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Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea
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Sleep apnea

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children
    • Symptoms
    • Cessation of breathing
    • Cor pulmonale
    • Cyanosis
    • Enuresis
    • Excessive daytime somnolence
    • Gasping for air
    • Irritability
    • Nighttime awakening
    • Poor academic performance
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Snoring
    • Unusual daytime behavior
    • Physical examination
    • Adenotonsillar hypertrophy
    • Craniofacial abnormalities
    • Growth disturbances
    • Failure to thrive
    • Obesity
    • Laryngeal pathology
    • Lingual tonsils
  • 3.  
  • 4. Standardized tonsillar hypertrophy grading scale.  (0)  Tonsils are entirely within the tonsillar fossa.  (1+) Tonsils occupy less than 25 percent of the lateral dimension of the oropharynx as measured between the anterior tonsillar pillars.  (2+)  Tonsils occupy less than 50 percent of the lateral dimension of the oropharynx. (3+)  Tonsils occupy less than 75 percent of the lateral dimension of the oropharynx.  (4+)  Tonsils occupy 75 percent or more of the lateral dimension of the oropharynx.
  • 5.  
  • 6.  

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