Dispensing Lab Timeline, Understanding And Psycho Social Development


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Dispensing Lab Timeline, Understanding And Psycho Social Development

  1. 1. Timeline, Understanding and Psycho Social Development<br />Objectives:<br />1. To outline the Pharmacy timeline from 1900’s to 2000’s,<br />2. To know the extended roles of a Pharmacist in the society, and<br />3. Distinguish traits and values a Pharmacist should have.<br />Introduction:<br />Throughout American history, pharmacists or apothecaries have played a crucial role in treating and caring for the sick. During the early years of the nation’s history, most apothecary shops were run either by physicians or their apprentices. In some instances, apothecaries were hired directly by physicians or even hospitals.<br />As apothecaries became more and more central to the practice of medicine, both physicians and pharmacists began to call for greater consistencies in how medicines were compounded. These calls ultimately led to the first schools of pharmacy and the creation of the United States Pharmacopeia in 1820. Although no officially recognized by the federal government at the time, this compendium ultimately became the standard guide to drugs.<br />While the Pharmacopeia attempted to set drug standards, pharmacists themselves were only loosely regulated during this period. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, a growing number of elite pharmacists had become concerned about competition from less well-trained, and cheaper, pharmacists. In 1852, these elite pharmacists met and established the American Pharmaceutical Association. By the 1870s, growing pressure from the American Pharmaceutical Association and a variety of other groups had resulted in the passage of state laws requiring pharmacists both to pass a state exam and to be licensed.<br />lhcnbc.nim.nih.gov/apdb/phsHistory/pharmacy_timeline/index.html<br />Pharmacists are professional health scientists whose expertise spans all aspects of medicines. Pharmacists need to have a complete understanding of medicines – how they are synthesized and manufactured in to products suitable for patient use; how they act upon the body; the appropriate choice in different disease states; the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases; the law relating to medicines and their use; medicines management issues such as prescribing advice to doctors and pharmacist prescribing.<br />www.abroadeducation.com.np/course-guice/health-sciences/pharmacy.html<br />Procedures:<br /><ul><li>Trace the timeline of the Pharmacy profession
  2. 2. Distinguish traits and values a Pharmacist should have.
  3. 3. Group yourselves into 5 members each group then present next meeting what you have discussed on the values of a Pharmacist in all aspects of work.</li></ul>Questions:<br />Outline the Pharmacy timeline from 1900’s to 2000’s. Include significant events happened.<br />Is our Pharmacy course meets patient’s needs? Who should be in the Pharmacy Patient focus group?<br />What are the new services or extended role of Pharmacists in the society?<br />Conclusions:<br />The development of the pharmaceutical industry since World War II led to the discovery and use of new and effective drug substances. It also changed the role of the pharmacist. The scope for extemporaneous compounding of medicines was much diminished and with it the need for the manipulative skills that were previously applied by the pharmacist to the preparation of bougies, cachets, pills, plasters, and potions. The pharmacist continues, however, to fulfill the prescriber’s intentions by providing advice and information; by formulating, storing, and providing correct dosage forms; and by assuring the efficacy and quality of the dispensed or supplied medicinal product.<br />The pharmacist now has a wider role as a health care professional than ever before. Apart from dispensing prescriptions and all the established activities of the community pharmacy, he or she also increasingly works as a part of the primary health care team, and also has a role to play in health promotion, and advising health care colleagues in the safe and effective use of medicines. <br />Pharmacists good communication, problem solving skills and listening skills; they must have knowledge and understanding of medicines and how they affect the human body; chemistry, biology and mathematics; the laws that relate to pharmaceutical practices; how to use reference materials; alternative health treatments and practices; basic computer knowledge and if they work in a community pharmacy pharmacists must also be able to manage and train staff, as well as having business skills for the day-to-day running of a pharmacy. Personal qualities needed are enjoy in dealing with the public and should be good listeners, friendly, patient and helpful; be responsible, and work within a professional code of ethics, as they deal with sensitive information about people; be able to maintain a special relationship of trust and confidentiality with their patients and be calm and able to work well under pressure.<br />Questions:<br />Outline the Pharmacy timeline from 1900’s to 2000’s. Include significant events happened.<br />The Pharmacy Timeline From 1900’s to 2000’sYearEvent/s1901The Marine Hospital Service of the United States is in Havana, Cuba, combating the Yellow Fever epidemic over there.1902The Biologics Control Act is passed to ensure purity and safety of serums, vaccines, and similar products used to prevent or treat diseases in humans. (Reference: Hefland, WH. Historical images of the drug market. Apothecary’s Cabinet, No. 6, Spring 2003, p. 11.)1906The United States Congress passes the U.S. Pure Food and Drugs Act. The Act is intended to protect the public from adulterated or misbranded medications.(Reference: http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Milestones/default.htm)1907The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy adopts a two-year curriculum as the minimum for completing a pharmacy degree. (Reference: Zellmer, WA. Reason and history as guides for hospital pharmacy practice leaders. Am J Health Syst Pharm.2005; 62: 838-44.)1910There are 46 civil service pharmacists working in the Public Health Service.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist1.pdf)1912The United States Public Health Service becomes the official name of the former Marine Hospital Service.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist1.pdf)The Sherley Amendment is passed. This prohibits labeling medicines with false therapeutic claims intended to defraud the purchaser. The effectiveness of the Act is limited as this is a difficult standard to prove.(http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/mma/timeline.html)1914The Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 is passed. This Act controls the use of opium and other narcotics; it mandates increased record keeping for both physicians and pharmacists who dispense narcotics.(http://www.fda.gov/opacom/backgrounders/miles.html)1916Ella P. Stewart – was the first licensed African-American female pharmacist and one of the earliest practicing African-American pharmacists in the U.S.(http://www.answers.com/topic/ella-stewart)1920/21Insulin is discovered as a treatment for diabetes mellitus in Toronto by Dr. Fredrick Banting, Charles Best (a medical student at the time of the discovery), Professor J. J. R. Macleod and Dr. James Collip. (Reference: Higby, GL, editor. A century of change: the coming of miracle drugs. Apothecary’s Cabinet, No. 2, Spring 2001, p. 2.)1927Harvey A.K Whitney establishes the first formal hospital pharmacy internship at the University of Michigan Hospital. (Reference: Worthen, DB. Heroes of pharmacy: Harvey A.K. Whitney. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2002;42:525-6.)" The Bureau of Chemistry is reorganized into two separate entities. Regulatory functions are located in the Food, Drug, and Insecticide Administration, and non-regulatory research is located in the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils." (http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist1.pdf)1928Four year degree becomes the standard requirement for pharmacists.(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3833/is_199910/ai_n8855974/pg_8)1930The name of the Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration is shortened to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).(http://www.fda.gov/opacom/backgrounders/miles.html)The Parker Act allows for the admission of pharmacists to the Commissioned Corps. LT Edgar B. Scott, who joined the Public Health Service (PHS) as a civilian employee in 1896, and LT Edwin M. Holt, who joined in 1900, become the first two pharmacists to be commissioned as officers in the corps. Holt is also the first PHS Commissioned Corps pharmacist to be detailed to the Office of Indian Affairs in the U.S. Department of the Interior.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist1.pdf)On May 26, the Ransdell Act redesignates the Hygienic Laboratory as the National Institute of Health, authorizing $750,000 for construction of two buildings for the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. (http://www.nih.gov/about/history.htm)1932The establishment of the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE) to “set standards for the education of pharmacists to prepare them for the delivery of pharmacist-provided patient care.”(http://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/ACPE_Revised_PharmD_Standards_Adopted_Jan152006.pdf)1938The U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, directs the Food and Drug Administration to require new drugs to demonstrate safety before they can be marketed.(http://www.fda.gov/opacom/backgrounders/miles.html)1944An American scientist, Selman Waksman, discovers streptomycin, a drug that can kill the bacteria causing Tuberculosis.(http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/mma/timeline.html)The new Public Health Service Act lifts limitations on promotions and pharmacists can now be promoted to the director grade (O-6, the equivalent of the rank of Captain). The Public Health Service has formal designations within the Commissioned Corps, but according to tradition when referring to commissioned officers, they are referred to by the equivalent U.S. Navy rank.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist1.pdf)1945Penicillin, resurrected for study by Howard Florey and his team at Oxford and the focus of a major collaborative development endeavor in the U. S. and U. K. during World War II, becomes widely available.(http://history1900s.about.com/od/medicaladvancesissues/a/penicillin_2.htm)1946The establishment of Center for Disease Control and Prevention in a small building in Atlanta, Georgia, “With the main focus of fighting malaria by killing mosquitoes.”(http://www.cdc.gov/about/history/ourstory.htm)1947George F. Archambault becomes the first commissioned pharmacist appointed as pharmacy branch chief of Public Health Service Division of Hospitals (1947 – 1965). He is later appointed pharmacy liaison to the Surgeon General—a position that is currently called the Chief Pharmacy Officer.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/arc.pdf)Raymond Kinsey becomes the first Public Health Service pharmacist to attain the rank of Pharmacy Director (Captain/O-6).(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist1.pdf)1951Dr. Alexander Langmuir from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention starts the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) to “provide an early warning system against biological warfare and natural epidemics. Since then, it has been the forefront on disease investigations, both in the United States and throughout the world, tracking HIV/AIDS, influenza, SARS and other emerging public health threats.”" The Durham-Humphrey Amendment defines the kinds of drugs that cannot be safely used without medical supervision and restricts their sale to prescription by a licensed practitioner." 1952Milton Skolaut becomes the first Director of Pharmacy Services at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.The Code of Ethics for the American Pharmaceutical Association states that the “pharmacist does not discuss the therapeutic effects or composition of a prescription with a patient. When such questions are asked, he suggests that the qualified practitioner [physician or dentist] is the proper person with whom such matters should be discussed.” Note: this code is outdated and is provided for historical interest only. Reference: Higby, GL, editor. Pharmacy in the American Century. Apothecary’s Cabinet, No. 1, Fall 2000, p. 4.1954President Eisenhower signs the Transfer Act in 1954, which moves the responsibility of Indian health care from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the Public Health Service.he American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) adopts a five years degree as the standard of education for pharmacists. Reference: Buerki, RA. American Pharmaceutical Education, 1952-2002. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2002;42:542-4.1955Pharmacists are assigned to the Indian Health Service, which becomes a part of the United States Public Health Service.Allen J. Brands becomes the first Chief Pharmacist for the Indian Health Service. Area Pharmacist Officers have their first meeting during the American Pharmacist Association annual meeting in Detroit. There are 6 pharmacies staffed by a pharmacist, and over 70 hospitals.1956The National Institute of Health Clinical Center Pharmacy Department creates the Pharmaceutical Development Service Department which involves in the management of " investigational drugs through a computerized information system, manufactures customized investigational drug formulations, assists investigators in setting up double-blind studies and filing Investigational New Drug (IND) applications with the FDA." 1959Surgeon General Burney creates the Public Health Service Pharmacy Liaison position on Aug 14, 1959. Dr. George Archambault is the first person to take this position. The Public Health Service Pharmacy Liaison position lasts until 1980 when the position of Chief Pharmacy Officer is established.1960There is a shift from distributive to clinical services for Indian Health Service pharmacists. Pharmacists begin to counsel patients on the proper use of medications. Such practice does not exist before this time in Indian Health Service.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist3.pdf)The Indian Medical Center in Gallup, NM establishes the first pharmacy residency program in the late 1960s in the Indian Health Service.(http://www.lhncbc.nlm.nih.gov/apdb/phsHistory/pharmacy_timeline/ref_1960.html)1961The U.S. Congress establishes National Poison Prevention Week on September 16, 1961.(http://www.astm.org/SNEWS/FEBRUARY_2004/dixon_feb04.html)1962The Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendment is passed to ensure drug efficacy and greater drug safety. For the first time, drug manufacturers are required to prove to the Food and Drug Administration the effectiveness of their products before marketing them. The new law also exempts animal drugs and animal feed additives shown to induce cancer but which leave no detectable levels of residue in the human food supply from the Delaney proviso." (http://www.fda.gov/opacom/backgrounders/miles.html)Pharmacists in the Indian Health Service begin to fill prescriptions using the patient’s health record instead of a prescription form at various locations (Hugo, OKlahoma, Port, Wyoming, etc.).(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist3.pdf)1963National Institute of Health Clinical Center Pharmacy Department creates the IV admixture service concept, developed in 1963 to ensure accurate dosages of injectable drugs, which has become a standard of practice.(http://www.lhncbc.nlm.nih.gov/apdb/phsHistory/pharmacy_timeline/ref_Robert%20DeChristoforo.html)1964Pharmacist Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. becomes the 38th Vice President of the United States of America, serving under President Lyndon B. Johnson. The national headquarter building of the Department of Health and Human Services in Washington, D.C., is later dedicated to Vice President Humphrey.The United States Surgeon General's Report on Smoking argues that smoking is a major health risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and emphysema. (http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/mma/timeline.html)The United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare with the American Pharmaceutical Association draft a report outlining “The Role of the Pharmacist in National Disaster.”(http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=AD604275&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf)Pharmacists in the Indian Health Service begin to counsel patients on the correct use of their medications.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist3.pdf)The establishment of Medicare and Medicaid “changed the pharmaceutical landscape significantly.” Many seniors and low-income families are able to receive medical services that may not be avaliable to them previously. Reference: Higby, GL. The continuing evolution of American pharmacy practice, 1952-2002. J of Am Pharm Assoc.2002; 42(1): 12.1965The Commissioned Corps administers a pharmacy entrance examination to Pharmacists applying to the Reserve Corps.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/exa.pdf)Pharmacists in the Indian Health Service begin to use a private room for their patient’s counseling to ensure patient privacy and increase confidentiality.(http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/pdf/hist3.pdf)1966The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) becomes a part of the United States Public Health Service and a USPHS commissioned officer, James Goddard, M.D., is appointed as the FDA Commissioner.1967Allen Brands is appointed as Pharmacy Liaison Officer to the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service when George Archambault retires. This position is changed to Chief Pharmacy Officer in 1979. He becomes the first pharmacist to hold the position of Chief Pharmacy Officer in 1980.1968" The Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) is formulated. This is a program begun by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the 1960s after the requirement that all drugs be proven efficacious as well as safe. The DESI program was intended to classify all pre-1962 drugs that were already on the market as either effective, ineffective, or needing further study. The DESI program was a consequence of the Kefauver-Harris Drug Control Act." 1969The American Pharmaceutical Association’s Code of Ethics is established to prevent the prohibition of sharing drug information with patients. The new Code states that “a pharmacist should hold the health and safety of patients to be the first consideration; he should render to each patient the full measure of his ability as an essential health practitioner.” Reference: Higby, GJ, editor. Pharmacy in the American Century. Apothecary’s Cabinet, No. 1, Fall 2000, p. 5.1969Pharmacists within the Indian Health Services have a Pharmacy Program Planning Meeting in Rockville, Maryland. Pharmacists become primary care providers for many of the hospitals and clinics in the Indian Health Service.Commissioned officers are deployed to help in the recovery from Hurricane Camille.1970Pharmacy counseling rooms are added to the new hospitals and clinics within the Indian Health Services.1974/1975Indian Health Service implements the Pharmacist Practitioner Training Program which trains pharmacists to do physical assessments and manage certain chronic diseases.1974The National Institute of Health Clinical Center Pharmacy Department establishes a post-graduate residency program in pharmacy and publishes the “Parenteral Drug Information Guide,” which is the first text in the country to provide original research work on the compatibility and chemical stability of drugs used in injectable additive programs.1975RADM Edgar Duncan becomes the first African-American and the first pharmacist to be promoted to the rank of Assistant Surgeon General within the United States Public Health Service1976The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launches the first major national wide immunization program to protect every man, woman, and children from influenza. Pharmacists are tapped to play a role in the immunization program.LT James Moore and LT Ezeqiel Mendietta are deployed to assist in the recovery from the Guatemalan Earthquake, which kills more than 20,000 people.1979Commissioned Officer Arthur Watanabe is the first pharmacist to train as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Jere E. Goyan is the first pharmacist to serve as Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1979 to 1981. His tenure at FDA included identification of “the emerging link between toxic shock syndrome and the Rely tampon and the agency’s response, an attempt to make patient package inserts compulsory, and an investigation of widespread polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of livestock and feed.”1990The Pfzier video showing Indian Health Service patient counseling method is distributed to pharmacy schools. Many colleges of pharmacy have used this video as a standard training tool to teach their students about patient counseling.The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA ‘90), which becomes effective in 1993, requires pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical counseling and drug utilization review for all Medicaid patients.1991CAPT Raymond W. Hammond is the first USPHS officer to be certified as a Board Certified Pharmacotherapy Specialist (BCPS).CAPT Tom Dolan detailed from Office of Global Health to Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). First pharmacist detailed to OFDA that involved major international responsibilities including administration of OFDA’s overseas programs, health assessments, regional coordination and health policy development.1992Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to assist in the recovery from Hurricane Andrew.Pharmacy students have joined the United States Public Health Service since the 1950s. The Junior Commissioned Officer Student Training and Extern Program (COSTEP) is a competitive program where students learn valuable skills to be excellent healthcare practitioners or officers with the United States Public Health Service.The Federal Bureau of Prisons has its first inaugural National Pharmacy, Therapeutics, and Formulary meeting1993Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to assist in the recovery from the Midwest Floods and Hurricane Emily.1994The Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala asks the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) for pharmacists to help increase immunization rates. Subsequently, APhA adopts immunizations as one of its strategic activities.Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to assist in the recovery from the Northridge Earthquake in California and Tropical Storm Alberto.The Nation commenorates the 50th anniversary of the 1944 Public Health Service Act.1995The Indian Health Service’s first anticoagulation clinic is established at W. W. Hastings Indian Hospital in Tahlequah, OKlahoma.CAPT Kathleen Downs, CAPT George Havens and CDR Alex Kosyak (all PHS Pharmacists) successively continue detail with OFDA through 2007. Many non-traditional roles with significant international medical and public health impact including field assessments of disasters, project reviews from the United Nations and leadership of multisectoral teams responsible for disaster response in Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa.Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to assist in the recovery from the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building – Oklahoma City bombing and Hurricanes Opal and Marilyn.1996The Indian Health Service Director, Dr. Michael Trujillo codifies pharmacists as primary care providers via a special memorandum regarding Clinical Pharmacy Specialists.Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support the Atlanta Summer Olympic Games.The American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) begins offering a certificate-training program for pharmacists, “Pharmacy-based Immunization Delivery, A National Certificate Training Program for Pharmacists”. APhA advocates that all Pharmacists can advance the public’s health in one of three ways; educating and advocating, facilitating other health care professionals to offer immunizations, or administering the immunizations themselves.1997" Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act mandates the most wide-ranging reforms in agency practices since 1938. Provisions include measures to accelerate review of devices, regulate advertising of unapproved uses of approved drugs and devices, and regulate health claims for foods." The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) adopts a six-year Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) program as the entry-level degree for pharmacists, which is to be implemented by 2001.LCDR Paul Weidle is the second pharmacist to train as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. LCDR Jim Hayslett completed the training in 2000 while LT Paul Melstrom completed it in 2007. During 2008, CAPT Weidle is working on “clinical treatment issues and international work that blends applied research on antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected persons in resource-limited settings, such as Uganda, Kenya, Thailand, and Zambia.1998Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support the USNS Comfort - " Operation Baltic Challenge," NATO Summit and PHS-1 Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) & National Guard training exercise, and assist in the recovery from Hurricanes Mitch and Bonnie.The IHS National Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Credentialing Committee (NCPSCC) is born out of discussions surrounding decades of expanded practice.The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) accredits all Federal Bureau of Prisons institutions and pharmacies.The Indian Health Service and Public Health Service leadership meet with Health Care Financing Administration to discuss IHS pharmacy practice and potential for pharmacist reimbursement.The Indian Health Service wins the APhA Pinnacle Award for its significiant contribution of providing quality pharmaceutical care for the Native Americans.1999Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support the Kosovo Refugees at Fort Dix and assist in the recovery from Hurricane Floyd.The National Pharmaceutical Stockpile (NPS) is established under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “to provide a re-supply of large quantities of essential medical material to states and communities during an emergency within 12 hours of the federal decision to deploy.” The NPS is later renamed the Strategic National Stockpile.An affiliation agreement between Mercer University School of Pharmacy and the USPHS initiates the first Pharmacy Student Rotation at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Since the affiliation agreement, CDC has hosted over 150 student rotations.2000CAPT Stephan L. Foster is nominated as the first pharmacist to serve as a liaison member to the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) representing APhA. He is also the former director of the Pharmacy Practice Training Program (PPTP) at the Indian Health Service Clinical Support Center in Phoenix from 1990 to 1998.Pharmacists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention begin working in the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile which is renamed the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) in 2003.LCDR Paul E. Huntzinger reflects upon his duties with the U.S Coast Guard: “Pharmacy Officer Supports of U.S. Coast Guard Cutters." 2001Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support President Bush inauguration, the Washington DC and NY Anthrax incidents, Tropical Storm Allison, National Boy Scout Jamboree, and the Special Olympic Winter Games in Anchorage, Alaska.Many pharmacists are deployed to assist in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks at the World Trade Center, Pentagon, and Pennsylvania. Pharmacists also staffed the Emergency Operations Center at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during this time, on behalf of the CDC’s National Pharmaceutical Stockpile. 911 image / Reference: Babb, J and Downs, K. Fighting Back: Pharmacists' Roles in the Federal Response to the September 11 Attacks. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001; 41(6):834-837 (Response to 911)2002The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention formalizes regulatory support by opening an Office of Regulatory Affairs staffed by a single pharmacist. The department later expands to include several regulatory pharmacists.To increase a presence in the Pacific, Office of Global Health details CAPT Kathleen Downs to the Department of Defense at their Center for Excellence in Hawaii as Senior Public Health Advisor. Responsibilities included international disaster response, humanitarian assistance training and health assessments as Team Lead.Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between six of the largest pharmacy organizations (including APhA and ASHP) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) establishes policy that guides the development of medical response teams for joint disaster relief operations of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS). This MOA, facilitates through RADM John Babb (pharmacist), initiates the development of ten National Pharmacist Response Teams (NPRTs). These teams include hundreds of civilian pharmacists and are led by 20 PHS Pharmacists as Team Leaders and Administrative Officers. They will be activated to assist the nation during a national disaster, such as a bioterrorist attack or mass vaccination campaign.Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support the Arizona wild fires and Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games.In the wake of the events of September 11, 2001, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 is designed to improve the country's ability to prevent and respond to public health emergencies. Its provisions include a requirement that the Food and Drug Administration issues regulations to enhance controls over the imported and domestically produced commodities it regulates.The first Pharmacist Special Pay Workgroup is convened by RADM Robert Pittman and resulted in the PHS commencing a one-time $30,000 accession bonus and annual variable special pay ($3,000 - $12,000) for PHS pharmacists based upon number of years served.2003Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars, the Nation Orange Alert, and the call for smallpox vaccination which is held at the Department of Human and Health Service in Washington, D.C. Reference: Setlak, P. Bioterrorism preparedness and response: emerging role for health-system pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm.2004; 61: 1167-1175 (Afghanistan deployment)ffice of Global Health Affairs (OGHA) details CAPT Scott Giberson as Senior Medical Program Manager to Department of Defense in the Pacific through 2006. Program expands to multinational HIV/AIDS program in over 23 countries. Extensive travel and medical / public health work in the Asia Pacific with senior DOD, State Department and Foreign Military leadership.More than two-dozen of federal pharmacists join the Department of Homeland Security, which is created on November 2002. Majority of the pharmacists are Commissioned Officers of the United States Public Health Service.The Medicare Modernization Act is signed into law. Pharmacists are hired in each of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) Regional Offices to assist in the development and implementation of the new Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit that begins in January 2006. Many of these pharmacists are the “front lines” in overseeing the successful implementation of the Part D program.The National Pharmaceutical Stockpile is renamed as the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and is managed by both Department of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services (HHS). Later management is reverted back to HHS. The SNS “works with governmental and non-governmental partners to upgrade the nation’s public health capacity to respond to a national emergency.”2004The Commissioned Corps Readiness Force is subsumed under the new Office of Force Readiness and Deployment (OFRD) in 2004. RADM John Babb is the first Director as well as the first pharmacist to be Director of OFRD.Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support President Reagan Funeral Service, shortage of the pharmacists at Bethel and Kotzebue, Alaska, Democrat and Republican National Conventions, the G8 Summit in Brunswick, Georgia, and the aftermath of Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne.The Federal Bureau of Prisons Regional HIV Pharmacist Clinical Consultant program is initiated.On Dec 26, 2004, a disastrous tsunami strikes the East Indian Ocean. The United States Government deploys a hospital ship, the US Navy Ship (USNS) Mercy, to provide humanitarian relief. It is the first time a USNS hospital ship is utilized for a humanitarian effort. A request is made to the USPHS for officers to augment the crew. Under the Direction of pharmacist RADM John Babb, Office of Force Readiness and Deployment (OFRD) deploys 13 USPHS medical/evironmental health officers to the USNS Mercy and one UPHS pharmacist as a Liaison Officer (CDR Scott Giberson) to augment the Pacific Fleet’s mission. Another USNS Mercy mission quickly follows in response to the massive earthquake in Indonesia, where OFRD deploys 15 more officers. These mark the beginning of many future USPHS humanitarian missions with the US Navy.The Project BioShield Act of 2004 authorizes FDA to expedite its review procedures to enable rapid distribution of treatments as countermeasures to chemical, biological, and nuclear agents that may be used in a terrorist attack against the United States and among other provisions.2005Approximately 400 commissioned pharmacists deploy to support in the recovery from Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Ophelia, and Dennis. They lead medical teams, immunization teams, assessment teams, and special needs shelter operations, as well as perform as liaisons to federal partners and state and local governments. Pharmacists are highly valued during these responses because so many victims have medication issues.The Pharmacy Category of the United States Public Health Service celebrates its 75th Anniversary with a banquet reception in Gaithersburg, Maryland on November 18th. Eight of the eleven former and current Chief Pharmacists and pharmacy flag officers attend and are presented with a coin display containing a specially-numbered 2005 commemorative pharmacy category coin. All 900 pharmacists on active duty receive the commemorative pharmacy category coin.Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support the recovery of massive shooting at Red Lake, Minnesota (an Indian Reservation) the shortage of pharmacists at Belcourt, North Dekota, and the recovery from the Earthquake in Summatra and Pakistan Earthquake, which kill more than 70,000 people.United States Public Health Service Pharmacists have made a tremendous impact on the " caring and curing" in the native communities. This year marks the Celebration of the " First 50 years of the Indian Health Service: Caring & Curing." There are 600 pharmacists (400 commissioned officers, 65 civil service, and 130 tribal) working in 237 hospitals and clinics within the Indian Health Service.2006DHHS Secretary Michael Leavitt announces an initiative to transform the USPHS Commissioned Corps, which will enable this critical emergency response resource to address public health challenges more quickly and efficiently. The Commissioned Corps will increase its ranks, streamline its assignment and deployment process, and increase its ability to recruit the best and brightest to defend the nation's public health. The Pharmacy Category is one of the four categories targeted for priority recruitment. Transformation is ongoing in 2008.The initiation of Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit for the special populations and seniors begins.More than a dozen of USPHS Pharmacists have volunteered their services to serve their communities by providing free immunizations and " counseling students and answering questions on important public health issues such as disease prevention and awareness, obesity and exercise, immunizations, and bioterrorism preparedness." RADM Robert Pittman becomes the 12th Chief Pharmacy Officer of the United States Public Health Services.Commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support the Lebanon Repatriation Mission, President's State of the Union address, and aid in the recovery from Hurricane Ernesto, the St Louis Floods, Tropical Storm Chris, and Humanitarin Mission to Haiti.The Federal Bureau of Prison’s Electronic Medical Record Pharmacy Module (BEMR Rx) deploys at the Federal Medical Center Butner in North Carolina.The Pharmacist Professional Advisory Committee (PharmPAC) starts a pharmacist immunization training and practice initiative. Under the Immunization Initiative, the PharmPAC begins to offer the American Pharmacists Association’s program, Pharmacy-based Immunization Delivery, A National Certificate Training Program for Pharmacists. Additionally, Smallpox vaccination training is added to the course specifically for USPHS pharmacists.Twenty Commissioned Corps pharmacists are activated by the Acting Surgeon General through OFRD to provide Influenza Immunizations at the Federal Occupational Health (FOH) Clinics. These pharmacists provide 1184 immunizations, comprising approximately 45% of the Influenza Immunizations that FOH offers to Federal employees for the 2006-2007 Influenza Season.2007RADM Robert Pittman, Chief Pharmacy Officer of the USPHS, states that pharmacists both in the public and private sectors have made a great impact on the lives of many people through their dedicated services and pharmaceutical care expertise. It is the reason we have a pharmacist month each year since the 1950s.2008There is a call for pharmacy officers to work with the Department of Defense (DoD) Pharmacoeconomic Center, under a " Memorandum of Understanting (MOU) between HHS and DoD.Commissioned officers, including 18 pharmacists, are deployed to support the recovery from Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna, & Ike , which kill more than 700 people in the Caribbeans, including the United States.2009Approximately 150 commissioned officers, including pharmacists, are deployed to support President Obama inauguration on January 20 at the Capitol, where over a million of people around the world come for the historical inauguration of the first African-American President in the United States.<br />Is our Pharmacy course meets patient’s needs? Who should be in the Pharmacy Patient focus group?<br />A focus group was conducted of women in various stages in their pharmacy career. Participants included: 4 PharmD students, 1 pharmacy resident, 1 pharmacy fellow, 2 industry pharmacists, 2 clinical staff pharmacists, 1 clinical faculty, 1 community pharmacist, 2 senior pharmacy managers, and 1 full professor in pharmaceutical sciences.<br />What are the new services or extended role of Pharmacists in the society?<br />Community Pharmacy<br />The community pharmacist now has a wider role as a health care professional than ever before. Apart from dispensing prescriptions and all the established activities of the community pharmacy, he or she also increasingly works as a part of the primary health care team, and also has a role to play in health promotion, and advising health care colleagues in the safe and effective use of medicines.<br />Health Promotion and Diagnostic services <br />As a development of their role in health education. Many pharmacists are introducing a range of additional services relating to health promotion or diagnosis. <br />Wound Management Products and surgical appliances (Stockist Role)<br />The community pharmacist must supply on prescription any dressing or appliance. Many pharmacists carry out this obligation by keeping only a small number in stock and obtaining others on demand from a wholesaler or manufacturer. <br />Prescribing in the Pharmacy<br />For many years, people have expected to be able to get informed advice from a pharmacist on the treatment of minor ailments on the response to the symptoms of illness, and this has been encourage by the UK government.<br />Source: Stone, Patricia and Curtis, Stephen J., Pharmacy practice. 3rd Edition, United Kingdom, Pharmaceutical Press: 2002. pp.69-71<br />