Kilkenny-type ware, Kil- slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope kenny-type cooking ware base imperceptible, base rounded. Orientated NE-SW. Truncated by C.341. Truncates C.331. Measured 2.6m by 1.8m by 0.8m depth. 344 145E 85N Fill of pit C.343 - 343 Dark grey friable sandy silt. Animal bone, oc- casional charcoal and small to medium stones. Measured 2.6m by 1.8m by 0.8m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 345 145E 90N Fill of pit C.331 Light mottled grey yellow moderately compact sandy silt. Occasional charcoal flecks and small limestone pebbles. Measured 1.8m by 0.62m by 0.68m depth. 346 D 145E 90N Cut of small post- Break of slope top sharp, sides concave, break of medieval pit slope base imperceptible, base rounded. Filled with C.347, C.348 & C.349. Truncated by C.286. Truncates C.331. Measured 0.56m byhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 0.2m depth (only visible in section) 347 145E 90N Fill of pit C.346 Dark brown friable sandy silt. No inclusions. Measured 0.56m by 0.2m depth (only visible in section) 348 145E 90N Fill of pit C.346 Dark grey friable sandy silt. Occasional char- coal flecks and small stones. Measured 0.6m by 0.18m depth (only visible in section). 349 145E 90N Fill of pit C.346 Light grey friable sandy silt. Occasional char- coal and small stones. Measured 0.56m by 0.2m depth. (only visible in section).71 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 76. 350 C 125E 80N Small irregular pit Oval/irregular pit with rounded corners. Break cut of slope top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base irregular. Orientated E-W. Filled with C.351. Measured 0.8m by 0.5m depth. 351 125E 80N Fill of pit C.350 Mid mottled orange/brown soft sandy clay. Occasional charcoal flecks. Measured 0.8m by 0.5m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 352 C 125E 80N Shallow irregular pit Irregular cut with rounded corners. Break of cut slope top gradual, sides concave, break of slope base sharp, base undulating. Filled with C.353. Measured 1.4m by 1m by 0.1m depth. 353 125E 80N Fill of pit C.352 Light greyish brown firm sandy clay. Small stone inclusions. Measured 1.4m by 1m by 0.1m depth. 354 C 125E 80N Cut of shallow pit Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break ofhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ slope top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base concave. Filled with C.355. Meas- ured 0.6m by 0.6m by 0.2m depth. 355 125E 80N Fill of pit C.354 Mid orangish brown firm silty clay. Occasion- al charcoal flecks and small stones. Measured 0.6m by 0.6m by 0.2m depth.72 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 77. 356 C 125E 80N Cut of shallow pit Triangular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top gradual, sides gentle, break of slope base gradual, base undulating. Orientated N-S. Filled with C.357. Measured 0.9m by 0.9m by 0.05m depth. 357 125E 80N Fill of pit C.356 Mid greyish brown firm silty clay. Occasional charcoal flecks. Measured 0.9m by 0.9m by 0.05m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 358 C 120E 75N Cut of medieval pit Sub-oval pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base rounded. Orientated N-S. Filled with C.359. Truncates C.360. Measured 1.7m by 1.2m by 0.4m depth. 359 120E 75N Fill of pit C358 Dark brown moderately compact silty clay. Animal bone, frequent stones towards the base. Measured 1.7m by 1.2m by 0.4m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 360 C 120E 75N Cut of shallow medi- Semi-circular pit (truncated). Break of slope eval pit top gradual, sides irregular, break of slope base gradual, base irregular. Orientated N-S. Filled with C.361. Truncated by C.358. Measured 1.7m by 0.7m by 0.3m depth. 361 120E 75N Fill of pit C.360 Dark brown firm silty clay. Moderate stone in- clusions and animal bone. Measured 1.7m by 0.7m by 0.3m depth.73 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 78. 362 145E 85N Fill of pit C363 Light grey loose clayey silt. 90% medium stones and occasional charcoal. Animal bone inclu- sions. Measured 1.97m by 0.65m by 0.35m depth. 363 D 145E 85N Cut of pit of un- Possibly sub-square pit with rounded corners. known date Break of slope top gradual, sides steep, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Filled with C.362. Measured 1.97m by 0.65m by 0.35m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 364 C 120E 80N Cut of small bowl Oval pit cut. Break of slope top sharp, sides shaped post-medieval steep, break of slope base gradual in S and E, pit steep in N and W. base irregular. Filled with C.365. Truncated by C.368. Measured 1.7m by 1.2m by 0.5m depth. 365 120E 80N Fill of pit C.364 Mixed mid brown orange loose sandy clay. An- imal bone, occasional small stones and charcoal flecks. Measured 1.7m by 1.2m by 0.5m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 366 C 120E 80N Small shallow pit cut, Sub-circular pit cut. Break of slope top sharp, post-medieval sides steep, gradual and shallow, break of slope base gradual, base flat, slopes from S to N. Filled with C.367. Truncated by C.368. Meas- ured 1m by 0.8m by 0.12m depth. 367 120E 80N Fill of shallow pit Mid brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone, C.366 occasional small stones inclusions. Measured 1m by 0.8m by 0.12m depth.74 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 79. 368 C 120E 80N Cut of large shallow Sub-circular pit cut. Break of slope top sharp post-medieval pit on N and E and imperceptible on S and W, sides steep on N and E, gradual on S and W, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orien- tated E-W. Filled with C.369. Truncates C.364 and C.366. Measured 2.7m by 2.2m by 0.2m depth. 369 C 120E 80N Fill of pit C.368 Mid brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 and occasional small to medium stones. Meas- ured 2.7m by 2.2m by 0.2m depth. 370 D 145e Medieval deposit lo- Dark brownish yellow hard clay. Animal bone, cated in NE corner moderate small-medium pebbles and occa- of site. sional charcoal. Truncated by C.331, C.320, C.334, C.328, C 274, C.363. Measured 14m by 2.5m by 0.12m depth. 371 D 145e Medieval deposit lo- Light grey soft clayey silt. Animal bone, fre-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ cated in NE corner quent charcoal flecks, occasional small to medi- of site. um stones. Truncated by C.331, C.320, C.334, C.328, C 274, C.363. Measured 14m by 2.5m by 0.12m depth. 372 C 110E 75N Cut of shallow pit Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of slope top sharp, sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base rounded. Orientated E-W. Filled with C.373. Truncated by modern feature. Measured 0.8m by 0.6m by 0.15m depth.75 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 80. 373 110E 75N Fill of C.372 Light mottled yellow brown firm sandy clay. Moderate charcoal flecks. Measured 0.8m by 0.6m by 0.15m depth. 374 C 110E 85N Cut of large shallow Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break of medieval pit slope top sharp, sides gentle, break of slope base gradual, base concave. Orientated N-S. Filled with C.375. Truncated by C.376. Measured 1.5m by 1.4m by 0.2m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 375 110E 85N Fill of pit C.374 Dark greyish brown firm silty clay. Moderate small stone and charcoal inclusions. Measured 1.5m by 1.4m by 0.2m depth. 376 C 110E 80N Cut of large shallow Sub-circular pit with rounded corners. Break medieval pit. of slope top sharp, sides gentle, break of slope base gradual, base concave. Orientated N-S. Filled with C.377. Truncates C.374 and C.394. Measured 1.9m by 1.8m by 0.2m depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 377 110E 80N Fill of pit C.376 Light greyish brown firm silty clay. Animal bone, moderate charcoal flecks inclusions. Measured 1.9m by 1.8m by 0.2m depth. 378 C 115E 75N Cut of medieval Sub-circular pit cut. Break of slope top sharp, waste pit sides steep. Break of slope base Gradual on E, sharp all others, base concave. Orientated NE- SW. Filled with C.379 and C.414. Truncated by C.380 and C.395. Measured 1.3m by 1.1m by 0.6m depth.76 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 81. 379 115E 75N Fill of pit C.378 Mid brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone, Occasional small to medium stones and char- coal flecks. Measured 1.3m by 1.1m by 0.15m depth. 380 C 115E 75N Cut of medium sized Sub-circular pit. Break of slope top sharp, sides post-medieval pit steep, break of slope base gradual, base irregu- lar. Orientated E-W. Filled with C.381. Trun- cated by C.382. Truncates C.378. Measured ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 2m by 1.1m by 0.4m depth. 381 115E 75N Fill of C.380 Mid brown/grey loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone, Occasional small to medium stones and charcoal flecks. Measured 2m by 1.1m by 0.4m depth. 382 C 115E 75N Cut of large shallow Sub-circular pit cut. Break of slope top sharp, medieval pit. sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Orientated E-W. Filled with C.383. Truncatedhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ by C.395. Truncates C.380.Measured 1.7m by 0.4m by 0.5m/ 383 115E 75N Fill of pit C.382 Mid brown/grey loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone, frequent small stones and occasional charcoal flecks. Measured 1.7m by 0.4m by 0.5m depth. 384 C 110E 75N Fill of pit C.385 Dark brown firm silty clay. Animal bone and some small stone inclusions. Measured 0.76m by 0.73m by 0.09m depth. Measured 0.76m by 0.73m by 0.09m depth.77 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 82. 385 110E 75N Cut of small circular Sub-circular pit. Break of slope top gradual, pit sides gradual, break of slope base gradual, base undulating, sloping slightly from S to N. Filled with C.384. Measured 0.76m by 0.73m by 0.09m depth. 386 150E 90N Re-deposited natural Yellow firm sandy-clay. Frequent small stone fill of pit C.338 inclusions. Measured 0.63m by 0.52m by 0.8m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 387 150E 90N Fill of pit C.338 Light brown friable sandy silt. Occasional char- coal flecks and small stones. Measured 1.24m by 0.71m by 0.79m depth. 388 150E 90N Fill of pit C.338 Dark grey loose sandy silt. Very frequent char- coal flecks and pieces. Measured 1.16m by 0.74m by 0.12m depth. 389 145E 80N Fill of medieval pit Dark grey loose clayey silt. Animal bone frag- C.392 ments, occasional charcoal and moderate smallhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ stones. Measured 1.93m by 1.78m by 0.09m depth. 390 145E 80N Fill of medieval pit Mottled greyish yellow soft silty clay. Animal C.392 bone, occasional charcoal and moderate small pebble inclusions. Measured 1.76m by 1m by 0.22m depth. 391 145E 80N Fill of medieval pit Mottled yellowish grey soft silty clay. Animal C.392 bone fragments, occasional charcoal and mod- erate small pebbles. Measured 1.96m by 1.53m by 0.26m depth.78 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 83. 392 C 145E 80N Cut of medieval pit Sub-circular pit cut. Break of slope top sharp on W and E, gradual on N and S, sides vertical and steep, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Filled with C.389, C.390, C.391. Measured 1.99m by 1.8m by 0.41m depth. 393 110E 80N Fill of pit C.294 Dark brown loose silty clay. Occasional small stones and root activity. Measured 0.99m by 0.94m by 0.19m depth. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 394 C 110E 80N Cut of medieval pit Circular pit cut. Break of slope top, gradual, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base irregular with slight inclination to E. Filled with C.393. Truncated by C.376. Measured 0.99m by 0.94m by 0.19m depth. 395 C 115E 75N Cut of post-medieval Sub-circular pit cut. Break of slope top sharp, waste pit sides steep, break of slope base sharp, base flat. Filled with C.396. Truncates C.378 and C.382.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ Measured 1.3m by 0.4m by 0.5m depth. 396 115E 75N Fill of C.395 Dark brown loose fine sandy silt. Animal bone and frequent stone inclusions. Measured 1.3m by 0.4m by 0.5m depth. 397 C 110E 80N Cut of post-medieval oval pit with rounded corners. Break of slope pit top sharp, sides nearly vertical, break of slope base gradual, base rounded. Orientated NE- SW. Filled with C.398. Truncates C.404 and C.407. Measured 1.8m by 1.2m by 0.46m depth.79 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 84. 398 110E 80N Fill of pit C.397 Dark brown silty clay. Animal bone, occasional small stone and charcoal flecks. Measured 1.8m by 1.2m by 0.46m depth. 399 110E 80N Fill of pit C.400 Dark greyish brown soft clayey silt. Animal bone, moderate charcoal and occasional small stone. Measured 1.4m by 0.92m by 0.24m depth. 400 C 110E 80N Cut of medieval pit Sub-circular pit cut. Break of slope top sharp, ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 sides vertical, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Filled with C.399. Truncated by C.403. Measured 1.4m by 0.92m by 0.24m depth. 401 110E 80N Fill of pit C.403 Dark greyish brown soft silty clay. Animal bone and occasional small stones. Measured 1.36m by 1.8m by 0.28m depth. 402 110E 80N Fill of pit C.403 Dark grey soft silty clay. Animal bone, occa- sional charcoal and 50% small stones. Meas-http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ ured 1.3m by 1.6m by 0.39m depth. 403 C 110E 80N Cut of post-medieval Sub-rectangular pit with rounded corners. pit Break of slope top sharp, sides vertical on W and E, and undercut N and S, break of slope base gradual, base flat. Orientated E-W. Filled with C.401 and C.402. Measured 1.81m by 1.43m by 0.39m depth.80 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 85. 404 C 110E 80N Cut of post-medieval Sub-circular pit cut with rounded corners. pit Break of slope top sharp, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base undulating. Orientated E-W. Filled with C. 405 and C.406. Truncated by C.397 and C.413. Measured 2m by 1.8m by 0.65m depth. 405 110E 80N Fill of pit C.404 Dark greyish brown silty clay. Animal bone, no other inclusions. Measured 1.25m by 0.36m ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 depth. 406 110E 80N Fill of pit C.404 mottled mid brownish grey/yellow moderately compact silty clay. Animal bone and moderate small to medium stones. Measured 2m by 1.8m by 0.65m depth. 407 C 110E 80N Cut of large medieval Sub-circular pit cut with well rounded corners. it located the western Break of slope top sharp, sides nearly vertical, edge of excavation. break of slope base sharp, base flat. Orientatedhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ E-W. Filled with C.408, C.409, C.410, C.411. Truncated by C.397. Measured 1.85m by 1.55m by 1.7m depth. 408 110E 80N Fill of large pit C.407 Mottled yellow/orange firm sandy-clay. Occa- sional small limestone pebbles. Measured 1.5m by 0.89m by 0.38m depth. 409 110E 80N Fill of large pit C.407 Dark brown firm silty clay. Animal bone and occasional small pieces of limestone gravel. Measured 1.56m by 1.08m by 0.24m depth.81 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 86. 410 110E 80N Fill of large pit C.407 Mottled orange yellow/dark grey moderately compact sandy clay. Animal bone, small stones, mainly located at the base. Measured 1.75m by 1.5m by 0.75m depth. 411 110E 80N Fill of large pit C.407 Dark grey friable clayey silt. Animal bone, fre- quent small stones and occasional charcoal. Measured 1.4m by 1.1m by 0.65m depth. 412 110E 80N Fill of linear feature 4.5m x 0.9m x 0.2m deep ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.413 413 C 110E 80N Cut of linear feature Linear cut. Break of slope top gradual, sides concave, break of slope base gradual, base un- dulating. Orientated E-W. Filled with C412. Truncates pit C.404. Measured 4.5m by 0.9m by 0.2m depth. 414 115E 75N Fill of pit C.378 Mixed orange/yellow/grey moderately compact gritty silty clay. Animal bone, frequent smallhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ to medium stones. Measured 1.3m by 1.1m by 0.45m depth.82 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 87. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext C.193 C.192 C.163 C.164 C.161 C.162 C.159 C.160 C.155 C.156 C.154 C.153 C.6 C.1 C.152 C.151 C.149 C.150 15.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix Deposit/Layer C.147 C.148 Wall Cut Fill C.144 C.143 KEY C.142 C.141http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 83
  • 88. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext C.309 C.308 C.296 C.297 C.318 C.317 C.305 C.304 C.264 C.254 C.313 C.312 C.6 C.1 C.307 C.306 C.291 C.290 C.311 C.310 C.314 C.293 C.292 C.289 C.288 C.316 C.315 C.145 C.146http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 84
  • 89. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext C.175 C.176 C.139 C.140 C.138 C.177 C.178 C.169 C.170 C.185 C.183 C.135 C.136 C.125 C.126 C.127 C.128 C.124 C.7 C.1 C.122 C.123 C.119 C.120 C.117 C.118 C.114 C.113 C.111 C.105 C.109 C.102 C.107 C.100http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 85
  • 90. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext C.213 C.212 C.208 C.199 C.198 C.207 C.206 C.203 C.202 C.196 C.197 C.260 C.259 C.134 C.133 C.7 C.1 C.194 C.195 C.192 C.193 C.187 C.186 C.173 C.174 C.171 C.172 C.189 C.179 C.129 C.130 C.181 C.182http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 86
  • 91. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext C.244 C.243 C.242 C.241 C.240 C.239 C.190 C.191 C.246 C.245 C.238 C.237 C.236 C.235 C.233 C.234 C.232 C.230 C.7 C.1 C.230 C.229 C.225 C.226 C.227 C.228 C.224 C.223 C.222 C.221 C.220 C.219 C.218 C.217 C.216 C.215 C.214http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 87
  • 92. C.7 C.321 C.256 C.284 C.339 C.351 C.353 C.355 C.357 C.359 C.369 C.373 C.393 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.322 C.255 C.283 C.340 C.350 C.352 C.354 C.356 C.358 C.368 C.372 C.394 C.287 C.258 C.337 C.361 C.365 C.367 C.377 C.251 C.257 C.386 C.360 C.364 C.366 C.376 C.387 C.375http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ C.388 C.374 C.338 C.188 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 93. C.7 C.262 C.280 C.278 C.335 C.362 C.328 C.273 C.285 C.279 C.277 C.286 C.336 C.363 C.329 C.274 C.268 C.319 ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 C.269 C.272 C.282 C.276 C.347 C.342 C.333 C.320 C.267 C.271 C.281 C.275 C.348 C.341 C.334 C.349 C.344 C.263 C.346 C.343 C.270http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ C.261 C.345 C.332 C.331 C.370 C.371 C.189 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 94. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Deposit/Layer Wall Cut Fill KEY C.1 C.7 C.295 C.324 C.327 C.323 C.326 C.325 C.401 C.402 C.403 C.399 C.400 C.408 C.409 C.410 C.411 C.407 C.398 C.397 C.405 C.406 C.404 C.412 C.413 C.389 C.390 C.391 C.392 C.384 C.385http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 90
  • 95. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 15.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:0:8 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:0:9 Clay Pipe Bowl c.1650 99E0757:2:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:2:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:2:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:4:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:4:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:4:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:4:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:4:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:6:1 Pottery Pearlware 19th 99E0757:6:2 Pottery Glazed red earthenware: slip decorated 19th 99E0757:6:3 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware: slip decorated 19th 99E0757:6:5 Clay Pipe Stem L. 39mm, D. 9.4mm. Incomplete. 99E0757:7:1 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:8:1 Pottery Frechen 17th 99E0757:8:2 Modern Pipe Drainpipe 99E0757:8:3 Pottery Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:8:4 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware: slip decorated 19th 99E0757:8:5 Possible Whetstone L. 10.5cm W.1.3cm D.1cm 99E0757:8:6 Clay Pipe Stem L. 52.2mm, D. 8mm. Incomplete. 99E0757:8:7 Clay Pipe Stem L. 45.5mm, D. 7.7mm. Incomplete 99E0757:11:1 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:2 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:3 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:4 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:5 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:6 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:7 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:8 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:9 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:10 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:11 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:12 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:13 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:14 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:15 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:16 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:17 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:18 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:19 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:20 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:21 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:22 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:23 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:24 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:11:27 Pottery Tin glazed earthenware 17th 99E0757:11:28 Clay Pipe Stem L. 34.9mm, D. 8.5mm. Incomplete. 99E0757:16:1 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:16:2 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:16:3 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:16:4 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:16:5 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:16:6 Pottery Westerwald L17th/18th 99E0757:16:10 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:11 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:12 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:13 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:14 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:15 Glass DISCARDED Modernhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 91
  • 96. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:16:16 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:17 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:18 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:19 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:20 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:21 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:22 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:23 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:24 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:25 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:26 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:16:28 Clay Pipe Stem L. 72mm, D. 8.5mm. Incomplete. 99E0757:16:29 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:16:30 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:100:1 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:2 Pottery Minety-type 12th/ E 13th 99E0757:100:3 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:4 Brick 99E0757:100:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:11 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:100:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:18 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:100:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:100:22 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:100:23 Iron Nail/Head of Iron bar Medieval 99E0757:102:1 Iron Nail 99E0757:105:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:105:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:105:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:108:1 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:108:2 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:108:3 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L 12th/14th 99E0757:108:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:108:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:108:6 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th /14th 99E0757:109:1 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware L12th /14th 99E0757:109:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:109:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:109:4 Brick 99E0757:109:5 Brick 99E0757:109:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:109:7 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:109:8 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:109:9 Slag 99E0757:109:10 Slag 99E0757:109:11 Possible Slate L. 12.6cm W. 11.6cm D.1.1cm 99E0757:113:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:5 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 92
  • 97. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:113:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:7 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:9 Pottery Rim Ham green B L12th/M13th 99E0757:113:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:15 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:113:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:18 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:21 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:22 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:23 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:24 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:25 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:26 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:113:28 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:114:1 Crucible Fragment 99E0757:114:2 Slag 99E0757:117:1 Pottery Base Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:117:2 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:117:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L 12th/E 13th 99E0757:117:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:8 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:117:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:11 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:12 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:117:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:14 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:21 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:117:22 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:23 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:24 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:25 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:26 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:117:27 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:28 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:117:29 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:30 Brick Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:117:31 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:117:32 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:117:33 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:119:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:2 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:119:3 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:119:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 93
  • 98. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:119:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:7 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:119:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:119:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:14 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:119:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:18 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:119:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:119:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:119:21 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:22 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:23 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:24 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:25 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:26 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:119:27 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:28 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:29 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:119:30 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:119:32 Iron Nail 99E0757:119:33 Iron Nail 99E0757:122:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:122:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:122:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:122:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:122:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:122:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:122:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:1 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:124:2 Slag Furnace lining 99E0757:124:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:4 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:7 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:10 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:12 Pottery Merida-type 17th 99E0757:124:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:19 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:124:21 Pottery Rim Mottled ware 18th 99E0757:124:22 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:124:23 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:124:24 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:131:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:131:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:131:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:131:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 94
  • 99. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:131:5 Pottery Rim/Spout Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:131:6 Brick 99E0757:131:7 Slate 99E0757:134:1 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:134:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:4 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:134:5 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:10 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:134:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:17 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:134:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:21 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:22 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:23 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:134:25 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:26 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:134:27 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:28 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:134:29 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:30 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:31 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:32 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:33 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:34 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:134:35 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:36 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:134:37 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:38 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:39 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:40 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:41 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:42 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:43 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:134:44 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:45 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:46 Pottery Unidentified medieval 13th/14th 99E0757:134:47 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:48 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:134:49 Iron Fragment 134:49-134:51 originally all one piece 99E0757:134:50 Iron Fragment 134:49-134:51 originally all one piece 99E0757:134:51 Iron Fragment 134:49-134:51 originally all one piece 99E0757:134:52 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:134:53 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:134:54 Slag 99E0757:134:55 Slag 99E0757:134:56 Slag 99E0757:146:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 95
  • 100. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:146:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:12 Pottery Unidentified medieval Medieval 99E0757:146:13 Pottery Rim/Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:14 Pottery Rim/Spout Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:15 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:146:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware 13th/14th 99E0757:146:17 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:146:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:169:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:169:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:169:3 Pottery Frechen 17th 99E0757:169:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:169:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:169:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:169:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:171:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:171:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:171:3 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:171:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:171:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:171:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:173:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:173:2 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:173:3 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:176:13 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:177:1 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:177:1 Modern Pipe Drainpipe 99E0757:177:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:177:3 Glass Shoulder fragment Modern 99E0757:177:4 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:177:5 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:177:6 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:177:7 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:1a Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:1b Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:179:2 Pottery North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:179:2b Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:179:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:3a Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:3b Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:179:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:4a Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:4b Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:179:5 Pottery Tin glazed earthenware 17th 99E0757:179:5a Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:5b Pottery North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:179:6 Pottery Black glazed ware 18th/19th 99E0757:179:6b Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:179:7 Pottery North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:179:7a Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:7b Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:8a Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 96
  • 101. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:179:8b Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:9a Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:9a Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:9b Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:10a Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:10b Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:11 Pottery North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:179:11b Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:12 Pottery North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:179:12a Pottery Rim/Spout Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:13 Pottery North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:179:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:16 Pottery Rim/Base Glazed red earthenware: slip decorated 19th 99E0757:179:17 Pottery Rim/Handle Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:179:18 Glass Fragment Modern 99E0757:179:19 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:179:19a Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:19b Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:179:20 Clay Pipe Bowl c.1650 99E0757:179:21 Clay Pipe Bowl c.1661-1681 99E0757:179:22 Clay Pipe Fragment of bowl 99E0757:179:23 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:24 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:25 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:26 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:39 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:40 Clay Pipe Fragment of bowl c.1640-1670 99E0757:179:41 Clay Pipe Fragment of bowl c.1640-1670 99E0757:179:42 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:43 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:47 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:48 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:179:53 Slag 99E0757:179:54 Slag 99E0757:179:55 Slag 99E0757:179:56 Slag 99E0757:184:1 Pottery Base North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:184:2 Pottery North Devon gravel free 17th 99E0757:184:3 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:185:1 Brick Baked clay 99E0757:185:3 Pottery Rim North Devon gravel tempered 17th 99E0757:185:4 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:185:5 Glass Fragment Modern 99E0757:185:6 Tile DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:185:7 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:185:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:185:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:185:10 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:187:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:187:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:190:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:190:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:190:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:190:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:190:5 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:190:6 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:190:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:190:9 Iron Nail 99E0757:190:10 Slag 99E0757:191:1 Pottery Base Stoneware L19th/20thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 97
  • 102. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:191:2 Pottery Rim Shell-edged ware 19th 99E0757:191:3 Pottery Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:4 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:5 Pottery Rim Stoneware L19th/20th 99E0757:191:6 Pottery Rim/Base Prattware 19th 99E0757:191:7 Pottery Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:8 Pottery Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:9 Pottery Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:10 Pottery Rim/Base Prattware 19th 99E0757:191:11 Pottery Rim Porcelain 19th 99E0757:191:12 Pottery Rim Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:13 Pottery Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:14 Pottery Rim/Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:15 Pottery Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:16 Pottery Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:17 Pottery Rim/Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:18 Pottery Rim/Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:19 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:20 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:21 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:22 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:23 Pottery Rim/Base Shell-edged ware 19th 99E0757:191:24 Pottery Rim/Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:25 Pottery Rim/Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:26 Pottery Base Shell-edged ware 19th 99E0757:191:27 Pottery Rim Stoneware L19th/20th 99E0757:191:28 Pottery Rim/Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:29 Pottery Base Shell-edged ware 19th 99E0757:191:30 Pottery Rim/Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:31 Pottery Rim/Base Porcelain 99E0757:191:32 Pottery Base Shell-edged ware 19th 99E0757:191:33 Pottery Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:34 Pottery Rim/Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:35 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:36 Pottery Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:37 Pottery Base Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:38 Pottery Rim Pearlware 19th 99E0757:191:39 Pottery Rim Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:40 Pottery Rim Stoneware L19th/20th 99E0757:191:41 Pottery Rim/Base Black glazed ware 19th/10th 99E0757:191:42 Pottery Rim/Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:43 Pottery Rim/Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:44 Pottery Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:45 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:191:46 Pottery Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:47 Pottery Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:49 Pottery Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:191:50 Pottery Base Shell-edged ware 19th 99E0757:192:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:192:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:192:3 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:192:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:1 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:5 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:194:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:194:9 Wall tile Pearlware 19th 99E0757:194:10 Wall tile Pearlware 19thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 98
  • 103. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:194:11 Wall tile Pearlware 19th 99E0757:194:12 Wall tile Pearlware 19th 99E0757:194:13 Iron Strip/Bar Medieval 99E0757:194:14 Iron Strip/Bar Medieval 99E0757:196:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:196:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:6 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:196:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:10 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:196:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:196:14 Pottery Rim/Spout Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:1 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:5 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:10 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:11 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:198:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:199:1 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:2 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:3 Pottery Rim/Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:4 Pottery Rim/Base/Handle Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:6 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:7 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:8 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:9 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:10 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:11 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:12 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:13 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:14 Pottery Base Tin glazed earthenware 17th 99E0757:199:15 Pottery Tin glazed earthenware 17th 99E0757:199:16 Pottery Westerwald L17th/18th 99E0757:199:17 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:18 Pottery Handle Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:19 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:20 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:21 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:22 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:23 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:24 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:25 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:26 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:199:27 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:28 Pottery Rim Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:29 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:30 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:31 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 99
  • 104. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:199:32 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:199:33 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:34 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:35 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:36 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:199:37 Pottery Handle Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:199:38 Brick 99E0757:199:39 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:199:54 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:199:55 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:199:56 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:199:57 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:199:58 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:199:59 Glass Bottle Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:60 Glass Bottle Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:61 Glass Bottle Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:62 Glass Bottle Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:63 Glass Window fragment Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:64 Glass Window fragment Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:65 Glass Window fragment Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:66 Glass Bottle fragment? Post-Medieval 99E0757:199:67 Iron Nail 99E0757:199:68 Iron Nail 99E0757:199:69 Slag 99E0757:199:70 Slag 99E0757:199:71 Slag 99E0757:199:72 Slag 99E0757:200:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:200:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:7 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:200:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:200:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:12 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:13 Pottery Rim/Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:14 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:15 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:16 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:200:18 Clay Pipe Fragment of Bowl 99E0757:200:19 Iron 2 Nail fragments Medieval 99E0757:213:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:217:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:217:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:217:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:217:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:217:3 Pottery Glazed red earthenware? 19th 99E0757:219:1 Baked Clay DISCARDED 99E0757:219:2 Iron Nail 99E0757:221:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:4 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:5 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:6 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 100
  • 105. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:224:9 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:224:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:13 Pottery Redcliffe? M13th/14th 99E0757:224:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:224:15 Slag 99E0757:224:16 Slag 99E0757:224:17 Slag 99E0757:224:18 Stone 99E0757:225:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:225:2 Brick 99E0757:225:3 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:225:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:225:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:227:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:227:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:227:3 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:227:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:230:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:230:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:230:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:230:4 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:230:5 Copper Alloy Strip Medieval 99E0757:231:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:231:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:231:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:231:4 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:231:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:231:6 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:231:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:231:8 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:233:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:1 Brick 99E0757:235:2 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:5 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:235:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:10 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:12 Pottery Handle Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:235:13 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:16 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:235:17 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:235:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:19 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:235:20 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:235:21 Pottery Late local ware 15th/16th 99E0757:235:22 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:23 Tile 99E0757:235:24 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:25 Brick Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:27 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:235:28 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:235:29 Pottery base Late local ware 15th/16th 99E0757:235:30 Pottery Base Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:235:31 Clay Pipe Stemhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 101
  • 106. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:235:33 Iron Nail? Medieval 99E0757:237:1 Pottery Base Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:237:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:237:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:239:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:246:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:246:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:246:4 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:248:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:249:1 Pottery Base Bristol/Staffordshire slipware 99E0757:249:3 Flint Split flint pebble 99E0757:250:1 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:250:2 Pottery Rim Tin glazed earthenware 17th 99E0757:251:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:251:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:251:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:251:4 Copper Alloy Fragment 251:4-5 originally one piece Medieval 99E0757:251:5 Copper Alloy Fragment Medieval 99E0757:252:1 Pottery Flemish redware M13th/M14th 99E0757:252:2 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:252:3 Brick 99E0757:253:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:254:1 Pottery Handle Mottled ware? 18th 99E0757:255:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:255:2 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:255:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:255:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12thE13th 99E0757:255:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:255:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12thE13th 99E0757:255:7 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:255:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:255:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:255:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:255:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:257:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:257:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:257:3 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12thE13th 99E0757:257:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12thE13th 99E0757:257:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:257:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:1 Brick 99E0757:260:2 Brick 99E0757:260:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:7 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:260:8 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:10 Brick 99E0757:260:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:14 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/`14th 99E0757:260:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:17 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:21 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 102
  • 107. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:260:22 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:23 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:24 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:25 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:26 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:27 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:28 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:29 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:30 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:31 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware E12th/E13th 99E0757:260:32 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:33 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:34 Brick 99E0757:260:35 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:36 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:37 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:260:38 Slag 99E0757:261:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:261:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:261:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:261:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:261:6 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:261:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:261:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:261:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:267:1 Pottery Ham green B L12th/M13th 99E0757:267:1 Pottery Ham green B L12th/M13th 99E0757:267:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:267:3 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:267:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:267:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:269:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:272:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:272:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:272:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:272:4 Decorated Stone Silt stone or slate for illustration 99E0757:276:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:278:1 Brick 99E0757:278:2 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:278:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:278:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:278:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:279:1 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:279:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:279:3 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:279:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:279:5 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:279:6 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:279:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:282:1 Pottery Rim Merida-type 17th 99E0757:282:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:282:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:282:4 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:282:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:284:1 Pottery Ham green B L12th/M13th 99E0757:285:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:286:1 Copper Coin Irish copper penny- Elizabeth I dated 1601 99E0757:289:1 Glass DISCARDED Modern 99E0757:289:2 Slag 99E0757:289:3 Slag 99E0757:290:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:291:2 Clay Pipe Stemhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 103
  • 108. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:295:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:295:2 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:296:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:296:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:296:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:296:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:296:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:296:6 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:296:7 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:309:1 Copper alloy Sheet fragment 99E0757:309:2 Copper Fragment 99E0757:309:3 Copper Fragment 99E0757:309:4 Copper Fragment 99E0757:314:1 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:314:3 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:314:4 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:317:1 Pottery Rim/Handle Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:317:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:2 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:2 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:3 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:4 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:317:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:6 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:10 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:11 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:12 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:317:13 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:2 Pottery Miscellaneous French L12th/E13th 99E0757:319:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:5 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:319:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:9 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:319:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:18 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:19 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:21 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:319:23 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:321:1 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:324:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:324:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:324:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:324:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:325:1 Pottery Glazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:325:2 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:326:1 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:328:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:328:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:328:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:328:7 Copper alloy Token Medieval? 99E0757:330:1 Pottery Rim/Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 104
  • 109. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:330:2 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:330:3 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:330:4 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:330:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:330:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:332:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:332:2 Roof tile 99E0757:332:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:332:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:332:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:332:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:332:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:332:8 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:332:9 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:333:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:333:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:1 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:335:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:4 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:335:9 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:7 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:21 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:337:22 Pottery Pearlware 19th 99E0757:337:23 Glass Fragment Post Medieval 99E0757:339:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:339:2 Pottery Frechen 17th 99E0757:339:3 Pottery Rim/Base Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:342:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:342:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:342:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:342:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:342:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:342:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:343:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:3 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:4 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:5 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 105
  • 110. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:343:6 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:9 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:13 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:15 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:17 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:19 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:20 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:21 Pottery Unglazed 99E0757:343:22 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:343:23 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:347:1 Pottery Unidentified post-medieval Post Medieval 99E0757:347:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:347:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:347:4 Pottery handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:358:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:358:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:360:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:360:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:360:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:360:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:1 Slag 99E0757:369:2 Slag 99E0757:369:3 Slag 99E0757:369:4 Slag 99E0757:369:5 Slag 99E0757:369:6 Slag 99E0757:369:7 Pottery Rim/Spout Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:8 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:369:9 Pottery Merida-type 17th 99E0757:369:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:11 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:13 Pottery North Devon gravel tempered 17th 99E0757:369:14 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:18 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:19 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:369:20 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:369:21 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:23 Pottery Leinster cooking ware L12th/14th 99E0757:369:24 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:25 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:26 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:369:27 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:369:28 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:369:29 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:30 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:369:31 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:376:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:376:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:376:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:379:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 106
  • 111. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:379:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:379:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:380:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:380:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:380:3 Brick 99E0757:380:4 Brick 99E0757:380:5 Slag 99E0757:380:6 Slag 99E0757:380:7 Slag 99E0757:380:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:380:9 Brick 99E0757:380:10 Brick 99E0757:380:11 Brick 99E0757:380:12 Brick 99E0757:380:13 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:380:14 Slag Furnace lining 99E0757:383:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:383:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:383:4 Pottery Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:383:5 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:383:6 Iron Nail Medieval 99E0757:389:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:389:2 Pottery Rim Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:389:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:389:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:389:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:389:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:389:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:391:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:391:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:391:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:391:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:391:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:391:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:391:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:394:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:394:2 Pottery Ham green B L12th/M13th 99E0757:394:3 Pottery Rim Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:394:4 Pottery Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:398:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:398:2 Pottery Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:398:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:398:4 Pottery Unidentified post-medieval Post Medieval 99E0757:398:5 Pottery Unidentified post-medieval Post Medieval 99E0757:398:6 Pottery Unidentified post-medieval Post Medieval 99E0757:398:7 Slag 99E0757:398:8 Slag 99E0757:398:9 Slag 99E0757:398:10 Slag 99E0757:399:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:399:2 Pottery Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:401:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:401:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:401:3 Pottery Merida-type 17th 99E0757:404:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:1 Pottery Rim/Handle Merida-type 17th 99E0757:404:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:2 Pottery Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:404:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 107
  • 112. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext NMI Material Description Date 99E0757:404:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:7 Brick 99E0757:404:7 Pottery Rim/Handle Merida-type 17th 99E0757:404:8 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:8 Pottery Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:404:9 Pottery Leinster cooking ware E12th/14th 99E0757:404:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:404:19 Pottery Rim/Handle Merida-type 17th 99E0757:404:21 Pottery Unidentified post-medieval Post Medieval 99E0757:404:22 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:407:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:407:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:407:3 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:407:4 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:407:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:407:6 Slag Furnace lining 99E0757:409:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:409:2 Pottery Handle Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:409:3 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:409:4 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:411:1 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:411:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:411:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:411:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:411:5 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:411:6 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:411:7 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:1 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:2 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:3 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:4 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:5 Pottery Glazed red earthenware: slip decorated 19th 99E0757:415:6 Pottery Base Unglazed red earthenware 19th 99E0757:415:7 Pottery Base Transfer printed ware 19th/20th 99E0757:415:8 Clay Pipe Stem 99E0757:415:9 Clay Pipe Decorated bowl 99E0757:415:10 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:11 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:12 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:13 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:14 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:15 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:16 Pottery Kilkenny-type ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:17 Pottery Kilkenny-type coarse ware L12th/E13th 99E0757:415:18 Pottery Saintonge green glazed 13th/14th 99E0757:415:19 Pottery Base Kilkenny-type cooking ware 13th/14th 99E0757:415:20 Pottery Spout Ham green B L12th/M13thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 108
  • 113. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 15.4 Appendix 4: Pottery Report Report on the pottery from 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny (99E0757) Clare McCutcheon MA MIAI A total of 860 sherds of pottery were recorded from the site. Following some reassembly within and between contexts this was reduced to 823 of which 719 (87.36%) are medieval in date. A number of fragments of brick and drainpipe were also present and these have been included in the archive Table 3 but are not further discussed. Other non-ceramic items are also identified in the archive table for the sake of clarity. Fabric type Sherds MNV MVR Form Date Ham Green B 5 - 1 Jug L12th/M13th Minety-type 1 - 1 Tripod pitcher 12th/E13th Redcliffe? 1 - 1 Jug M13th/14th Leinster Cooking Ware 47 - >6 Cooking pots, jug, dripping L12th/14th dish Kilkenny-type coarseware 45 1 >3 Dripping dish, jugs L12th/E13th Kilkenny-type ware 496 3 >7 Jugs, money-box, roof tile 13th/14th Kilkenny-type cooking ware 97 - >3 Cooking pots 13th/14th Miscellaneous French 1 - 1 Jug L12th/E13th Saintonge green glazed 23 - 1 Jug 13th/14th Flemish redware 1 - 1 Jug M13th/M14th Unidentified 2 - 2 Medieval Total medieval 719 3 26 Table 1: Medieval pottery, 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny (99E0757)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 109
  • 114. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Fabric type Sherds MNV MVR Form Date Late medieval local ware? 1 - 1 Jug 15th/16th Frechen 3 - 2 Jugs 17th Westerwald 2 - 2 Jugs L17th/18th Merida-type 5 - 2 Costrel 17th North Devon gravel free 8 - 1 Bowl 17th North Devon gravel tempered 2 - 1 Storage pot 17th Tin glazed earthenware 5 - 2 Chamberpot, plate 17th Black glazed ware 2 - 1 Bowl 18th/19th Bristol/Staffordshire slipware 1 - 1 Cup 18th Mottled ware 2 - 1 Tankard 18th Porcelain 2 - 2 Saucers 19th Glazed red earthenware 19 2 3 Serving dish/platter, 19th 2 chamberpots Glazed red earthenware: 4 - 2 Platter, green glazed bowl 19th slip decorated Unglazed red earthenware 1 - 1 Flowerpot 19th Pearlware 23 - 8 Side plate, saucer, bowl, 2 19th cups, 2 dinner plates, wall tile Transfer printed ware 13 - 7 Saucer, chamberpot, 19th/20th 2 bowls, 3 plates, Shell-edged ware 3 - 3 Jar, 2 platters 19th Prattware 1 - 1 Saucer 19th Stoneware 3 - 2 Jar, washbowl L19th/20th Unidentified 4 - 2 Post-medieval Total post-medieval 104 2 44 Table 2: Late medieval and post-medieval pottery, 11 Patrick Street, Kilkenny (99E0757).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 110
  • 115. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Pottery archive: The sherds are identified as to type by context in numerical order. The letters R, S, B, H and RH correspond to the diagnostic features of Rim, Spout, Base, Handle and Rim/Handle respectively. Where there is no letter this indicates a body sherd. Context Fabric type Finds number 2 Kilkenny-type 1-3 4 Kilkenny-type 1-5 6 Glazed red e’nware: slip deco- 2 rated 3® Pearlware 1 Brick 7 Pearlware 1® 8 Frechen 1 Glazed red e’nware: slip deco- 4(B) rated 3 Transfer printed ware 2 Drainpipe 11 Tin glazed earthenware 27 Stone 25(discarded) Bone 26(discarded) 16 Westerwald 6 Glazed red earthenware 1+2(B), 3®, 4, 5® 100 Minety-type 2 Kilkenny-type ware 1(H), 5-8, 10, 12-14, 16, 17+19, 20 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 3(B), 9, 15 Saintonge green glazed 11+F119:7, 18 Brick 4http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 111
  • 116. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 105 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 2, 4 Bone 3(discarded) 108 Leinster Cooking Ware 3, 6 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 4, 5 Saintonge green glazed 1 Glazed red earthenware 2 109 Leinster Cooking Ware 1® Kilkenny-type ware 3 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2, 6 Brick 4, 5 113 Ham Green B 9® Kilkenny-type ware 1, 3, 4, 5(B), 6, 7(H), 8, 10-12, 14, 16, 17, 18(B), 19-26 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2, 13 Saintonge green glazed 15 117 Leinster Cooking Ware 1(B), 2, 8, 26® Kilkenny-type coarseware 3, 21, 28, 30 Kilkenny-type ware 4-7, 10, 11(B), 13, 14®, 15-20, 22-25, 27, 29, 31 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 9 Saintonge green glazed 12 119 Leinster Cooking Ware 14, 18, 26®, 29 Kilkenny-type coarseware 9, 19, 20 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21®, 22(H), 23(H), 24, 25 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 5, 12, 16, 27, 28, 30® Saintonge green glazed 2, 3, 7+F100:11 Stone 31(discarded) 122 Kilkenny-type 1-6, 8 Stone 7(discarded)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 112
  • 117. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 124 Kilkenny-type coarseware 20 Kilkenny-type ware 3, 4(B), 5, 6, 7(B), 8, 9, 10(B), 11, 13, 14, 16-18, 22(B) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 15, 19® Saintonge green glazed 1 Merida-type 12 Mottled 21® 131 Kilkenny-type ware 1-3, 5(RS) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 4 Brick 6 134 Leinster Cooking Ware 1, 23, 26, 36® Kilkenny-type coarseware 34, 43(B) Kilkenny-type ware 3, 5(B), 7-9, 11-16, 18-22, 25, 27, 29, 31, 30®, 32(B), 33, 35, 37(B), 38(B), 39-42, 45, 47, 48 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2, 6, 44 Saintonge green glazed 4, 10, 17, 28 Unidentified medieval 46 146 Leinster Cooking Ware 15, 17 Kilkenny-type coarseware 16 Kilkenny-type ware 1-11, 13(RH), 14(RS), 18 Unidentified medieval 12 169 Kilkenny-type coarseware 4, 5 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 2 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 6, 7 Frechen 3 171 Leinster Cooking Ware 3 Kilkenny-type coarseware 1 Kilkenny-type ware 2, 4-6 173 Kilkenny-type ware 1 Saintonge green glazed 2http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 113
  • 118. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 177 Kilkenny-type ware 1®, 2 Drainpipe 1 179 Leinster Cooking Ware 19® Kilkenny-type coarseware 4b Kilkenny-type ware 1a, 3, 3a, 4, 4a(B), 5a, 8, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10, 10a, 11b, 12a(RS), 14, 19a, 19b® Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1, 7a, 7b, 9, 9a, 10b® Tin glazed earthenware 5 North Devon gravel free 2, 5b, 7+13, 11, 12 Black glazed ware 6 Glazed red earthenware 1b+2b+3b®, 6b, 17(RH) Glazed red e’ware: slip decorated 16(RB) 184 North Devon gravel free 1(B), 2 185 Kilkenny-type ware 4(H), 8, 9 North Devon gravel tempered 3® Glazed red earthenware 7(B) Baked clay 1 Bone 2(discarded) 187 Kilkenny-type coarseware 2 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1 190 Kilkenny-type coarseware 4 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 2, 3, 5(B), 6®, 7 Bone 8http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 114
  • 119. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 191 Glazed red earthenware 45® Porcelain 11®, 31(RB) Black glazed ware 41(RB) Pearlware 4+35®, 7, 8, 9+15+37(B), 13(B), 16, 17(RB), 19®, 20®, 21®, 22®, 24+30(RB), 25(RB), 28(RB), 34(RB), 38® Transfer printed ware 3, 12®, 14(RB), 18(RB), 33+36+46(B), 39®, 42(RB), 43(RB), 44, 47(B), 49(B) Shell-edged ware 2®, 23(RB), 26+29+32+50(B) Prattware 6+10(RB) Stoneware 1(B), 5+27®, 40® 192 Kilkenny-type 1(B), 2, 3(B), 4 194 Kilkenny-type ware 1®, 2-4, 6-8 Saintonge green glazed 5 Pearlware 9-12 (wall tile) 196 Kilkenny-type coarseware 1, 6(B) Kilkenny-type ware 2-5, 7-9, 11-13, 14(RS) Saintonge green glazed 10 198 Kilkenny-type ware 1-3, 5®, 6-9, 10(B), 12, 14 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 4, 11®, 13 199 Kilkenny-type ware 26(B), 32, 36 Westerwald 16 Tin glazed earthenware 14(B), 15 Glazed red earthenware 1(B), 2®, 3(RB), 4(RBH), 6(B), 7, 8(B), 9, 10-13, 17, 18(H), 19®, 20-22, 23(B), 24, 25(B), 27®, 28®, 29, 30(B), 31, 33-35, 37 Brick 38 200 Kilkenny-type coarseware 2, 9, 10 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 3-6, 11, 13(RH), 14+15(H), 16(B), 17 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 7(B), 8, 12®http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 115
  • 120. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 213 Kilkenny-type ware 1 217 Kilkenny-type coarseware 2 Kilkenny-type ware 1-3 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1 Glazed red earthenware? 3 219 Baked clay/stone? 1(discarded) 221 Kilkenny-type ware 1 224 Leinster Cooking Ware 9 Kilkenny-type ware 8, 10-12, 14 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2, 3, 4®, 5+6(B), 7 Redcliffe? 13 225 Leinster Cooking Ware 3 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 4, 5 Brick 2 227 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 2, 4® 230 Kilkenny-type coarseware 1, 3(B) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2, 4® 231 Leinster Cooking Ware 6 Kilkenny-type coarse ware 7 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 2, 3, 4(H), 5 233 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1 235 Leinster Cooking Ware 5, 12(H), 17®, 19, 27 Kilkenny-type ware 2(H), 3, 4, 6-9, 10(H), 13(B), 14, 15, 18, 22, 24, 28® Kilkenny-type cooking ware 25 Late local ware 21+29(B) Glazed red earthenware 16, 20, 30(B) Tile 23 Brick 1 Bone 26(discarded) Stone 11(discarded)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 116
  • 121. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 237 Leinster Cooking Ware 1(B) Kilkenny-type ware 3 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2 239 Kilkenny-type ware 1 246 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 2 248 Kilkenny-type ware 1 249 Bristol/Staffordshire slipware 1(B) 250 Tin glazed earthenware 2® Glazed red earthenware 1 251 Kilkenny-type 1-3 252 Kilkenny-type ware 2(B) Flemish redware 1 Brick 3 253 Kilkenny-type 1 254 Mottled ware? 1(H) 255 Kilkenny-type coarseware 4, 6 Kilkenny-type 7(H), 8, 10+11 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1, 3, 5, 9 Saintonge green glazed 2 257 Kilkenny-type coarse ware 3®, 4 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 2 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 5, 6 260 Leinster Cooking Ware 14 Kilkenny-type coarseware 31 Kilkenny-type ware 3-6, 8®, 9+30, 11+13, 12, 15, 16, 17(H), 18-22, 24(H), 25®, 27, 29, 33(B), 35(B), 36, 37 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 23, 26, 28, 32 Saintonge green glazed 7 Brick 1, 2, 10, 34http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 117
  • 122. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 261 Kilkenny-type ware 2, 4, 8-10 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1, 3, 6® 267 Ham Green B 1 Leinster Cooking Ware 3 Kilkenny-type ware 2, 4, 5 269 Kilkenny-type ware 1 272 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 2, 3 276 Kilkenny-type coarse ware 1 278 Kilkenny-type ware 2(B), 3-5 Brick 1 279 Leinster Cooking Ware 3, 6® Kilkenny-type ware 1(H), 4, 7 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2 Saintonge green glazed 5 Stone 8(discarded) 282 Kilkenny-type ware 3, 4(B), 5 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2 Merida-type 1® 284 Ham Green B 1 285 Kilkenny-type ware 1 Bone 2(discarded) 290 Kilkenny-type ware 1 291 Stone 1(discarded) 295 Kilkenny-type ware 1 Saintonge green glazed 2 296 Kilkenny-type ware 1-5, 6(H) 314 Glazed red earthenware 1http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 118
  • 123. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 317 Leinster Cooking Ware 4 Kilkenny-type coarseware 1(RH) Kilkenny-type ware 2(B), 1+3+6+10+11+12+13(B), 5, 8 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2®, 7, 9 319 Leinster Cooking Ware 5 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 3, 6, 7, 11-16, 18(B), 19(B) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 8, 21® Miscellaneous French 2 Saintonge green glazed 9 Bone 10, 17, 20 321 Glazed red earthenware 1 324 Kilkenny-type ware 1(B), 2-4 325 Glazed red earthenware 1 328 Kilkenny-type coarseware 1 Kilkenny-type ware 2, 3 330 Kilkenny-type ware 1(RH), 2, 4(B), 5, 6 Saintonge green glazed 3 332 Kilkenny-type coarseware 1(B) Kilkenny-type ware 5, 6, 8®, 9(B) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 3, 4, 7 Roof tile 2 333 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 2 335 Kilkenny-type ware 2, 3, 4®, 5-8, 9® Saintonge green glazed 1 337 Kilkenny-type ware 1-4, 6, 7(H), 8-21 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 5 Pearlware 22 339 Leinster Cooking Ware 3(RB) Kilkenny-type ware 1 Frechen 2http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 119
  • 124. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 342 Kilkenny-type coarseware 6(B) Kilkenny-type ware 1, 3-5 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2 343 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 2, 3®, 4(H), 5(B), 6®, 8-12, 13(B), 14, 15(B), 16, 17(B), 18- 20, 22(B), 23 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 7 Unglazed 21 347 Kilkenny-type coarseware 2, 3 Kilkenny-type ware 4(H) Unidentified post-medieval 1 358 Kilkenny-type ware 1 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2 360 Kilkenny-type ware 5 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1, 2, 4 369 Leinster Cooking Ware 19®, 20®, 23 Kilkenny-type coarseware 8(B), 26®, 27, 28 Kilkenny-type ware 7(RS), 11®, 14®, 15-17, 21, 24, 25, 29 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 10, 12, 18, 30, 31® Merida-type 9 North Devon gravel tempered 13 Bone 22(discarded) 376 Kilkenny-type ware 1-3 379 Kilkenny-type ware 3 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1, 2 380 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 2, 8 Brick 3-4, 9-12 383 Leinster Cooking Ware 4 Kilkenny-type coarseware 5(B) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 2, 3 Stone 1(discarded)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 120
  • 125. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 389 Leinster Cooking Ware 2® Kilkenny-type ware 1, 3+7, 4, 5+6 391 Kilkenny-type ware 3-5 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1+2, 6+7 394 Ham Green B 2 Leinster Cooking Ware 4 Kilkenny-type ware 1 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 3® 398 Leinster Cooking Ware 2 Kilkenny-type ware 1, 3 Unidentified post-medieval 4+5, 6 399 Leinster Cooking Ware 2 Kilkenny-type ware 1 401 Kilkenny-type ware 2 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1 Merida-type 3 Stone 4(discarded) 404 Leinster Cooking Ware 2, 8, 9 Kilkenny-type ware 2-6, 4-6, 10, 22(lug) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 1, 3, 8 Merida-type 1+7+19(RH) Brick 7 Unidentified post-medieval 21http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 121
  • 126. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 407 Kilkenny-type coarse ware 2 Kilkenny-type ware 1+4(B), 3(B) Kilkenny-type cooking ware 5 409 Kilkenny-type ware 1+3+4(B), 2(H) 411 Kilkenny-type coarseware 1(B) Kilkenny-type ware 2, 3, 4(B), 5(B), 6, 7® 415 Ham Green B 20(S) Kilkenny-type coarseware 17 Kilkenny-type ware 1-4, 10-16 Kilkenny-type cooking ware 19(B) Saintonge green glazed 18 Unglazed red earthenware 6(B) Glazed red e’ware: slip decorated 5 Transfer printed ware 7(B) Table 3: Pottery identification by contexthttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 122
  • 127. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Site information: Table 4 The following table lists the contexts containing pottery by area as they appear in the stratigraphic report. The quantity of sherds in each fabric type is also listed, indicating the number of sherds following reassembly rather than the original number found on the site. The date range suggested is only the date range of the pottery found in each context and does not attempt to be prescriptive for the suggested dating of any particular context. Area Context Context description Fabric-type & quantity Date (cen- tury) A+B 7 Overburden Pearlware (x1) 19th A+B 100 Pit Minety-type (x1) 13th Sherd link C119 Kilkenny-type ware (x12) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) Saintonge green glazed (x2) Brick (x1) A+B 105 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13th A+B 122 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x7) 13th A+B 124 Pit Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x15) turbed Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) Saintonge green glazed ware (x1) Merida-type ware (x1) Mottled ware (x1) A+B 134 Fill of pit (C133) Leinster Cooking Ware (x4) 13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x2) Kilkenny-type ware (x33) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) Saintonge green glazed ware (x4) Unidentified medieval (x1) A+B 102 Fill of pit (C193) Kilkenny-type ware (x4) 13thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 123
  • 128. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext A+B 260 Fill of pit (C259) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) Kilkenny-type ware (x24) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x4) Saintonge green glazed ware (x1) Brick (x4) A+B 187 Fill of pit (C186) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) E13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) A+B 217 Fill of pit (C216) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x3) turbed Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) Glazed red earthenware? (x1) A+B 231 Pit Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) Kilkenny-type ware (x5) A+B 246 Fill of pit (C245) Kilkenny-type ware (x2) 13th A+B 237 Pit Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x1) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) A+B 261 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x5) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) A+B 267 Re-cut of pit (C261) Ham Green B (x1) 13th Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) Kilkenny-type ware (x3) A+B 269 Fill of re-cut (C267) Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th A+B 285 Second re-cut of pit (C261) Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th A+B 279 Shallow feature Leinster Cooking Ware (x2) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x3) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) Saintonge green glazed ware (x1) A+B 276 Fill of shallow feature (C275) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) E13th A+B 278 Fill of shallow feature (C277) Kilkenny-type ware (x4) 13th Brick (x1) A+B 282 Fill of shallow feature (C281) Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) Merida-type ware (x1)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 124
  • 129. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext A+B 113 Pit Ham Green B (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x22) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) Saintonge green glazed ware (x1) A+B 109 Fill of pit (C102) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x1) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) Brick (x2) A+B 117 Fill of pit (C118) Leinster Cooking Ware (x4) 13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x4) Kilkenny-type ware (x21) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) Saintonge green glazed ware (x1) A+B 119 Fill of pit (C120) Leinster Cooking Ware (x4) 13th Sherd link C100 Kilkenny-type coarseware (x3) Kilkenny-type ware (x14) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x6) Saintonge green glazed ware (x3) A+B 230 Fill of pit (C229) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x2) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) A+B 177 Fill of pit (C178) Kilkenny-type ware (x2) 13th Drainpipe (x1) A+B 169 Fill of pit (C170) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x2) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x2) turbed Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) Frechen (x1) A+B 179 Ditch Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) turbed Kilkenny-type ware (x18) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x6) Tin glazed earthenware (x1) North Devon gravel free (x5) Black glazed ware (x1) Glazed red earthenware (x3) Glazed red earthenware: slip deco- rated (x1)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 125
  • 130. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext A+B 198 Linear pit Kilkenny-type ware (x11) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) A+B 199 Fill of pit (C198) Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 18th Westerwald (x1) Tin glazed earthenware (x2) Glazed red earthenware (x30) Brick (x1) A+B 219 Fill of pits (C218 & C220) Baked clay (unidentifiable) A+B 191 Pit Glazed red earthenware (x1) 19th Porcelain (x2) Black glazed ware (x1) Pearlware (x16) Transfer printed ware (x11) Shell-edged ware (x3) Prattware (x1) Stoneware (x3) A+B 196 Fill of pit (C197) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x2) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x11) Saintonge green glazed (x1) A+B 194 Fill of pit (C195) Kilkenny-type ware (x7) 13th dis- Saintonge green glazed ware (x1) turbed? Pearlware (x4) wall tiles A+B 173 Fill of pit (C174) Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th Saintonge green glazed ware (x1) A+B 171 Fill of pit (C172) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) Kilkenny-type ware (x4) A+B 184 Fill of linear ditch (C183) North Devon gravel free (x2) 17th A+B 185 Fill of linear ditch (C183) Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 18th North Devon gravel tempered (x1) Glazed red earthenware (x1) Baked clay (x1) A+B 272 Fill of linear feature (C271) Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 126
  • 131. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext C 251 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13th C 284 Sandy clay fill of pit (C283) Ham Green B (x1) L12th-M13th C 358 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) C 360 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) C 380 Shallow feature Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13th Brick (x6) C 379 Fill of shallow feature (C378) Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) C 383 Fill of shallow feature (C382) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) L12th/E13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) C 389 Fill of pit (C390) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x4) C 391 Fill of pit (C390) Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) C 376 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13th C 394 Pit Ham Green B (x1) E13th Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) Kilkenny-type ware (x1) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) C 399 Fill of pit (C400) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x1) C 401 Fill of pit (C403) Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) Merida-type (x1) C 404 Circular feature Leinster Cooking Ware (x3) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x10) turbed Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) Merida-type (x1) Brick (x1) Unidentified post-medieval (x1)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 127
  • 132. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext C 369 Fill of shallow feature (C368) Leinster Cooking Ware (x3) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type coarseware (x4) turbed Kilkenny-type ware (x10) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x5) Merida-type (x1) North Devon gravel tempered (x1) C 321 Fill of pit (C322) Glazed red earthenware (x1) 18th C 398 Fill of pit (C397) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x2) turbed? Unidentified post-medieval (x2) C 257 Pit Kilkenny-type coarseware (x2) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x2) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x2) C 255 Re-cut of pit (C257) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x2) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x3) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x4) Saintonge green glazed ware (x1)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 128
  • 133. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext D 235 Ditch Leinster Cooking Ware (x5) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x15) turbed Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) Late local ware (x1) Glazed red earthenware (x3) Tile (x1) Brick (x1) D 233 Fill of pit (C234) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) 13th D 342 Fill of curvilinear feature Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) 13th (C341) Kilkenny-type ware (x4) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) D 343 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x21) 13th Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) Unglazed (x1) D 332 Fill of pit (C331) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x4) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) Roof tile (x1) D 225 Fill of pit (C226) Leinster Cooking ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x3) Brick (x1) D 227 Fill of pit (C228) Kilkenny-type ware (x3) 13th D 224 Fill of pit (C223) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) M-L13th Kilkenny-type ware (x5) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x5) Redcliffe? (x1) D 328 Fill of pit (C329) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type ware (x2) D 337 Fill of pit (C338) Kilkenny-type ware (x20) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x1) turbed Pearlware (x1) D 339 Fill of pit (C340) Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x1) turbed Frechen (x1) D 213 Fill of pit (C212) Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 129
  • 134. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext D 347 Fill of pit (C346) Kilkenny-type coarseware (x2) 13th dis- Kilkenny-type ware (x1) turbed Unidentified post-medieval (x1) D 221 Furrow Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th D 239 Furrow Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13thhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 130
  • 135. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext E 6 Overburden Glazed red earthenware : slip deco- 19th rated (x1) Pearlware (x1) Brick (x1) E 146 Pit Leinster Cooking Ware (x2) 13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) Kilkenny-type ware (x14) Unidentified medieval (x1) E 192 Organic soil infill (C168) Kilkenny-type ware (x4) 13th E 254 Cobblestone surface Mottled ware? 18th E 317 Pit Leinster Cooking Ware (x1) 13th Kilkenny-type coarseware (x1) Kilkenny-type ware (x4) Kilkenny-type cooking ware (x3) E 296 Fill of pit (C297) Kilkenny-type ware (x6) 13th E 290 Pit Kilkenny-type ware (x1) 13th E 314 Layer sealing pit (C290) Glazed red earthenware (x1) 18th Table 4: Suggested date range of pottery by context.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 131
  • 136. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 15.5 Appendix 5: Faunal Remains Report By: Margaret McCarthy, MA, MIAI Department of Archaeology, University College Cork Introduction Evidence for habitation at Patrick Street comprised layers of refuse containing ceramics and other material finds which placed the deposition of the associated faunal material into three main phases; medieval, late-medieval and post-medieval. The medieval animal bone samples were recovered entirely from pits used for the disposal of domestic waste in this area of the town. Most of the bones originated from late medieval pit and ditch fills and a relatively small assemblage of animal bones was recovered from features of post-medieval date. Methods All fragments were identified to species, or as nearly as possible, using the reference collection of mam- mals, birds and fish at the Department of Archaeology, University College Cork. Data were recorded onto the Archaeological Services Unit’s faunal sheets, which include categories for butchery, ageing and sexing as well as species and element identification. Identifications were taken to species level where possible while fragments not identifiable to taxon were grouped into size categories: large mam- mal (cattle, horse or red deer), medium mammal (ovicaprid or pig) and completely unidentifiable. The separation of ovicaprid material relied on comparison with reference material and to the discussion in Boessneck (1969) and Prummel-Frisch (1983). Very few definite elements of goat were recognised and those postcranial bones that allow for discrimination between the two species were all identified to sheep. Ageing data were determined using procedures outlined by Silver (1971) for long bones and Grant (1975) for mandibles. The relative proportion of all the species present was assessed using the total fragments count (NISP) and for the three main livestock animals, the minimum number of in- dividuals (MNI) was also calculated. Measurements were taken according to the recommendations of von den Driesch (1976). Estimates of the original length and weight of the fish represented in the sam- ples were made by matching the archaeological material against modern comparative collections from specimens of known length and weight in the Department of Archaeology, University College Cork. Condition In common with most contemporary urban bone assemblages the faunal material from Kilkenny sur- vived in a good condition. Preservation was generally better in the pit and ditch fills while that from surface deposits and the linear features was classified as fair. A higher proportion of bones from the post-medieval features was noticeably weathered and eroded which suggested that meat waste was lefthttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 132
  • 137. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext exposed on the occupation surface for some time before being sealed by other layers or redeposited into pits. Fragmentation rates throughout were high resulting in large numbers of bones that could only be classified as large and medium mammal remains. The overall high rate of fragmentation in all three phases is attributed to food preparation and butchering techniques involving maximum use of the carcass. There were occasional charred and burnt bones throughout the various features. Some of these specimens were barely scorched while more displayed the characteristic blue/grey appearance of bone that has been in contact with fire for a considerable period of time. The scorched bones may relate to various joints of meat being roasted over a fire while the totally calcined specimens probably represent small items of food waste that were swept into a hearth as a means of disposal. The incidence of burnt bone was quite low for all of the periods investigated and there was a general distribution across all features with no major concentrations suggesting particular activities. Analysis Animal remains were hand collected from a total of 79 contexts representing pit fills, ditch fills, lin- ear features and surface layers and deposits. In selecting material for analysis, all contaminated finds were disregarded and only those bones that could be dated with confidence to a particular period of activity were examined. The archaeozoological material has been divided into three period groupings, which span almost 400 years of occupation in Kilkenny. A list of the identified species for each period of activity is given in Table 1 and the results are described below by individual period. Details of all measurements taken are provided in Table 2. Medieval Period Animal bones from 43 different pit fills were examined totalling 1643 fragments, 823 of which were identified to species. The largest individual samples came from C113 (169), C260 (190) and C337 (148). The remainder of the pits all contained less than a hundred individual fragments of bone. The greater part of the identified assemblage was made up of domestic livestock mammals. The pre- dominant species was cattle being represented by 486 specimens from at least fifteen individuals. All parts of the skeleton were present although vertebrae and the meat-bearing upper limb bones pre- dominated. There were sufficient peripheral elements however to indicate that cattle were brought to this area of the town on the hoof and slaughtered nearby. Epiphyseal fusion data showed that 68% of the remains originated from animals that were slaughtered between three to four years of age and from this it would seem that meat provisioning was not the sole priority for farmers living in the rural hinterland of the town. Fifteen mandibles provided ageing evidence and these again indicated that mature cattle accounted for 71% of the sample. It would seem that cattle were deliberately kept to a stage when they reached their maximum potential in terms of secondary products such as milk, hide and horns. There were some bones from animals under two years of age and two complete metapodia belonged to calves under six months old. Measurements on ten complete long bones showed that the cattle derived from beasts that had a mean shoulder height of 122cm. The cattle were short horned beasts similar in size and type to the cattle present in other regions of the country during the medieval period (McCarthy 2003). Evidence of dismemberment was present on many of the bones includinghttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 133
  • 138. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext horizontal chops along the proximal joint surfaces of the upper limb bones and fine knife marks on the joint surfaces of metapodia associated with severing the lower limbs from the meat-bearing upper regions of the carcass. After cattle, sheep were the next most commonly represented animals with 236 identified fragments originating from a minimum of ten individuals, the MNI being estimated on the basis of upper ra- dius. In common with the cattle remains, most parts of the skeleton were recognised indicating local slaughter and butchery of the animals. Analysis of ageing evidence from suitable long bones indicated that over 72% of the sheep remains were from individuals that had reached at least three years of age before slaughter. Seven mandibles were sufficiently well preserved to estimate age using tooth wear as a guide and these suggested adult animals around three years of age. A small amount of juvenile animals (1-2 years) were represented and seven lamb bones were identified. Butchery marks were observed on many of the upper limb bones and ribs and knife marks associated with skinning and meat removal were common. The quantity of measurable bone was small in general but mean Withers Heights for metacarpals and metatarsals were 54.1cm and 55.7cm respectively. Pig remains were somewhat scarce numerically but at least four individuals were estimated from proxi- mal radius. Of the 74 bones identified, over 35% came from the region of the skull and the other body parts represented the major limb bones, scapula, pelvis and vertebral fragments. Some of the bones showed signs of having been butchered and ageing evidence obtained from long bone epiphyseal fusion data indicated that most pigs had not reached adulthood at slaughter. The medieval pits produced a relatively large sample of horse bones in comparison to other contempo- rary urban sites and a number of these displayed butchery traces consistent with the eating of horse- flesh. A total of twelve bones were identified, mostly representing loose teeth and limb bone fragments. A midshaft fragment of a tibia from C109 was crudely smashed open while single femur fragments from C260 and C394 bore knife marks associated with skinning and meat removal. The horse teeth were from animals over ten years of age based on the comparative wear curves of Levine (1982). Non-edible domestic mammals from the medieval pits included a few remains of dog and cat. Two fills (C260 & C337) each yielded a single dog bone, identified as a portion of a mandible and a lower molar. The mandible bore no teeth but the overall size and condition of the specimen indicated a small terrier-sized adult individual. The only identified cat bone was a complete left mandible from C380 and this belonged to an adult individual. Domestic fowl was identified from two bones, a complete coracoid from C360 and a lower leg bone from C405. Also present were the remains of a single adult goose identified from a tibiotarsus in C260 and three duck bones in C230 and C285. Marine species included two head bones of a cod, Gadus morhua identified as a posttemporal and a basioccipital. The wild mammal component consisted of two species, red deer, Cervus elaphus and hare, Lepus capen- sis. The midshaft portion of a metatarsus of an adult deer was recovered from C401. The bone did not display any butchery marks but it is assumed to represent an individual that was hunted locally and subsequently sold in the town for its venison. Hare was attested by the recovery of three metapodial bones from C339.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 134
  • 139. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Late Medieval Period The late medieval assemblage forms the largest component of animal bones retrieved from the site. The material came from a variety of features mostly from pits but also from ditch fills and linear and curvilinear cut features. A total of 1933 bone specimens were examined and the identified specimens included eight species of mammal, domestic fowl, goose, duck and two fish species. The samples in general were highly fragmented containing many small unidentifiable fragments from the long bones of large and medium sized animals. Of the 1983 fragments examined, 1138 were positively identified and domestic species made up the major part of the assemblage. Cattle were the most frequent taxon by number of identified specimens (NISP) and minimum number of individuals. Their remains accounted for 44% of the identified as- semblage and at least 18 individuals were determined based on meatapodia. The majority of the cat- tle bones came from the upper region of the body particularly scapulae, humerii and tibiae and the remaining elements were identified as various skull fragments, metapodia and vertebrae. All parts of the skeleton were recognised except the calcaneum, sesamoid bones and phalanxes which may indicate that the lower extremities of the carcass were removed with the hide to a tannery. Ageing evidence in- dicated that the cattle bones all represented mature individuals over 2.5-3 years of age. Very few bones had unfused epiphyses suggesting that most of the cattle had reached maturity before slaughter. The mandibular wear stage of 12 mandibles suggested that these individuals were also mature at death, probably around three years old. Evidence of butchering was not extensive, and the only bones to show chop marks and knife cuts were femora, tibiae, scapulae and a few skull fragments. Midline splitting of the long bones was common in all samples and the consumption of marrow was apparently significant in the diet. Two mandibles had been chopped through suggesting that the lower jaw had been removed to gain access to the tongue. Sheep remains were more common than in the previous medieval period with a minimum of twelve individuals being established from a sample of 381 bones. All parts of the sheep skeleton were present although upper meat-bearing limb bones were more frequent than those from other areas of the skele- ton. In common with the cattle remains, ageing data indicated that there was a high incidence of adult animals consistent with the exploitation of sheep both for their meat and their secondary products. Twelve mandibles had fully erupted tooth rows, which yielded Grant age values between 30-35 and this indicated that most individuals were slaughtered after they had reached their prime meat-produc- ing age. Epiphyseal fusion data from long bones showed a similar pattern of age distribution with 64% of the bones belonging to individuals that were slaughtered at over three years of age. A small number of limb bones with unfused epiphyses were found and four complete metapodia belonged to lambs under six months of age. Some of the bones bore fine knife marks associated with skinning and the removal of meat from the shoulder bone. There were several instances of crude chopping on the sheep bones as well efficient midline splitting of the vertebrae resulting in the division of the carcasses into two halves. Medial splitting of metapodia for marrow extraction was also recorded. Pig was the least frequently occurring of the three main livestock animals accounting for just 13% of the identified assemblage and representing five individuals. The total sample amounted to 147 frag- ments and the most numerous elements were loose teeth, pelves, scapulae, tibiae and skull fragments.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 135
  • 140. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Other parts of the skeleton were sufficiently well represented to indicate local slaughter and consump- tion of pigs. In common with other medieval urban assemblages, the longbone fusion evidence indi- cated that pigs were slaughtered before they reached adulthood as this species has no other economic function other than the provision of meat. The recovery of seven neo-natal bones indicates that pigs were bred in the town and there was evidence for the occasional consumption of suckling pig through the recovery of two radius fragments. Many of the bones showed signs of having been butchered and all skulls had been smashed open, presumably to extract the brains. Other domestic animals present were horse, dog and cat. A total of 24 horse bones were identified, 14 from various pit fills and 10 from the fills of ditches. The bones came from all parts of the skeleton including tibia, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, scapula and mandible and a minimum of two adult individuals was established from metapodial bones. There were cut marks on five bones to indicate that horses were occasionally slaughtered for their meat. Two metatarsals were split medially for the extraction of marrow and chop marks on femora and a pelvis were consistent with dismemberment and filleting. The late medieval sample also included four dog bones all of which were recovered from the ditch fills; a mandible and loose tooth from C185 and a tibia fragment and complete metatarsus from C235. The bones were all fully mature and from an individual about the size of a modern sheepdog. In addition, there were six cat bones from three pit fills (C192, C196 & C199). These were identified as mandible, femur, ulna, radius, lower molar and a fragment of a skull and collectively they represented a single adult individual. The wild mammal component consisted of two species, hare, Lepus capensis, and rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. The proximal portion of an ulna of a hare was recovered from C328, a pit fill while single finds of rabbit were found in a ditch fill (C185) and a pit fill (C198). Domestic fowl, goose and duck were the only identified bird species and of these, fowl bones were most common including a single sample of 39 bones from C139, three of which came from laying females. In all, 64 domestic fowl bones were identified and these were scattered across 13 features. Skeleton element analysis indicated that the sample contained almost complete carcasses of five individuals, including laying females and juvenile fowl. The eight goose bones belonged to adult birds that were probably kept for egg and down production. The identified elements included carpo-metacarpus, ster- num, coracoid, tibiotarsus and skull fragments. Two juvenile duck bones were found in C199, which suggested that domestic ducks were bred in the town. The sample of fish bones included a haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, cleithrum from C196 and a ling, Molva molva, parasphenoid from C255. The bones were slightly larger than modern specimens in the Archaeological Services Unit from fish measuring 55cm in length. Post-Medieval A small quantity of animal bones was recovered from features that were associated with post-medieval activity in this area of the town. These were found in a variety of features including pits, ditches, a fur- row, a cobbled surface and other surface deposits. In all, 369 bones were examined of which just 24% could be taken to species level. The material was noticeably less well preserved than the two earlierhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 136
  • 141. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext phases of activity and fragmentation rates were high resulting in a large amount of indeterminate frag- ments. Identification of the bones indicated that the three main livestock species were all represented as well as rabbit and domestic fowl. In common with the earlier phases, cattle dominated the assemblage with their remains accounting for 72% of the identified sample. Most of the skeletal elements repre- sented prime meat-bearing bones from the upper regions of the body. There were, however, sufficient quantities of peripheral elements such as phalanges, skull fragments and metapodia to indicate that the sample of cattle bones represents the remains of complete carcasses, not prepared meat joints. Age- ing evidence from the major limb bones and two mandibles suggested slaughtering of cattle at 2.5 to 3 years. Cut and chop marks occurred on several cattle bones including tibia, humerus, scapulae and skulls. Many cattle metapodia, femora and tibiae were split down the midline for the extraction of marrow and skulls were split open presumably to gain access to the brains. A total of 19 sheep bones were identified including upper and lower limb bones, loose teeth and skull fragments. The bones mostly represented older individuals although the recovery of a few lamb bones and individuals under two years of age suggested that meat did not always originate from older stock. Butchery evidence included the medial splitting of two long bones and fine knife marks on a pelvis and scapula. Other species present in the post-medieval sample were pig, rabbit and domestic fowl. Pig was identi- fied from three limb bones and a lower canine from an adult boar. A rabbit tibia was found in a pit fill (C289) and the cobbled surface (C254) produced a lower leg bone of domestic fowl.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 137
  • 142. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Conclusions The animal bones recovered during excavations at Patrick Street were characteristic of domestic rub- bish consisting largely of food debris but also including the remains of working animals and pets. For all three periods bone material appears to have deliberately discarded into pits dug especially for refuse disposal. Other material became scattered in a less specialised manner across the surface of the site and into ditch fills. The largest samples of bones were from layers and features that contained medieval and late-medieval pottery although the ceramic evidence indicated that the bulk of the recovered bones were associated with late-medieval activity. This report has focused on the exploitation of animals, birds and fish by the population of the town and the general conclusions drawn are typical of medieval and post-medieval urban assemblages in Ireland. Large domestic mammals, not surprisingly, formed the bulk of the identified assemblage and of these, cattle remains were the most frequent elements. The samples from the three main phases of activity are characterised by a high frequency of cattle and it is clear that beef played an important dietary role. By fragment count and number of individuals present cattle were consistently the most prominent species represented with sheep occupying a constant secondary place. The quantity of pig bones was negligible indicating that animal husbandry in the hinterland of Kilkenny was directed more towards the rearing of cattle and sheep. The proportion of sheep increased in the late-medieval period linked perhaps to the expanding wool trade in Ireland at this time. Ageing data indicated a high kill-off of adults that would have provided between three to four fleeces before death and wool production seems to have been the primary aim of sheep husbandry in the region. The majority of the cattle bones represented mature beasts kept for their secondary produce such as milk, hides and horns prior to being slaugh- tered for food. The occasional consumption of veal was recorded through the recovery of limb bones from individuals under six months old with very little in the way of juvenile animals. Similar ageing patterns have been seen elsewhere in Irish urban assemblages (McCormick 1997, McCarthy 2003) where it is noted that the provision of wool, hides and other by-products of cattle and sheep was appar- ently more significant than the supply of tender meat to the urban market. At Kilkenny, there was very little evidence for young animals, certainly not in quantities to suggest large scale consumption of veal and lamb. The sample of pig bones on the other hand belonged to individuals that were slaughtered between one to two years of age and the meat would certainly have made for good eating. In addition, there were some foetal and neo-natal fragments indicating that pigs were bred within the town. Analysis of element representation showed an equal balance of meat bearing and peripheral fragments indicating that slaughtering and primary butchery were undertaken somewhere in the vicinity of the site. This indicates that livestock animals were driven into the town on the hoof and then slaughtered and butchered at various locations in the town. The size of the animals present showed that sheep and cattle were comparable in stature to those from other contemporary urban sites (McCarthy 2003). There is a suggestion from the small quantity of measurements taken that improvements were made in the overall size of stock from the medieval to the post-medieval period due to a combination perhaps of new breeds being introduced from the Continent or improved husbandry techniques. The skull frag- ments show that most of the cattle remains were of a short-horned variety although fragments of two long horn cores from the post-medieval period represented a breed of cattle introduced into Irelandhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 138
  • 143. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext from Britain and the continent during the 18th century. The faunal sample also included a relatively high proportion of horse bones and sufficient butchery marks were observed on the limb bones to suggest that these animals were exploited from time to time for their food value, perhaps in times of need when they had outlived their usefulness as traction animals. The eating of horseflesh was banned in the Early Medieval period and while the occasional consumption of horses has been documented, their remains typically account for a very small propor- tion of urban food refuse assemblages (McCarthy 2003). Domestic fowl were the most popular species of poultry and these birds were kept in the town as indi- cated by the recovery of immature specimens in the assemblage. Due to the small number of measure- ments no significant trends in the different breeds of birds could be shown but the recovery of three femora with clear calcium deposits laid down in the shaft of the bone (medullary bone) indicates that female hens were kept to provide eggs. The goose bones all belonged to adult individuals and these would have been useful providers of eggs and down. The few duck bones included adult and juvenile individuals suggesting that domestic ducks were kept on a small scale in the town. Fish seem to have contributed to the menu from time to time also and although the sample amounted to just four bones, it provided evidence for the consumption of cod, haddock and ling by the occupants. The few cat and dog bones in the assemblage are interpreted as the remains of discarded pets that had died. They may also simply have been scavengers that roamed around the town in search of food waste. Finally, the wild mammal component from Patrick Street consisted of a few bones each of red deer, rabbit and hare. Hares and rabbits were hunted in the fields surrounding the town although from the small number of bones recovered it is clear that these animals did not play an important role in the meat supply to the population of the town. The few deer bones represent animals that were probably captured in local areas of woodland though deer meat was not an important source of protein. At this time venison may have been regarded as food for the wealthy and the hunting activities would cer- tainly have been restricted to the upper classes.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 139
  • 144. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Bibliography Boessneck, J. 1969 ‘Osteological differences between sheep and goat’ In D.R. Brothwell and E. Higgs (eds), Science in Archaeology, a survey of progress and research. Bristol. Grant, A. 1975 ‘The Animal Bones’ and ‘Appendix B: The use of tooth wear as a guide to the age of domestic animals’ In: B. Cunliffe (ed), Excavations at Portchester Castle, Vol. 1: Roman. 378- 408, 437-50. London. McCormick, F. 1991 ‘The effect of the Anglo-Norman settlement on Ireland’s wild and domesticated fauna’ In: P.J. Crabtree and K. Ryan (eds), Animal Use and Cultural Change. Pennsylvania. McCormick, F. 1997 ‘The Animal Bones’ In: M.F. Hurley and O.M.B. Scully. Late Viking Age and Medieval Waterford: Excavations 1986-1992.819-53. Waterford. McCarthy, M. 2003 ‘Section 11: The Faunal Remains’ in R.M. Cleary and M.F. Hurley (eds) Excavations in Cork City 1984-2000, 375-391, Cork City Council. Silver, I.A. 1971 ‘The Ageing of domestic animals’ In: In D.R. Brothwell and E. Higgs (eds), Science in Archaeology, a survey of progress and research. Bristol. Von den Driesch, A. 1976 A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites. Bulletin 1, Peabody Museum, Harvard University.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 140
  • 145. Table 1: Representation of species Cattle S/G Goat Pig Horse Dog Cat Hare Rabbit Red Deer Bird Fish Medieval Pits 486 236   74 12 2 1     1 6 2 Late Medieval Pits 348 331   126 16   6 1 1   71 2 Late Medieval Ditches 142 46   20 10 4     1   3   Late Medieval Furrow                         Late Medieval Linear 6 3   1                 features Late Medieval Curvi-linear 1 1                     feature ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Post-medieval Pits 55 12   4         1       Post-medieval Ditch 2                       Post-medieval Furrow 2                       Post-medieval Cobble                     1   surface Post-medieval Deposit 6 7                     TOTAL 1048 636 0 225 38 6 7 1 3 1 81 4 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/141 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 146. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Table 2: Non Livestock from 11 Patrick’s Street Kilkenny 99E0757 SPECIES C. NO. ELEMENT NO COMMENTS PHASE HORSE C100 Tooth 1   MED   C109 Tib 1 Crudely smashed MED   C112 Tooth 1   MED   C227 Tooth 1   MED   C260 Fem 1 Chopped MED     Pat 1   MED     Ast 1   MED   C276 PH2 1   MED   C285 C Vert 1   MED     Skull 1   MED   C337 Rad 1   MED   C343 Pelvis 1   MED   C394 Fem 1 Chopped MED   C402 Tooth 1   MED   C405 Tooth 1   MED     PH2 1   MED   C415 Tooth 2   MED     Pelvis 1 Chopped LM     MT 1 MG& LM     MT 1 MNI 2 LM   C185 Tib 1 D7 DF LM     Splint 1   LM     MT 1 MG& LM     Calc 1   LM   C235 MT 1 Chopped LM     Fem 3 Chopped LM     Mandible 2   LM   C190 PH1 1   ND     Tib 1 Chopped ND     Fem 2 Chopped ND     Pelvis 1   ND   C194 Tooth 1   ND     PH3 1   ND GOAT C194 HC 1 Female ND DOG C185 Tib 1   LM     Tooth 1   LM   C190 Tib 2   ND   C235 Tib 1   LM     MP 1   LM   C260 Tib 1   MED   C337 MT 1   MED CAT C192 Mand 1 Adult LM     Fem 1 Adult LM   C196 Ulna 1 Adult LM     Rad 1 Adult LM   C199 Tooth 1   LM     Skull 1 Adult LM   C380 Mand 1 Adult MED RED DEER C190 Scap 1 Chop marks Y ND   C401 MT 1     HARE C117 Tib 1   ND   C190 MP 5   NDhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 142
  • 147. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext SPECIES C. NO. ELEMENT NO COMMENTS PHASE   C200 Skull 2   MED   C328 Ulna 1   LM RABBIT C185 Tib 1   LM   C198 Tib 1   LM   C289 Tib 1   MED GOOSE C134 Carpo 1   LM     Ster 1   LM     Tib Tars 1   LM   C185 Tib Tars 1   LM   C199   5   LM   C260 Tib Tars 1   MED FOWL C134 Carpo 1   LM   C169   1   LM   C175   2   ND   C179   1   LM   C185   2   LM   C196   39 Two female LM   C199   19   LM   C360   1   MED   C405   1   MED DUCK C199   2   LM   C230   1   MED   C285   2   MED COD C117 PST 1   ND   C200   1   MED   C319   1   MED HADDOCK C196 CL 1   LM LING C255 PARAS 1   LM ND=No Datehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 143
  • 148. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 14.6 Appendix 6: Plant Remains from Patrick Street, Kilkenny 99E757 By Mary Dillon The site is located in Patricks Street in the town of Kilkenny. It consisted of late Medieval and Post- medieval features including eighty pits with a small number of linear features and post-medieval struc- tural elements also being present on-site. This report deals with the charred plant remains retrieved from the site and looks at the information produced on environment, agricultural practices and diet. Methodology Bulk soil samples were collected on site and were processed post-excavation using a simple flotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow the carbonised plant material to float, this was then poured off into a series of sieves (1mm and 250µm), trapping the ‘flot’ (floating material) which was air-dried and stored in air-tight plastic bags. The flots were sorted and scanned for plant material and charcoal using a low-powered binocular microscope (magnification x10 to x 40). Nomenclature and taxonomic orders follows Stace (1997). All twenty-five samples were scanned for botanical mate- rial. Results Twelve samples were scanned and all were found to have plant remains. Four samples were Medieval in origin and eight were Post-medieval. The medieval samples came from the following contexts; Pit C100 (Area A+B); deposition layer C371 Indet. cereals (Area D); fill C401 from pit C403 21% C) and fill C411 from pit C407 (Area C). (Area Oat, 34% Medieval pottery of various types, animal bone, metal objects, slag and charcoal were found in the Medieval contexts. The Medieval samples were rich in cereals. They contained a majority of wheat (37%), with oat (34%) also abundant. Rye and barley made up 5% and 3% respectively (Table 1, Fig. 1). A large amount of Barley, 3% weed seeds, including many from the knotgrass, goosefoot, daisy, sedge and legume families were Rye, 5% present. Wheat, 37% Fig. 1 Pie chart showing percentage frequency of cereals from the Medieval samples Five samples came from Post-medieval contexts, all of which were fills of pits; C388 from C338 (Area D); C109 and C117 from C102, C113, C118, C120, C176 and C229 (a group of pits in Area A+B); C291 from C290 (Area E) and C289 from C288 (Area E). The Post-medieval samples were also rich in cereals. They contained a majority of barley (34%), with wheat (24%) also abundant. Oat is less important at (16%). Rye made up 3% of the cereal assemblage (Table 1, Fig. 2). However, barley was only dominant in one sample (C289 in Area E), from which 385http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 144
  • 149. Indet. cereals Oat, 16% 24%ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext grains were recovered. In the other samples barley is not highly represented. A large amount of weed seeds, including many from the knotgrass, goosefoot and legume families were present. Interestingly two flax boles were identified. Barley, 34% Three samples (from C2, C135 and C196) were of unknown date. The latter two contexts were fills of Wheat, 24% pits from Area A+B. C196 was the richest of the samples and contained a majority of wheat, with oat also dominant. Rye, 2% Fig. 2 Pie chart showing percentage frequency of cereals from the Post-medieval samples Discussion The plant remains were predominantly cereals (wheat, oat, barley and rye) and a variety of weed seeds that are associated with growing among crops. It is useful to compare the Medieval samples with the Post-medieval samples. The medieval samples yielded a majority of wheat, followed by oat, with barley and rye making up small percentages, while the Post-medieval samples yielded a majority of barley, followed by oat and wheat. This is a somewhat opposite trend to what has been noted elsewhere. For example, in excavations car- ried out for the Dungarvan Sewerage Scheme in Dungarvan the medieval samples yielded a majority of oat, followed by barley and wheat, while the Post-medieval samples yielded a majority of wheat, followed by barely and oat (Dillon and Johnston, 2006). However, apart from one sample (C289) from a pit in Area E, barley is not dominant in the samples, and therefore there are only slight differences in the Medieval and Post-medieval samples. Overall it seems that oat and wheat were of equal importance with barley also significant. Rye was not highly represented, but consistent throughout many of the samples. Some of the wheat from Patrick St. could be identified as bread wheat. In the Breatha Déin Chécht bread wheat was more esteemed than spelt wheat and emmer wheat. This was probably because bread wheat has a high gluten content, which produces good quality bread (Kelly, 1998, 220), it is a free- threshing cereal, making it easier to process and it is less common than other cereals as it is intolerant of damp and wet weather. Only a small amount of wheat was recovered in a survey of early Christian sites in Munster (Monk et al. 1998). However, wheat gets more common in the later medieval period, e.g. at Kilferagh, Co Kilkenny the excavation of a 13th to 15th century kiln site produced a high inci- dence of bread wheat in comparison to other cereals (Monk 1987). Oat is listed as the least prestigious cereal in the 8th Century law text Breatha Déin Chécht. The low value of oat appears to be based upon the quality of bread that can be obtained from the grain (Kelly, 1998). However, bread was not the only food that was made from cereals, as they were also used for making meals, porridges, gruels and soup bases (Sexton, 1998). Oat occurs frequently in samples from the early medieval period; in several Munster sites it was the most frequent cereal (Monk et al., 1998). In other sites in Ireland, oat occurs frequently, although it is not always the most common (Monk, 1985/86). Oats identified from sites in Ireland include the cultivated variety (Avena sativa), wild oatshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 145
  • 150. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext (A. fatua) and the bristle pointed oats (A. strigosa/brevis). Oat species are difficult to distinguish on the basis of their grains, and chaff fragments are normally required before identifications can be made. At Patrick Street the oats could not be identified to species, as no characteristic chaff was found. Barley was well represented in the Patrick Street samples. Is the most frequent cereal from sites in the Early Historic period and remains popular into the medieval period. Barley is a resilient crop suited to Irish soil and climate (Monk et al. 1998). Although it can be difficult to distinguish between two- row and six-row barley, the latter variety appears to be more common from Irish early Christian sites (Monk, 1985/86). Some chaff fragment from Patrick Street were found to be six-row barley. Rye is consistently present in most of the samples, though is small amounts Archaeobotanical evidence also suggests that rye cultivation started in Ireland in the early Christian period (Monk, 1985/86). It has a more northerly range than other cereals. It is suitable for autumn sowing, and can be winter harvested. The grains can be ground for flour and the straw is the traditional thatching material used in the west of Ireland. Kelly suggests that, on linguistic grounds, some rye was introduced to Ireland with Christianity as the Old Irish word, secal, is borrowed from post-Classical Latin (Kelly, 1998). Low incidences of rye were recorded from a limited number of Munster early Christian rural sites (Monk et al., 1998). However, it is found quite widely, many sites producing at least a few grains. For example, samples from sites such as Lisleagh, Co. Cork, Lackenavorna, Co. Tipperary, Oughtymore, Co. Derry and Lough Faughan crannog, Co. Down, contained small amounts of rye grains (Monk 1985/86). It continues in popularity into the Post-medieval period. A large number of weed seeds were recovered from the samples. Most of these came from weeds that grow along side crops and were harvested with the cereals. The weed assemblage was dominated by weeds from the knotgrass and goosefoot family, with legumes, plantain and cleavers also present. Legumes would have provided a valuable source of protein in the medieval diet and may have been de- liberately gathered. The presence of weed seeds, together with cereal chaff indicates that these samples were unprocessed at the time of charring. The weed seeds in the Medieval and Post-medieval samples did not differ substantially. However, the one Post-medieval sample (C388) had one pea and one large bean, indicating the presence of legume crops and the use of such in the diet. Two flax bolls were found in sample C117. Flax was domesticated before 6000BC for the food value of the oily seeds, but in time became more valued for its fibres, from which cloth could be made. Flax may have come to Ireland from Roman Britain and was a very important crop by the 18th and 19th century (Feehan, 2003, 163). Flax for making cloth is harvested when its still green, before the seeds have ripened. Both the flax bolls found were from mature plants, indicating that it may have been grown here as a foodstuff. Summary The samples from Patrick Street excavations are rich in plant remains. There is little difference in the cereal assemblages from the Medieval and Post-medieval times, in contrast to sites around the rest of the country. Wheat, oat and barley form the majority of the assemblage, with rye being consistently present in small amounts. The weed seeds are characteristic of cultivated ground. The presence of culti- vated legumes and flax in the Post-medieval samples gives us an indication of the agricultural practices as well as the wider social traditions in Kilkenny at the time.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 146
  • 151. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext References Dillon, M. and Johnston, P. 2006 Plant remains from Killeen Castle Demense, Co. Meath. Report produced for M. Gowen Ltd Feehan, J. 2003 Farming in Ireland - History, Heritage and Environment. UCD, Dublin Kelly, F. 1998 Early Irish Farming. Dublin, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Mitchell, G F 1951 ‘Studies in Irish Quaternary deposits’. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 53B, 111-206 Monk, M. 1985/86 Evidence from macroscopic plant remains for crop husbandry in prehistoric and early historic Ireland: A review. Journal of Irish Archaeology 3 Monk, M. 1987 ‘Appendix II Charred seeds and plant remains from Kilferagh, Co. Kilkenny’, pp. 98- 99 in Cleary, R.M. Hurley, M.F. and Twohig E.A. (eds.) Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline (1981-82). Cork, Department of Archaeology Monk, M. Tierney, J. and Hannon, M. 1998 Archaeobotanical studies and early medieval Munster. In Monk M. and Sheehan J. (eds.) Early Medieval Munster Archaeology, History and Society. Cork, Cork University Press Sexton, R. 1998 Porridges, gruels and breads: the cereal foodstuffs of early medieval Ireland. In M. Monk and J. Sheehan (eds.) Early Medieval Munster Archaeology, History and Society. Cork, Cork University Press Stace, C.A. 1997 New Flora in the British Isles (2nd edition), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 147
  • 152. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 exthttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 148
  • 153. Table 1 Site: Patrick’s Street                         Context 411 100 401 371 388 289 291 117 109 135 2 196 Indeterminate seeds from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) 1 1   4 1 2             Probable Sheep’s sorrel (Rumex cf acetosella L.)       2                 Indeterminate seeds from the Knotgrass family (Polygonaceae)       7   5 1           Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) capsule       2                 Beans (Phaseolus/Vigna/Vicia/Faba)         1               Pea (Pisum species)         1               ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Small seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae)   2 1 4   15 5 2     1 4 Large seeds from the Legume family (Fabaceae)   11 1   1 4 5 6 3     5 Flax seed fragments (Linum L. species)                         Plantain (Plantago L. species)       2                 Flax bole (Linum L. species)               2         Nipplewort (Lapsana communis L.)       5       2         Cleavers (Galium aparine L.)     1 3   11 2           Indeterminate seeds from the pink family (Caryophyllaceae)             1           Indeterminate daisy family seeds: marigold type (Asteraceae) 1 7     2               Indeterminate seeds from the daisy family (Asteraceae)   1                     Indeterminate seeds from the sedge family (Cyperaceae)       2 1   4           Oat grains (Avena L. species) 6 7   155 20 148   15 3   1 15 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ Possible oat grains (cf Avena species)         7               Barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.)   3   10 5 385   1 1 1 3 1 Barley rachis internodes (6-row)           33             Naked barley (Hordeum nudum)           1             Possible barley grains (cf Hordeum vulgare)         2               Oat/Barley grains (Avena/Hordeum)           2             Rye grains (Secale cereale)       25 8 14             Possible rye grains (cf Secale cereale)       1   5             Possible Rye rachis internodes (cf Secale cereale)         2               Free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L./turgidum Desf./durum L.) 9 90     29 49            149 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 154. Site Patricks Street                     Context 411 100 401 371 388 289 291 117 109 135 2 196 Probable free threshing wheat (Triticum cf aestivum L./turgidum Desf./du- 5       34               rum L.) Bread wheat rachis internodes (Triticum aestivum L.)   2     4 6             Wheat grains (Triticum L. species) 24 32 9 22 186 20 3 68 3 1 2 32 Wheat/Rye grains (Triticum/Secale)   2   10 65 5             Indeterminate cereal grains 6 42   56 79 166 5 29 1   3 19 Rachis internodes from indeterminate cereals       3   12       1     Small grass seeds (Poaceae) 3                       Indetermiante grasses, Avena type 1     3 8   9           ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Indeterminate grass seeds (Poaceae)   13   3 71 6 1           Indeterminate weed seeds   3   5   4 1 1         Straw culm nodes         5 2 5           http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/150 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext
  • 155. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 15.7 Appendix 7: Catalogue of Clay Pipes Described by Sara Camplese Stems Stem (99E0757:11:28) L. 34.9mm, D. 8.5mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:235:31) L. 38.4mm, D. 9mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:177:4) L. 31.8mm, D. 7.6mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:177:5) L. 59.2mm, D. 7.9mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:177:6)) L. 27.5mm, D. 8.1mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:177:7) L. 19.5mm, D. 8.5mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:26) L. 30.09mm, D. 6.5mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:24) L. 39.9mm, D. 7.8mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:25) L. 31mm, D. 6.3mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:23) L. 58mm, D. 8.2mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:108:7) L. 33mm, D. 7.8mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:108:8) Fragment. L. 20.06mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:314:3) L. 40.07mm, D. 7.1mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:314:4) L. 28.5mm, D. 8.5mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:199:39) L. 31.7mm, D. 6.8mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:6:5) L. 39mm, D. 9.4mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:8:7) L. 45.5mm, D. 7.7mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:8:6) L. 52.2mm, D. 8mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:16:28) L. 72mm, D. 8.5mm. Incomplete.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 151
  • 156. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Stem (99E0757:179:29) L. 35mm, D. 6.7mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:30) L. 40mm, D. 8.7mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:291:2) L. 72.2mm, D. 10.06mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:325:2) L. 44.1mm, D. 9.3mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:326:1) L. 52.8mm, D. 9.2mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:173:3) L. 35.1mm, D. 8.7mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:0:8) L. 43.7mm, D. 9.3mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:199:54) L. 29.8mm, D. 6.4mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:199:55) L. 48.2mm, D. 7.8mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:199:56) L. 58.8mm, D. 7.4mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:199:57) L. 34.2mm, D. 8.3mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:199:58) L. 27.4mm, D. 5.6mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:184:3) L. 54.7mm, D. 9.3mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:39) L. 70.05mm, D. 8.4mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:42) L. 74mm, D. 7.8mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:179:43) L. 32.8mm, D. 8.2mm. Incomplete. Stem (99E0757:227:3) L. 32.9mm, D. 7.6mm. Incomplete. Bowls* Bowl (99E0757:200:18) Fragment. L. 22mm, W. 11.4mm. Bowl (99E0757:179:22) Fragment. L. 35.5mm, W. 6.5mm. Bulbous with rouletting decoration near the rim. Bowl (99E0757:179:40+41) L. 39.7mm, D. 15.6mm. Incomplete (broken). Lip present. Slightly bulbous with plain rim. Date: 1640-1670 (Lane 1997 366 Fig. 12:1:32).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 152
  • 157. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Bowl (99E0757:179:21) L. 41.7mm, W. 14.2mm. Incomplete. Lip present. Spur present. Bulbous with rouletting decoration near the rim. Spur large and flat. Date : 1661-1681 Bristol type 9B (ibid., 368 Fig. 12:1:19) Bowl (99E0757:0:9) L. 50.08mm, D. 13.5mm. Complete. Lip slightly damaged. First part of stem present. Bulbous with rouletted rim. Spur untrimmed. Date: c. 1650 (ibid., Fig. 12:1:25). Bowl (99E0757:179:20) L. 73.5mm, D. 18.3mm. Incomplete. Spur present. Part of the stem present. Bulbous, flat-based, heavily ‘chinned’. Date: c. 1650 (ibid., Fig. 12:1:13). * The diameter considered is the maximum diameter of the bowl. When the bowl lip is present the diameter is taken on the rim of the bowl. Bibliographic References Lane 1997. Lane S., The clay pipes, section 12:I, in “Late Viking Age and medieval Waterford – Excavations 1986-1992”, Waterford 1997 (pages 366-374).http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 153
  • 158. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 15.8 Appendix 8: Catalogue of Metal Artefacts Described by Sara Camplese Nails Nail (99E0757:100:22) Fe. L. 42.9mm, Th. (of shank) 9.1mm. Small iron nail. Head missing. Possibly originally headless. Shank slightly curved. Conserved. Nail/Head of Iron Bar (99E0757:100:23) Fe. L. 42.1mm, Th. (of shank) 18.2mm, W. of head 48.1mm. Head of large iron bar, split at the end to create head. Possibly a large nail-like artefact. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:176:13) Fe. L. 37.3mm, Th. (of shank) 11.2mm. Circular-cross section. Slightly bent. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:200:19) Fe. Two fragments. One enlongated strip and one rounded. Possibly a flattened nail. Larger piece: L.34.3mm, Th. (of shank) 12.7mm. Smaller piece: L. 20.2mm, Th. (of shank) 16.5mm. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:231:8) Fe. L. 32.5mm, Th. (of shank) 8.4mm, W. (of head) 7.9mm. Rectangular in section. Flat rectangular head. Slightly bent. Incomplete. Conserved. Nail? (99E0757:235:33) Fe. L. 46.4mm, Th. (of shank) 7.4mm. Possible broken nail. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:246:4) Fe. L. 41.1mm, Th. (of shank) 24.2mm, W. (of head) 20.1mm. Rectangular in section. Large flat rectangular headed. Shank slightly bent. Incomplete. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:296:7) Fe. L. 31.2mm, Th. (of shank) 6.2mm. Headless. Rectangular in section. Incomplete. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:319:23) Fe. L. 33.3mm, Th. (of shank) 12.6mm, D. (of head) 14.3mm. Rectangular in section. Flat sub-circular headed. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:113:28) Fe. L. 54.3mm, Th. (of shank) 10mm, W. (of head) 15.6mm. Rectangular in section. Sub-rectangular headed. Shank slightly bent. Complete but broken in two pieces. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:383:6) Fe. L. 47.2mm, Th. (of shank) 7mm, D. (of head) 19.6mm. Square in section. Large flat sub-circular headed. Complete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:380:13) Fe. L. 49mm, Th. (of shank) 10.07mm, D. (of head) 17.6mm. Rectangular in section. Large flat sub-circular headed. Shank slightly bent. Complete. Not conserved.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 154
  • 159. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Nail (99E0757:117:32) Fe. L. 81.4mm, Th. (of shank) 6.5mm, D. (of head) 17.7mm. Square in section. Flat sub-circular headed. Complete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:117:33) Fe. L. 31.2mm, Th. (of shank) 6.8mm. Portion of the shank. Headless. Rectangular in section. Incomplete. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:134:52) Fe. L. 42.6mm, Th. (of shank) 6.7mm, D. (of head) 15.3mm. Rectangular in section. Rounded sub-circular headed. Incomplete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:134:53) Fe. L. 47.4mm, Th. (of shank) 9.8mm. Portion of the shank. Headless. Rectangular in section. Incomplete. Conserved. Nail (99E0757:124:23) Fe. L. 31.9mm, Th. (of shank) 8.3mm, W. (of head) 17.1mm. Rectangular in section. Flat rectangular headed. Incomplete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:124:24) Fe. L. 56.6mm, Th. (of shank) 6.9mm, D. (of head) 18.3mm. Rectangular in section. Flat sub-circular headed. Complete but broken. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:219:1) Fe. L. 47.3mm, Th. (of shank) 7.8mm. Headless. Rectangular in section. Incomplete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:102:1) Fe. L. 44.6mm, Th. (of shank) 9.4mm, D. (of head) 10.1mm. Rectangular in section. Rounded sub-circular headed. Shank bent. Complete but broken. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:190:9) Fe. L. 30mm, Th. (of shank) 5.5mm, D. (of head) 9.8mm. Fragment of a small nail. Part of rounded circular head present. Rectangular in section. Incomplete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:199:67) Fe. L. 66.7mm, Th. (of shank) 6.9mm, D. (of head) 18.4mm. Flat sub-circular headed. Rectangular in section. Shank bent. Complete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:199:68) Fe. L. 52.8mm, Th. (of shank) 6.5mm, D. (of head) 12.4mm. Flat sub-circular headed. Rectangular in section. Rectangular in section. Shank slightly bent. Complete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:119:32) Fe. L. 71.3mm, Th. (of shank) 6.7mm, W. (of head) 14.4mm. Square in section. Flat square headed. Shank straight. Complete. Not conserved. Nail (99E0757:119:33) Fe. L. 47.1mm, Th. (of shank) 7.2mm. Headless. Rectangular in section. Shank bent. Incomplete. Not conserved.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 155
  • 160. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext Other Artefacts Fragment (99E0757:134:49) Fe. L. 4.92mm, W. 3.51mm. Flat. Conserved. Fragment (99E0757:134:50) Fe. L. 22.1mm, W. 13.9mm. Flat. Conserved. Fragment (99E0757:134:51) Fe. L. 12.9mm, W. 11.3mm. Small corrosion product piece. Conserved. Strip/Bar (99E0757:194:13) Fe. L. 62.2mm, W. 13.1mm. Flat bar with rectangular-cross section. Conserved. Strip/Bar (99E0757:194:14) Fe. L. 53.2mm, W. 7.1mm. Flat bar with rectangular-cross section. Conserved. Strip (99E0757:230:5) Cu.alloy L. 35.3mm, W. 7.8mm. Thin strip with a small hole/perforation at one end. Conserved. Fragment (99E0757:251:4) Cu.alloy L. 27.1mm, W. 22.2mm. Flat rounded fragment. Conserved. Fragment (99E0757:251:5) Cu.alloy L. 26.9mm, W. 8.1mm. Thin strip. Conserved. Coin (99E0757:286:1) Cu. D. 18.3mm. Irish copper penny – Elizabeth I, dated 1601. Intact. Conserved. Fragment (99E0757:309:1) Cu.alloy L. 76.6mm, W. 32.4mm. Flat sheet. Slightly curved at edge. The other edge is the actual edge of object. Conserved. Token? (99E0757:328:7) Cu.alloy D. 26.2mm, Th. 0.4mm. Flat and rounded with shiny silver-coloured surface. Inscription revealed, but only partially legible. Two sections: 1. NRD 2. IHIBI. Centre shows a button-like stamp. Conserved. Fragment (99E0757:309:2) Cu. L. 35.6mm, W. 28.2mm. Flat sub-rectangular fragment. Not conserved. Fragment (99E0757:309:3) Cu. L. 46.1mm, W. 28.5mm. Flat triangular fragment. Not conserved. Fragment (99E0757:309:4) Cu. L. 23.3mm, W. 6.5mm. Flat rounded fragment. Not conserved.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 156
  • 161. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Stratham’s Garage, Patrick Street, Kilkenny, Co. Kilkenny 99E0757 ext 15.9 Appendix 9: Catalogue of Stone Artefacts Described by Sara Camplese Slate (99E0757:131:7) L. 81.1mm, W. 56mm, Th. 5.3mm. Incomplete. Dark greenish gray (From 10Y, 3/1 to 5GY, 4/1). Broken with sub-circular perforation. Unidentified (99E0757:109:11) L. 133.7mm, W. 109.6mm, Th. 11.7mm. Incomplete. From dark gray (10YB, 4/1) to dark grayish brown (10YB, 4/2). Broken, squre-shaped. Unidentified (99E0757:8:5) L. 100.5mm, W.13mm, Th.10mm. Incomplete. Possible whetstone? Trapeizodal in shape. One face very flat and smoothened, other face rounded. Decorated stone (99E0757:272:4) L. 134.8mm, W. 62.4mm, Th. 26.7 mm. Siltstone or slate. Incomplete. Triangular-shaped with an incomplete circular perforation (D. 6.3mm). Decoration is impressed and consists in four five-petal flowers in a row plus another circular symbol. Flint (99E0757:249:3) L. 39.1mm, W. 29.2mm, Th. 17.4mm. Split flint pebble, 40% covered with cortex. Possibility that flakes have been struck from distal end with two probable flake scars.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/99e0757ext-stratham-garage-patrick-st-kilkenny-co-kilkenny/ 157